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Chapter 1:  Waves Form 5 1 Physics Next > The study of matter
Objectives:  ( what you will learn )   1) understanding  Waves 2) reflection  of waves 3) refraction  of waves 4) diffract...
Understanding Waves: Physics 3 1. A wave is a traveling  disturbance  from a vibrating or oscillating source. 2. A wave ca...
Transverse Wave Waves 4 Particles in the medium vibrate in a direction  perpendicular  to the direction of wave propagatio...
Longitudinal Wave 5 Particles in the medium vibrate in a direction  parallel  (0 o  to line of direction) to the direction...
Surface Waves 6 Waves This is both transverse waves & longitudinal waves  mixed  in one medium. Examples : earthquake or s...
7 Waves Complete Oscillation Complete cycle;  e.g. motion from A to B & back to A. Amplitude, a Maximum displacement  from...
8 Waves < Back Next > Speed of wave, v Distance  traveled  by wave per second, v = f λ Free Oscillation Occurs when a syst...
9 Waves Damped Oscillation An oscillation whose  amplitude decreases  due to  energy loss  from the system (as heat to air...
10 Reflection of Waves Angle of reflection = angle of incidence Reflected wave has same speed, frequency, & wavelength as ...
11 Refraction of Waves Refraction of wave The change in  velocity  of wave when it travels from one medium to another. Wat...
12 Diffraction of Waves Diffraction   is the  spreading  of waves after passing a narrow slit or an obstacle. Waves are di...
13 Interference of Waves Principle of superposition of waves Displacement y, produced by 2 waves at a point is the vector ...
14 Interference of Waves antinode :  constructive superposition from 2 crests or troughs node :  destructive superposition...
15 Sound Waves Sound waves  are produced by vibrating sources. They are  longitudinal  waves requiring a  medium  for prop...
16 Electromagnetic Waves Common properties: a. Need no medium, can travel in  vacuum . b. Travels at constant speed of  li...
17 Summary < Back What you have learned: <ul><li>Understanding Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection of waves </li></ul>Thank...
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Physics form 5 chapter 1

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Physics Chapter 1 Form 5

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Physics form 5 chapter 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Waves Form 5 1 Physics Next > The study of matter
  2. 2. Objectives: ( what you will learn ) 1) understanding Waves 2) reflection of waves 3) refraction of waves 4) diffraction of waves 5) interference of waves 6) analysing sound waves 7) analysing electromagnetic waves Physics: Chapter 1 2 < Back Next >
  3. 3. Understanding Waves: Physics 3 1. A wave is a traveling disturbance from a vibrating or oscillating source. 2. A wave carries energy along with it in the direction of its propagation. 3. A wave is a mean of energy transfer through vibration. < Back Next >
  4. 4. Transverse Wave Waves 4 Particles in the medium vibrate in a direction perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. Perpendicular = 90 o to the line of direction. Examples : wave in a rope water waves light waves < Back Next >
  5. 5. Longitudinal Wave 5 Particles in the medium vibrate in a direction parallel (0 o to line of direction) to the direction of wave propagation. Examples : wave in a slinky spring sound wave Waves < Back Next >
  6. 6. Surface Waves 6 Waves This is both transverse waves & longitudinal waves mixed in one medium. Examples : earthquake or seismic wave shear wave in a slinky spring < Back Next > Wavefront A surface on the wave where all particles vibrate in phase (coming together to the same level). Oscillations Vibration or oscillation of particles in a medium is like oscillation of simple pendulum or loaded spring.
  7. 7. 7 Waves Complete Oscillation Complete cycle; e.g. motion from A to B & back to A. Amplitude, a Maximum displacement from equilibrium position that is halfway between crest (high) & trough (low). Period, T Time taken for a complete oscillation. Frequency, f Number of complete oscillation in one second; f = 1/T < Back Next >
  8. 8. 8 Waves < Back Next > Speed of wave, v Distance traveled by wave per second, v = f λ Free Oscillation Occurs when a system oscillates without any external force acting on it. Natural Frequency, f n Frequency of a free oscillation. Simple pendulum l = length, g = gravity Loaded vertical spring m = mass, k = constant
  9. 9. 9 Waves Damped Oscillation An oscillation whose amplitude decreases due to energy loss from the system (as heat to air resistance). Forced Oscillation An oscillation produced when a system is forced into oscillation by an external periodic force. Resonance Occurs when a system which is forced into oscillation oscillates with large amplitude ; the condition being that the frequencies of both systems are equal to each other. < Back Next >
  10. 10. 10 Reflection of Waves Angle of reflection = angle of incidence Reflected wave has same speed, frequency, & wavelength as the incident wave. Angle of reflection , r = Angle of incidence , i < Back Next > λ λ i r v v
  11. 11. 11 Refraction of Waves Refraction of wave The change in velocity of wave when it travels from one medium to another. Water & light waves are refracted towards Normal when moving into shallower or denser region (frequency unchanged, speed & wavelength decrease), and away from Normal the other way round. But sound waves behave in the opposite way. (Try relate it to the resistances of medium) < Back Next >
  12. 12. 12 Diffraction of Waves Diffraction is the spreading of waves after passing a narrow slit or an obstacle. Waves are diffracted more if: a. the slit is narrower b. the wavelength is longer Light has very short wavelengths, diffraction occurs only for slits with width of 10 -4 m or less. Sound has long wavelengths, diffraction of sound waves enable sound to go around corners . < Back Next >
  13. 13. 13 Interference of Waves Principle of superposition of waves Displacement y, produced by 2 waves at a point is the vector sum of displacements y 1 & y 2 produced by each of the waves. y = y 1 + y 2 Interference = effect produced by superposition of waves from 2 coherent sources. Coherent sources = if they oscillate in phase, or antiphase, or with same phase difference & they have the same frequency. < Back Next >
  14. 14. 14 Interference of Waves antinode : constructive superposition from 2 crests or troughs node : destructive superposition from crest & trough Separation between 2 consecutive antinodal or nodal lines at distance D from the 2 sources: Young’s double-slit experiment < Back Next > x a D antinodal line nodal line λ D a x =
  15. 15. 15 Sound Waves Sound waves are produced by vibrating sources. They are longitudinal waves requiring a medium for propagation. It cannot travel in vacuum. Applications of reflection of sound wave: a. sonar or high frequency sound waves used to determine depth of ocean b. Ultrasonography uses ultrasound waves to examine condition of fetus , the reflected waves used to form an image on a monitor. c. Ultrasound is also used to detect tumour in the body d. Reflection of ultrasound from rocks used in geological survey . < Back Next >
  16. 16. 16 Electromagnetic Waves Common properties: a. Need no medium, can travel in vacuum . b. Travels at constant speed of light , c = 3 x 10 8 m s -1 in vacuum. c. Transverse waves. d. Wave properties like reflection, refraction, diffraction & interference. < Back Next > Radiotherapy, sterilizer Radioactive nuclei Gamma rays X-ray photography, radiotherapy, detection of cracks X-ray tube X-rays Fluorescent lamp, sterilizer, sun bed Very hot bodies, Sun, tubes Ultraviolet Photography, fibre optics Sun, lamps Visible light Heating, remote control, night vision Hot objects, Sun Infra-red Radio, radar Inductor-capacitor circuit Radio waves, microwaves Applications Sources Name
  17. 17. 17 Summary < Back What you have learned: <ul><li>Understanding Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection of waves </li></ul>Thank You 3. Refraction of waves 4. Diffraction of waves 5. Interference of waves 6. Sound & electromagnetic waves

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