Functional materials for printed sensorstructuresMikro Printing Day at Sirris, 15th October 2012Volker Zöllmer(1), Edit Pá...
Functional materials for printed sensorstructures1. Introduction Fraunhofer-Society and Fraunhofer IFAM2. Motivation: Func...
1. Introduction   Fraunhofer-Institute for Manufacturing Technology   and Advanced Materials - IFAM Departments   Shapin...
2. Printed Sensor Structures   Technology platform at Fraunhofer IFAM                                                     ...
2. Printed Sensor Structures   Technology platform at Fraunhofer IFAM    Motivation:     Functionalization of surfaces, p...
2. Printed Sensor Structures   Technology platform at Fraunhofer IFAM                                                     ...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   InkJet printing                                                      ■ Maskless, non-contac...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   Aerosol Jet®                                                                               ...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   3-d-printing  Printing on 3-d-components   Flexible module for customized functionalizati...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   3-d-printing  Printing on 3-d-components  Flexible module for customized                  ...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   3-d-printingIFAM development of printable inks: Ag, Au, Pt, Cu, alloys (e.g. CuNiMn, NiCr,...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   Materials development      Interactions between (nano-) particles and ink solvents      (© ...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   3-d-printingInk optimization: Investigation of sedimentation stabilities Surface tensions...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   Materials development CuNiMn is an appropriate material for printed strain gauges      Cu...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   Materials developmentDifferent physical and chemical approaches:      VERL (Vacuum Evapora...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   Sintering technology Sintering      Remove organic content      Enhance electrical condu...
3. Printed Sensor Structures   Development of printable alloy inks  Electrical conductivity of CuNi structures:          ...
4. Printed Sensor Structures   Printed strain gauges for SHM - applications                                               ...
4. Printed Sensor Structures   Printed strain gauges for SHM - applications CuNiMn - strain gauges printed on ceramic sub...
4. Printed Sensor Structures   Printed strain gauges for SHM - applications Dynamic test (tensile stress: 1000 N, compres...
4. Printed Sensor Structures   Printed thermocouples for SHM - applications Thermocouple: Seebeck Effect      U  N  ( ...
4. Printed Sensor Structures   Printed thermocouples for SHM - applicationsThermocouple                                   ...
4. Printed Sensor Structures   Printed thermocouples for SHM - applicationsThermocouple linear increase of thermocouple  ...
4. Printed Sensor Structures   Sensor structures for gas detection Deposition of functionalized interdigital structures  ...
4. Printed Sensor Structures   Sensor structures for gas detection Deposition of functionalized interdigital structures  ...
4. Printed Sensor Structures   Sensor structures for gas detection Printing of fluorescence marked BSA-Proteine materials...
4. Printed Sensor Structures   Sensor structures for gas detection Functionalization of interdigital structures      Hig...
4. Printed Bio Ceramics   Cell growth management Printing of bio ceramics for cell growth management                     ...
4. Printed Bio Ceramics   Cell growth management Printing of bio ceramics for cell  growth management© Fraunhofer IFAMCon...
Functional materials for printed sensor structures- Summary Functional printing as a flexible technology  platform for se...
Functional materials for printed sensor structures- AcknowledgmentsVolker Zöllmer(1), Edit Pál(2,3), Marcus Maiwald(1), Ci...
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2012 10-15-sirris µprinting-day-zoellmer

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The Sirris Microfabrication AppLication Lab (SMALL) at Sirris is active in the field of micro deposition and printed electronics by Aerosol Jet Printing technology (AJP). This new technology is very interesting in terms of material deposition on many types of substrates.

In order to gather ideas supported by industrial companies and to help industry innovate, Sirris and its SMALL laboratory equipped with AJP technology, invited people from industry to this workshop at the Sirris’ 'µPrinting Day'.

During this event, experts in Aerosol Jet printing technologies from OPTOMEC, a recognized leader in the field of additive manufacturing, were present.

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2012 10-15-sirris µprinting-day-zoellmer

  1. 1. Functional materials for printed sensorstructuresMikro Printing Day at Sirris, 15th October 2012Volker Zöllmer(1), Edit Pál(2,3), Marcus Maiwald(1), Cindy Behrens(1), Christian Werner(1),Dirk Godlinski(1), Ingo Wirth(1), Matthias Busse(1,2)(1) Fraunhofer IFAM, Funktionsstrukturen, Bremen, Germany(2) University of Bremen, Faculty of Production Engineering, Near Net Shape Technology, Bremen, Germany© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  2. 2. Functional materials for printed sensorstructures1. Introduction Fraunhofer-Society and Fraunhofer IFAM2. Motivation: Functional printing at Fraunhofer IFAM3. Processes and materials4. Examples: thermocouples, strain gauges, gas sensors, bio printing© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  3. 3. 1. Introduction Fraunhofer-Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials - IFAM Departments  Shaping and Functional Materials  Adhesive Bonding Technology and Surfaces Locations in Bremen and Dresden Project groups in Oldenburg and Stade 535 Employees Overall budget in 2011: 40 Mio. €© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  4. 4. 2. Printed Sensor Structures Technology platform at Fraunhofer IFAM  Photovoltaic  Displays  Lighting (LED & OLED)  Electronics (RFIDs, Storage, Battery…)  Integrated Smart Systems (Sensors, Textiles,…) (© OE-A Roadmap for Organic and Printed Electronics, 4th Ed. 2011)© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  5. 5. 2. Printed Sensor Structures Technology platform at Fraunhofer IFAM Motivation:  Functionalization of surfaces, parts and components by use of additive manufacturing Technologies:  Screen printing  Dispensing / ventile printing  Ink-Jet-Printing (Continuous, Drop-On-Demand)  Aerosol JetⓇ Benefit:  Direct application of miniaturized structures  „Customized“ structures for electronics, sensors, medical applications etc.© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  6. 6. 2. Printed Sensor Structures Technology platform at Fraunhofer IFAM  Design & Layout  Material screening: metals, alloys, polymers, ceramics, bio-materials, …  Ink / paste formulation  Printing processes: InkJet, Aerosol Jet, Screen printing, dispensing …  Thermal activation: UV, Laser, Oven, …  Characterization: Mechanical, optical, electrical, …© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  7. 7. 3. Printed Sensor Structures InkJet printing ■ Maskless, non-contact, digital, additive ■ Min. structures of ca. 25 μm ■ Printheads with 16 to 128 nozzles© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  8. 8. 3. Printed Sensor Structures Aerosol Jet® 3 4 1 2 1. Functional ink is placed in the atomiser, gas flow creates an aerosol 2. Aerosol droplets ca.1-5μm, larger droplets return to ink (gravity effect) 3. The aerosol is carried to the deposition head, excess gas removed 4. The aerosol is focussed inside the nozzle by a secondary gas flow (sheath gas) (© Neotechservices)© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  9. 9. 3. Printed Sensor Structures 3-d-printing  Printing on 3-d-components  Flexible module for customized functionalization© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  10. 10. 3. Printed Sensor Structures 3-d-printing  Printing on 3-d-components Flexible module for customized Foot pedal of a bicycle functionalized functionalization with aerosol printed strain gauges© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  11. 11. 3. Printed Sensor Structures 3-d-printingIFAM development of printable inks: Ag, Au, Pt, Cu, alloys (e.g. CuNiMn, NiCr, …) Isolators: Ceramics (TiO2, SiO2, …), Polymers Dielectric Materials Biological materials: Enzymes, Proteins, DNA, Bio-ceramics…© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  12. 12. 3. Printed Sensor Structures Materials development Interactions between (nano-) particles and ink solvents (© www.sciencedirect.com)© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  13. 13. 3. Printed Sensor Structures 3-d-printingInk optimization: Investigation of sedimentation stabilities Surface tensions characterization Contact angle characterization Viscosity characterization Particle surface modification Particle size distributions Particle morphology (SEM,TEM,...) Material/phase analysis (EDX, XRD, ...) Surface characterization (BET, XPS, ...)© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  14. 14. 3. Printed Sensor Structures Materials development CuNiMn is an appropriate material for printed strain gauges  Cu0.55Ni0.44Mn0.01 (constantan)  low temperature coefficienct of resistance (TCR)  mechanical properties Ag CuNiMn TCR: 3.8 x 10-3 K-1 TCR: 0.01 x 10-3 K-1 Commercially available from not commercially available different suppliers© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  15. 15. 3. Printed Sensor Structures Materials developmentDifferent physical and chemical approaches:  VERL (Vacuum Evaporation on Running Liquids)  Peparation of Cu55Ni45Mn1 – alloy inks© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  16. 16. 3. Printed Sensor Structures Sintering technology Sintering  Remove organic content  Enhance electrical conductivity 100 nm  Optimize mechanical properties  Oven sintering under H2, N2, Argon, … (up to 1700 °C)  Substrate limitations, relatively long processing time) Laser Sintering Microwave Sintering UV Curing Sintering under pressure Electrical sintering© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  17. 17. 3. Printed Sensor Structures Development of printable alloy inks  Electrical conductivity of CuNi structures: TEM: CuNi Chemical process TEM: CuNi Physical process Dr. Edit Pál, et al. ISIS Scientific Centre, University of Bremen© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  18. 18. 4. Printed Sensor Structures Printed strain gauges for SHM - applications F Strain gauge printed on steel R substrate Wheatstone full bridge Resistance Rx = additional resistance  l R l R k for bridge balancing A R l Measuring setup parameters:  Room temperature  continuous strain (1000 N tensile stress, 500 N compressive stress  testing frequency 25 Hz  105 cycles 5 mm© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  19. 19. 4. Printed Sensor Structures Printed strain gauges for SHM - applications CuNiMn - strain gauges printed on ceramic substrates© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  20. 20. 4. Printed Sensor Structures Printed strain gauges for SHM - applications Dynamic test (tensile stress: 1000 N, compressive stress: 500 N, 25 Hz, 7675 cycles) Reproducible signals of Ag-strain gauges No significant influence of porous structure© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  21. 21. 4. Printed Sensor Structures Printed thermocouples for SHM - applications Thermocouple: Seebeck Effect U  N  ( material1   material 2 )  T© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  22. 22. 4. Printed Sensor Structures Printed thermocouples for SHM - applicationsThermocouple U  N  ( material1  material2 )  T linear increase of thermocouple voltage in dependance of U temperature difference between DT hot and cold junctions Seebeck coefficient of printed thermocouple comparable with Seebeck coefficient of bulk material printed thermocouple allows direct Heating structure temperature measurements on surfaces and components Printed thermocouple and heating structure© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  23. 23. 4. Printed Sensor Structures Printed thermocouples for SHM - applicationsThermocouple linear increase of thermocouple voltage in dependance of temperature difference between hot and cold junctions Seebeck coefficient of printed thermocouple comparable with Seebeck coefficient of bulk material printed thermocouple allows direct temperature measurements on surfaces and components© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  24. 24. 4. Printed Sensor Structures Sensor structures for gas detection Deposition of functionalized interdigital structures  Digital structures of noble metals  Customized functionalization to enhance sensitivity and selectivity© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  25. 25. 4. Printed Sensor Structures Sensor structures for gas detection Deposition of functionalized interdigital structures  Use of e.g. metal oxides as gas sensitive functionalization  High specific surface  SnO2, ZnO, WO3© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  26. 26. 4. Printed Sensor Structures Sensor structures for gas detection Printing of fluorescence marked BSA-Proteine materials BSA - Rhodamin BSA - FITC BSA - Alexa Fluor 350© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  27. 27. 4. Printed Sensor Structures Sensor structures for gas detection Functionalization of interdigital structures  High specific surface, high sensitivity  E.g.: Functionalization with enzymes© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  28. 28. 4. Printed Bio Ceramics Cell growth management Printing of bio ceramics for cell growth management Day 1 Day 7© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  29. 29. 4. Printed Bio Ceramics Cell growth management Printing of bio ceramics for cell growth management© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  30. 30. Functional materials for printed sensor structures- Summary Functional printing as a flexible technology platform for sensor deposition and integration. Printing processes, functional inks and thermal post treatment have to be considered Printing technologies are feasible for e.g.  Strain sensor structures and thermocouples  Gas sensor structures and deposition of gas sensitive materials  Integration of sensor structures in composites  Printing of bio materials possible© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de
  31. 31. Functional materials for printed sensor structures- AcknowledgmentsVolker Zöllmer(1), Edit Pál(2,3), Marcus Maiwald(1), Cindy Behrens(1), Christian Werner(1),Dirk Godlinski(1), Ingo Wirth(1), Matthias Busse(1,2)(1) Fraunhofer IFAM, Funktionsstrukturen, Bremen, Germany(2) University of Bremen, Faculty of Production Engineering, Near Net Shape Technology, Bremen, Germany Thank you for your attention!© Fraunhofer IFAMContact: Dr. Volker Zöllmer, Tel.: +49 421-2246-114volker.zoellmer@ifam.fraunhofer.de

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