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2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-acreo


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Masterclass conductive printing

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2012 11-27-masterclass-conductive-inks-acreo

  1. 1. CLIP WORKSHOP 27 NOVEMBER 2012 Peter Dyreklev Acreo AB
  2. 2. ACREO• Swedish research Institute• R&D Broadband Technology Fiber Optics Nanoelectronics Printed Electronics Sensor
  4. 4. PEAA THIRD OF ALL FOOD THAT IS PRODUCED ISNEVER EATEN…. From the report “Global food losses and • In total 1 billion tons per year is wasted! food waste” (May 2011) • Huge amount of green house gases is released to no use! • In industrialized countries a great part is wasted by consumers!
  5. 5. MORE THAN 30% OF ALL MEDICINES ARE FAKE ACCORDING TO WHO…. Black Market Product Rankings : 1.Counterfeit Drugs$200 Billion 3.Counterfeit Electronics$169 Billion 4.Marijuana$141.80 Billion 12.Counterfeit Foods$49 Billion 13.Counterfeit Auto Parts $45 Billion 14.Counterfeit Toys$34 BillionLosses to Counterfeit 25.Counterfeit Clothing$12 BillionGoods by Country: 34.Counterfeit Cosmetics$3.0 Billion 36.Counterfeit Aircraft Parts $2 Billion1.United States$225 Billion 40.Fake Diplomas and Degrees$1 Billion2.Mexico$75 Billion 44.Counterfeit Pesticides $735 Million3.Japan$75 Billion 46.Counterfeit Money $ $182 Million4.China$60 Billion 48.Counterfeit IDs and Passports $100
  6. 6. WEE NEED SOLUTIONS FOR BETTER USE OF OUR LIMITED RESOURCES! We need solutions for increased security! We need solutions for moving health care to home environment!
  7. 7. Printed electronics offer a possibility to meet these challenges • Making components Displays Transistors Diodes Sensors Antennas • Integration into printed systems • Hybrid solutions with Si-chips Interconnects/Displays Transistors Diodes Antennas Printed components developed by Acreo
  8. 8. PRINTING FOR FUNCTIONALITYWhat is required for functional materials in general • High resolution (better than 200 µm line width and space) • Good registration (better than 50 µm registration accuracy between layers) • Sharp line edges • Small variations in printed height • No pin holes • Thickness control • Low surface roughness • Suitable surface energy depending on type of ink • Not all printing technologies are
  9. 9. PRINTED ELECTRONICS REQUIREMENTS –ELECTRICAL PROPERTIESResistance Sheet resistanceConductorWidth/length Antenna Rs < 100 mΩ/sq Interconnects Rs ~ 1-100 Ω/sq Rs = 100 mΩ/sq and thickness 5 µm corresponds to 3% of bulk conductivity
  10. 10. HOW TO ACHIEVE THE CONDUCTOR? Bulk metals  ~mΩ/sq for ~10 um thickness Carbon paste  10-100 Ω/sq for ~10 um thickness Conducting polymers  10-100 Ω/sq for ~10 um thickness Metal ink is
  11. 11. DIFFERENT OPTIONS FOR METAL INK Organometallic Inkjet Screen Flexo precursor printing printing printing Flakes Microparticles Thermal Photo Nanoparticles curing curing Ink type Inkjet Screen Flexo Thermal Photo curing curing Flakes (~5-10µm) No Yes No Yes No Microparticle (~1-5µm) No Yes Yes Yes No Nanoparticles (<0.1µm) Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Precursor (solution) Yes ? ? Yes
  12. 12. CHALLENGES FOR PRINTING OF CONDUCTORSDoes not tolerate Small register errors Breaks in narrow lines Uneven surface covering Rough substratesSome existing printingtechnologies are not easily used Continuous lines Spaces without short circuit Step
  13. 13. LINE/SPACE INTEGRITY Different printing methods offer various line/space
  14. 14. LINE/SPACE INTEGRITY Design file Printed result200x500
  15. 15. LINE/SPACE INTEGRITY Design file Printed result100x500 500x100
  16. 16. STEP COVERAGE Large topography  Bad step
  17. 17. COMMERCIAL EXAMPLESSCREEN INKS Curing resistivity Company Ink name Ink type Curing temp/time technology [µΩ.cm] % bulk hot air Novacentrix Metalon HPS-021 Ag-flake 150C/30 min /photonic 5 30% TOYO-ink REXALPHA RA FS 005 Ag binder hot air 20 8% TOYO-ink REXHALPHA Radiation cure Ag binder UV 50 3% Johnson Matthey S-50 Ag binder 120/20min hot air 25 6% SUN 26-8204 (T39) Ag binder 120C/20 min hot air 30 5% SUN CRSN2442 (T246) Ag binder 150C/30min hot air 25 6% Dupont 5000 Ag binder 140C/1-1,5 min hot air 38 4% micro copper Dupont copper ink CB200 binder 160C/30min hot air 50 3% Ag coated Cu flakes IIMAK Metallograph IIMAK IINK-SSC (<10% Ag) 2-7 min/70 C hot air 93 2% Advanced Nano products DGP Ag nano 120-150 C hot air 10 16% Agfa-Gevaert Agfa silver ink Ag nano 150 C/30 min hot air 5 29% IIMAK Metallograph IIMAK IINK-SSX Ag nano 2-7 min/70 C hot air 29 5% PSI-211 Conductive Screen PCHEM Ink Ag-nano WB 140 C/15-90 sec hot air 9 18% Ink-Tec TEC-PA-010 Ag hybrid 120-170/2-5min hot air 6 27% Novacentrix Metalon ICI-021 nano CuO Photonic Intrinsic Materials Intrinsic CP-001 Cu nano Photonic 8 17
  18. 18. COMMERCIAL EXAMPLESFLEXO INKS Curing resistivity Company Ink name Ink type Curing temp/time technology [µΩ.cm] % bulk hot air Novacentrix Metalon HPS-021 Ag-flake 150C/30 min /photonic 5 30% TOYO-ink REXALPHA RA FS 005 Ag binder hot air 20 8% TOYO-ink REXHALPHA Radiation cure Ag binder UV 50 3% Few conductive inks for 18
  19. 19. PROCESSING CHALLENGES • Printing conductive inks is possible in standard printing equipment • A range of conductive inks are available • Drying and curing to get the low sheet resistance is crucial • Thermal curing possible • Requires usually higher T than used in printing industry • Long drying/curing times gives low production speed Even drying time 2 min  Long ovens at reasonable speeds • Photonic curing is required for short curing time • Requires more expensive inks – nano particles • Photonic Curing allows short curing time (~ms)  High printing speed Low cost ink necessary!
  20. 20. PRINTING COSTExample:RFID antenna, 12,7 cm2Screen printing 10 m/minAg-nano ink (thermal cured)Total production cost  0,153 €/pcInk cost only  0,137 €/pcLimited cost reduction from increased production speed or machine costsCu nano / micro ink (photonic curing)Total production cost  0,101 €/pcInk cost only  0,085 €/pcLarge saving (~33%) possible from ink costs  CLIP approach!
  21. 21. SUMMARY• Conductive printing possible with existing screen and flexo printing tools• Drying and curing need to be addressed• Ink costs can be very high to get the lowest sheet resistance• Design of pattern to be printed is crucial for the end result• Range of applications can be widened with low cost inks• CLIP gives a combination of low cost inks and higher production
  22. 22.