Locomotion Flying And Gliding


Published on

Published in: Education, Sports, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Locomotion Flying And Gliding

  1. 1. Locomotion Flying and Gliding
  2. 2. <ul><li>Describe the advantages of flying and gliding </li></ul><ul><li>Give a number of examples of flyers and gliders </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the different adaptations required for flight </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the various flight control methods including stability, maneuverability, braking and turning employed by flying vertebrates </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>An animals that is capable of sustaining itself in the air is said to be able to fly. </li></ul><ul><li>An animal that is able to fly is said to be volant </li></ul><ul><li>Some animals that can retard a fall (sometimes in quite sophisticated ways!) are said to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parachute (vertical drop – 45°) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glide (45 ° - 90°) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Many theories, but most support one of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small bipedal arboreal archosaurs that hopped from branch to branch using arms to steady themselves. As feathers (scales) enlarged, hops got bigger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small bipedal cursorial dinosaur gaining advantage from outstretched forelimbs when hunting and leaping for flying insects </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>First known bat in the fossil record is 50 million years old, but is already modern in appearance and flying ability. No intermediate forms have yet been found </li></ul><ul><li>Presumed that they evolved from small, agile mammals that scrambled about the trees hunting insects </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Flying reptiles survived from 180 – 65 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Again the earliest pterosaurs were already competent flyers so nothing is certain about the origin of their flying abilities </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Flyers gain access to food that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is in the air (flying insects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can only be reached from the air (terminal flowers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that can be easily located from the air (rodents/fish) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great mobility and maneuverability enable flyers to search rapidly and efficiently for food and shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Escape from nonvolant predators </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>By migrating, flyers can travel, according to the season, to regions where climate, food supply and nesting sites are favourable </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersal is possible over distances and geographical barriers that would otherwise be insurmountable </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>All parachuters are arboreal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They launch themselves with a jump, hold limbs to the side and hold their flattened surface against the airstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One species of the family Hylidae has no specific adaptations but can achieve an angle of descent of nearly 60° </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several other frogs are more expert approaching 45° angles using fully webbed feet and fringes on their limbs </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>A genus of tree snake is capable of controlled parachuting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chrysopelea sp </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Some other lizards can manage nearly 45° with broadly webbed toes and body and limb fringes </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Several fish, at least three genera of lizards and representatives of three orders of mammals are gliders. </li></ul><ul><li>All require adequate air speed in order to function as gliders </li></ul>
  13. 19. Colugo has largest flight membrane of all
  14. 20. <ul><li>Pterosaurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranged from starling sized to the largest ever volant animal with an 11-12m wingspan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 25 genera known </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>175 living genera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most species mammal genus next to rodentia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest = 4g Largest = 900g (1.7m wingspan) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range from 2g bee hummingbird to the now extinct teratorn vultures reaching 80kg and a 7m wingspan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flight feathers supported by long arms and a single fused, robust digit. The feathers on the ‘hand’ are primary feathers and the ‘arm’ has the secondary feathers. A feathered membrane called the patagium spans the angle in front of the elbow </li></ul></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>Songbirds fly between 16-40 kph </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks cruise at 50-60 kph </li></ul><ul><li>Fastest clocked is 58ms -1 or 210 kph (diving gyrfalcon) </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of body lengths per second and song bird travels 5 times faster than a cheetah and 20 times a human </li></ul>
  17. 23. <ul><li>Mastiff bat remains on the wing for 6 hour periods </li></ul><ul><li>Golden plover flies 3800km none stop from Labrador to South America </li></ul><ul><li>Wandering albatross have been tracked flying 15,000km on a single foraging trip </li></ul><ul><li>If blackpoll warblers fat stores were equated to petrol, the bird would get 720,000 mpg </li></ul>
  18. 25. <ul><li>Certain bats regularly fly at 3000m </li></ul><ul><li>Most birds fly below 1500m but migrants occasionally fly as high as 6400m </li></ul><ul><li>Birds have been seen in the Himalayas as high as 9000m </li></ul><ul><li>Even at rest, mammals become unconscious at lower altitudes </li></ul>
  19. 26. <ul><li>All flyers must </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derive sufficient upwards force to counter the pull of gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce drag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly for long or fast flight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propel themselves at various speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain stability, maneuver, brake and land in an ever changing environment </li></ul></ul>
  20. 27. <ul><li>The previous primary requirements establish some very rigid secondary adaptations that focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength with light weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firmness of the trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient production and utilisation of power </li></ul></ul>
  21. 29. <ul><li>Four main types of wing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elliptical wing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrub and forest birds and bats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialised for high maneuverability and precise control in a confined space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include fruit bat, robin, thrush, pigeon, </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 31. <ul><li>High speed wing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristic of mastiff bats and swifts, swallows, falcons, hummingbirds and ducks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively small and tapers to a slender tip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant flapping except for short glides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid flaps with a small amplitude </li></ul></ul>
  23. 33. <ul><li>Long soaring wings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly found on birds that fly over water, where long wings are not a hinderance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of albatrosses, gannet, terns and gulls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very long and slender gives high lift for low drag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation for very efficient flight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take off and landing occurs at speed </li></ul></ul>
  24. 35. <ul><li>Broad soaring wing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vultures, eagles and buteo hawks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialised for soaring and low speeds, high lift and slow ‘sinking’ speed </li></ul></ul>
  25. 37. <ul><li>Adaptations for lightness and reduction of drag </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular and physiological adaptations for flight </li></ul>
  26. 38. <ul><li>Describe the advantages of flying and gliding </li></ul><ul><li>Give a number of examples of flyers and gliders </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the different adaptations required for flight </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the various flight control methods including stability, maneuverability, braking and turning employed by flying vertebrates </li></ul>