Masterclass:  Biomedical applications of  Additive Manufacturing  Part 03 : Technical aspects                             ...
   Context sensitization   Additive Manufacturing principle   Description of the different AM technologies   Technolog...
The traditional ways to manufacture parts are : Machining : remove material from a bloc larger than the part itself. This...
MACHINING                                          INJECTION / MOLDING   Very high precision                             ...
AM try to solution these problems since 1990 :   Only the required material is used.   To increase the geometrical compl...
- Is it just perfect ? – Almost :   Part size limitation : 250 x 250 x 300 mm as mean vol (max 2000 mm).   Minimum wall ...
- But how does it work ? What means “layer-by-layer” ?Everything starts from the CAD file of the part (.iges, .stp) which ...
The “layers” of the job (all the virtual parts into the building chamber) are  then automatically generated vertically and...
Now the goal is to convert this virtual slices in a stack of real slices into solid  material and to combine them together...
To convert a virtual slice to a real one, the machine simply spreads a thin   layer of raw material (let’s say in powder f...
LBM process description :                                            Laser beam           Main tank                       ...
Let’s begin with the simplest one, the 3D printing of plaster powder with   color functionalities.1.   The powder is sprea...
These are the kind of parts produced with 3D printer from Z Corporation :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive ...
It is possible to print metal (e.g. stainless steel) in 3D with a binder but the    parts have to be post processed to rep...
Some part produce by Prometal 3D printing process (60% stainless steel,  40% bronze) :                  = > Can you make s...
The small problem with the previous technology is the multi-material  characteristic of the final part (glue or other meta...
When the raw material in a polymer (ABS, polyamide, PVC,…) this is quite easy and you can but part wherever you want in th...
Here are some parts made of polymer with LBM technology :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing   ...
With metal powder in LBM, there are more barriers to produce parts : Due to stronger thermal stresses that occurs during ...
Supports are a necessary evil in LBM but :         If there are in hard-to-reach zone, it’s very complicated to remove th...
Some parts made of metal with LBM technology :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing   Organized b...
Another technology use the same principle but with an electron beam. So it  works under vacuum conditions and the work pla...
In every previous technologies, a recoater is needed to spread the powder   over the flat workplate. But it is also possib...
This process is called Laser Metal Deposition. Thank to multiple axis, it is  possible to bring the material wherever on a...
The oldest system is working from liquid a photosensitive raw material. The      principle is the same as LBM. The drilled...
Here are some examples made in Stereolithography :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing   Organiz...
   3D Objet printing : mix between 3D printing and stereolithography. The    printing head deposits à photosensitive resi...
It is also possible to build in ceramics parts. This is a combination of SLM   and stereolithography technologies. There i...
   Fused Deposition Modeling : A wire of solid polymer is push through a 3-    axis heated nozzle which cause slightly me...
   Small summary of technologies :    3DP Z-Corp             3DP Objet                 3DP Prometal             3DP Optof...
     Metal technologies :                                  LBM                      EBM                       LMD        ...
size (mm³)     Metal technologies :                          10                                                     8    ...
    Metal technologies :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing   Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of ...
    Metal technologies :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing   Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of ...
    Metal technologies :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing   Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of ...
    Polymer technologies :                         LBM (EOS)           3DP (Z-corp)             STL         3DP          ...
    Polymer technologies :                     size (mm³)                                                 10             ...
    Polymer technologies :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing   Organized by SIRRIS the 12th o...
    Polymer technologies :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing   Organized by SIRRIS the 12th o...
Summary : Z-corp : attractive demonstrators, cheap prototype, architecture, trendy  reasons. (color, powder, no support)...
   Design simplification :From 12 components to only one with better efficiency :                                        ...
   Medical prothesis :Every patient is unique and needs, of course, a specific shape. Material  properties have to be ada...
   Complex piping :                                 Sirris – compolight projectMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Ad...
      Articulated parts without assembly :                                                                     Objet 3D  ...
   Lightweight parts :                                                                                              EADS ...
   Jewelry:                       ShapewaysMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing   Organized by ...
   Customization :                                                                        Materialise                    ...
   Conformal cooling :        Before AM                          Part to produce by                                      ...
   You can have a part within a week.   A lot of different materials are available.   AM let you make quickly a first p...
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2013 03-12-masterclass-biomedical-applications-of-am sirris-ad_dtechnic

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Additive manufacturing (AM) offers a few major benefits to biomedical applications. To improve the knowledge on AM possibilities, Sirris is organizing two different masterclasses. The first will address the technology, materials used and applications, with experts in the matter explaining all relevant aspects.

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2013 03-12-masterclass-biomedical-applications-of-am sirris-ad_dtechnic

  1. 1. Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Part 03 : Technical aspects Magnien Julien
  2. 2.  Context sensitization Additive Manufacturing principle Description of the different AM technologies Technologies comparison Well suited applications cases ConclusionsMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 2
  3. 3. The traditional ways to manufacture parts are : Machining : remove material from a bloc larger than the part itself. This is a « subtractive » way. Injection/molding : build a mold and place a melted material inside which will solidify.Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 3
  4. 4. MACHINING INJECTION / MOLDING Very high precision  High production rateo Long time and higher price o 1 mold = 1 part model needed if complex part o Long test period to find goodo Need to replace tool when worn parameterso Geometrical restriction due to o Complex fluid dynamic tool access (shrinkage, solidification rate,…)o A lot of waste material o An error at the early beginningo Sometimes several steps to have have a very expensive impact the final part o Strong geometrical limitationso Single material parts o Single material partsMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 4
  5. 5. AM try to solution these problems since 1990 : Only the required material is used. To increase the geometrical complexity, a layer-by-layer building fashion is chosen. No tools are used. The complexity doesn’t increase the cost. Very different parts (size, complexity,... even color !) can be built together in a same job, and even be added during processing. Some technologies allow multi-materials parts in one shot. Functionalities can be added (hinges, spring, gears,…) The delay is usually a week, compared to several months with the traditional ways Customization can be used at its highest level Weight reduction is far more easy than before (lattice) Texturing, conformal cooling, internal cavities,…Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 5
  6. 6. - Is it just perfect ? – Almost : Part size limitation : 250 x 250 x 300 mm as mean vol (max 2000 mm). Minimum wall thickness : 0,3 -> 1,5 mm Surface quality : Ra ~10 – 20 µm Anisotropy of mechanical properties due to layer-by-layer The raw material (usually powder) is surrounding the part after the process. Inside and outside… So It could be hard to remove it from a very narrow and long channel. With metal powder or liquid photosensitive polymer, supports are required. They are built in the same time than the part and act as an anchorage. They will keep the part in place. They have to be removed after the process and damage a bit the surface quality in the contact zone => small post-machining often required.Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 6
  7. 7. - But how does it work ? What means “layer-by-layer” ?Everything starts from the CAD file of the part (.iges, .stp) which is converted in the .stl format, proper to AM technologies. This file is virtually placed in the building chamber of the process :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 7
  8. 8. The “layers” of the job (all the virtual parts into the building chamber) are then automatically generated vertically and the resulting slices of the part are stored in another file proper to each technology manufacturer.Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 8
  9. 9. Now the goal is to convert this virtual slices in a stack of real slices into solid material and to combine them together to have the desired part : Virtual world Real world AM machineMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 9
  10. 10. To convert a virtual slice to a real one, the machine simply spreads a thin layer of raw material (let’s say in powder form) over all the bottom of the working chamber. Then the machine analyze the first slice to “materialize” and reproduce it on the layer spread in 2D. It agglomerates the raw material in the area described on the virtual slice. Agglomeration of Completed slice the specified Top view of the areas virtual slice, areas to agglomerate Fresh new layer of powderMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 10
  11. 11. LBM process description : Laser beam Main tank Melted zones Argon Recoater Previous layersSpread powder Initial plate Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 11
  12. 12. Let’s begin with the simplest one, the 3D printing of plaster powder with color functionalities.1. The powder is spread over the workplate by a roller roller powder Work plate2. The printing head deposit a binder on the areas specified by the slices, and color on contours Printing head Printing head Binder droplets layer Zone without binder Zone with binder Powder grainMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 12
  13. 13. These are the kind of parts produced with 3D printer from Z Corporation :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 13
  14. 14. It is possible to print metal (e.g. stainless steel) in 3D with a binder but the parts have to be post processed to replace the binder by a low melting temperature metal, such as bronze.The processed green parts are placed in a oven and, by increasing the temperature, the bronze melt and the binder is degraded, leaving porosity in part which filled by the bronze by capillarity. “green part” “brown part” Structure of the final part As built Curing Debinding InfiltrationMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 14
  15. 15. Some part produce by Prometal 3D printing process (60% stainless steel, 40% bronze) : = > Can you make such parts with traditional technologies… in one or two week maximum ? Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 15
  16. 16. The small problem with the previous technology is the multi-material characteristic of the final part (glue or other metal). How can we have a part made of only one material ? So they replace the printing head by a laser driven by a set of lens and mirrors which melt the powder, exactly like welding. This is the LBM process :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 16
  17. 17. When the raw material in a polymer (ABS, polyamide, PVC,…) this is quite easy and you can but part wherever you want in the volume of the work chamber, the powder itself is enough to support the part. Magics software from MaterialiseMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 17
  18. 18. Here are some parts made of polymer with LBM technology :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 18
  19. 19. With metal powder in LBM, there are more barriers to produce parts : Due to stronger thermal stresses that occurs during welding, the parts tend to be deformed. The higher laser power induce higher heat input and the powder doesn’t take it away as efficiently as bulk materialFor those reasons, supports have to be added to the CAD file of the part to prevent deformation and drive the heat away. To ensure this anchorage, supports of the part are directly welded on the thick removable working plate :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 19
  20. 20. Supports are a necessary evil in LBM but :  If there are in hard-to-reach zone, it’s very complicated to remove them after the process.  If they support a very thin structure, this latter can be distorted during removing.  The surface contact between supports and part has a worse surface quality which will required post machining.  They consume the silicone wiper of the recoater quicker than “part” area. So more supports you have, worse is the flatness of the last layers.  This is an additional material cost.Some design and positioning rules can reduce the amount of supports needed.Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 20
  21. 21. Some parts made of metal with LBM technology :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 21
  22. 22. Another technology use the same principle but with an electron beam. So it works under vacuum conditions and the work plate is heated at high temperature (~600°C) which reduce the thermal stresses and, so, supports are less (not) needed :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 22
  23. 23. In every previous technologies, a recoater is needed to spread the powder over the flat workplate. But it is also possible to add features (coating, local repair, additional geometry,… ) on a non-flat surface with another principle : replace the drill of a CNC machine with a material deposition nozzle. Powder is blown through a laser beam thanks to that nozzle and this allow 5-axis welding. The superposition of tracks can make 3D shapes Laser + central gaz (coaxial) Shape Gas Carrier gas + powder Motion direction Meltpool Track Substrate Heat Affected ZoneMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 23
  24. 24. This process is called Laser Metal Deposition. Thank to multiple axis, it is possible to bring the material wherever on a surface and locally increase mechanical properties, repair a damage area or reload a wearing part : Fraunhofer center for surface and laser processing ICE Pototyping (LENS) IWS fraunhofer IRISMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 24
  25. 25. The oldest system is working from liquid a photosensitive raw material. The principle is the same as LBM. The drilled workplate is gradually plunged in a tank of resin. The liquid surface is leveled by a wiper between each downward movement and a UV laser polymerize the resin in the specified areas. This process need a UV curing to finish polymerization part supportswiper Liquid displacements workplate Liquid polymer Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 25
  26. 26. Here are some examples made in Stereolithography :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 26
  27. 27.  3D Objet printing : mix between 3D printing and stereolithography. The printing head deposits à photosensitive resin in specified areas. The deposition is directly followed by a polymerization with a UV laser mounted on the same support than the printing head.Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 27
  28. 28. It is also possible to build in ceramics parts. This is a combination of SLM and stereolithography technologies. There isn’t a spreading of powder but a paste made of ceramic powder and a photosensitive polymer, like in SLM, but the laser doesn’t melt any material, it polymerizes the resine, like in stereolithography. After processing the parts, they are removed from the paste, cleaned and placed in a oven for sintering the ceramic and remove the polymer. Here are some examples : Recoater Parts Laser processing SlurryMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 28
  29. 29.  Fused Deposition Modeling : A wire of solid polymer is push through a 3- axis heated nozzle which cause slightly melting. The solidification occurs by air cooling just after extrusion/deposition.Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 29
  30. 30.  Small summary of technologies : 3DP Z-Corp 3DP Objet 3DP Prometal 3DP Optoform LBM EOS Stereolithography LBM SLM Solution EBM Arcam FDM Makerbot LMDMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 30
  31. 31.  Metal technologies : LBM EBM LMD 3DP Size (mm) 250 x 250 x 350 210 x 210 x 350 900 x 980 x 500 1000 x 500 x 250 Layer thickness (µm) 30 - 60 50 130 - 600 70 - 170 Min wall thickness (mm) 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.75 Accuracy (mm) +/- 0.2 or 0.1% +/- 0.13 – 0.2 N.A. 0.2 - 0.3 Build rate (cm³/h) 5 - 20 10 – 40 (lattices 80) 2 - 30 Up to 120 Surface roughness (µm) 5 - 15 15 - 35 15 - 20 20 - 30 Geometry limitations Supports needed Very few supports but No powder bed. Same No support. Almost no everywhere (thermal, rest of the powder no limitations as 5 axes limitation. anchorage) more fluid but pre- milling. sintered as a “cake” materials Stainless steel, tool Only conductive Every powdered SS 316L or 420 + bronze steel, titanium, materials (Ti6Al4V, materials. (standard) aluminum,… CrCo,…)Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 31
  32. 32. size (mm³)  Metal technologies : 10 8 6 Best surface roughness (µm) layer thickness (µm) 4 2 SLM EBM 0 LMD 3DP Build rate (cm³/h) min wall thickness (mm) Best accuracy (mm)Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 32
  33. 33.  Metal technologies :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 33
  34. 34.  Metal technologies :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 34
  35. 35.  Metal technologies :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 35
  36. 36.  Polymer technologies : LBM (EOS) 3DP (Z-corp) STL 3DP FDM (Viper Si2) (Connex 500) (Makerbot) Size (mm) 350 x 350 x 630 250 x 350 x 200 250 x 250 x 250 500 x 400 x 200 225 x 145 x 150 (P390) (Makerbot)Layer thickness (µm) 100 - 150 100 25 - 150 16 - 30 100 - 300 Min wall thickness 0.6 – 0.7 2-3 0.2 – 0.3 0.5 – 0.6 2 (mm) Accuracy (mm) 0.2 - 0.2% > 100 mm 1-2 +-0.1 +-0.1 - Positioning : 11 µmGeometry limitations Almost non Almost non Removing Removing supports supports in in closed volume closed volume materials PA, PA+Al, PA+C Plaster powder Acrylate-based Acrylate-based ABS, PLA resins resins Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 36
  37. 37.  Polymer technologies : size (mm³) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 LBM EOS P390 2 3DP Z-Corp 1 Best accuracy (mm) 0 layer thickness (µm) STL Viper Si2 3DP Connex 500 FDM Makerbot min wall thickness (mm)Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 37
  38. 38.  Polymer technologies :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 38
  39. 39.  Polymer technologies :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 39
  40. 40. Summary : Z-corp : attractive demonstrators, cheap prototype, architecture, trendy reasons. (color, powder, no support) 3DP Prometal : Stainless steel part with complex internal geometry and “foundry” surface quality. (No heat input, powder, no support) 3DP Objet : Mutli-material polymer parts with high resolution and bending functionalities. (multi-material nozzle, resin, supports needed) 3DP Optoform : Ceramic parts (HA, TCP, Zr,…) for bone implants mainly (paste, supports needed, high shrinkage) LBM EOS : Polyamide parts for every applications (Powder, no support) Stereolithography : Transparent resins for every applications (Resin, supports needed) FDM : Cheapest technology, medium quality (wire, supports needed) LBM SLM Solution : Most effective with thin metal parts. (powder, supports needed) EBM Arcam : high build rate, well suited for massive parts (Powder, ~no support) LMD : repair, local coating, graded material on non flat surface (powder, limited 3D complexity)Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 40
  41. 41.  Design simplification :From 12 components to only one with better efficiency : SirrisMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 41
  42. 42.  Medical prothesis :Every patient is unique and needs, of course, a specific shape. Material properties have to be adapted to the bone to preserve it :Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 42
  43. 43.  Complex piping : Sirris – compolight projectMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 43
  44. 44.  Articulated parts without assembly : Objet 3D EOS Oak Ridge National LaboratoryBarosens (Morris technology) Objet 3D Materialise Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 44
  45. 45.  Lightweight parts : EADS Within Technology EOS Sirris – compolight project Laser CusingMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 45
  46. 46.  Jewelry: ShapewaysMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 46
  47. 47.  Customization : Materialise Sirris (YAMM) Sirris (Driessen & Verstappen) Olaf DiegelMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 47
  48. 48.  Conformal cooling : Before AM Part to produce by With AM injection • Conventional cycle time: 38s • CCC cycle time: 32s • Reducing cycle time: 16% • Profit for the 1st year: 222.000 € (6.000.000 units/year)Masterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 48
  49. 49.  You can have a part within a week. A lot of different materials are available. AM let you make quickly a first prototype to validate a concept and avoid future mistake. A lot of functionalities can be added to your part (hinges, spring, lightweight, conformal cooling, local coating, multi-material,…) The complexity doesn’t increase the price. Highest degree of customization. Don’t forget that supports are sometimes required. Parts are surrounded by powder /resin/paste which has to be removed. Post machining or polishing is often required after the process. => Thank you for you attention ! Magnien JulienMasterclass: Biomedical applications of Additive Manufacturing Organized by SIRRIS the 12th of March 2013 49

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