Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Apakah Islam itu?

2,624 views

Published on

Pembahasan mendasar tentang agama Islam. Apa saja yang melandasi agama Islam mulai dari dogma, para rasul, hingga sejarah kelahiran dan proses penyebarannya ke penjuru dunia.

Published in: Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Apakah Islam itu?

  1. 1. IAIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya ©2011
  2. 2. o Sistem penata pola hidup manusiao Dimensi spiritual dalam kehidupan manusiao Jiwa, Meaningo Some Categories: Kepercayaan dan Amal saleh, Tempat Beribadah, Universal and Particular, Mystical and Ethical, Self and Other-Power, Personal and Civil.o Agama vs Spiritualo Mysticism vs Agama
  3. 3. The Families of Religions: Indian: Hinduism, Buddhism, (Jainism), Sikhism The Self Chinese: Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese, Buddhism Nature Semitic: Judaism, Christianity, Islam God and Revelation
  4. 4. JudaismChristianity Hinduism Shinto Islam Sikhism Jainism Baha’i Buddhism
  5. 5.  Experiential Dimension; emosi dan perilaku keagamaan Ideological Dimension; seseorang yang agamis akan memegang kepercayaan tertentu Ritualistic Dimension; teknik menyembah Tuhan Intellectual Dimension; madzhab, kitab suci, dogma, dsb Consequential Dimension; seseorang yang agamis mestinya seperti ini … seperti itu …
  6. 6.  Semenanjung Arabia  Sebagian besar berupa padang pasir dengan gunung dan oase  Daerah Subur kebanyakan di wilayah pegunungan selatan sekitar Yemen  Suku Badui yang nomaden ▪ Tinggal di padang pasir ▪ Memelihara domba, dan unta ▪ Terorganisir dalam suku, klan dan sistem kekeluargaan ▪ Pentingnya loyalitas sesama klan ▪ Tipe suku klasik yang „paling keras kepala‟  Kerajaan Romawi and Persia menguasai sebagian besar dunia  Aktif perdagangan jarak jauh ▪ Dari Damaskus ke Mekkah atau Madinah ke Yaman ▪ Melewati Teluk Persia dan sepanjang pesisir pantai ▪ Bagian dari sistem perdagangan alur Laut Merah; antara Yaman and Abyssinia ▪ Menjual emas, frankincense dan myrrh  Agama kebanyakan polytheist; banyak tuhan atau berhala  Sejumlah pemeluk Yahudi dan Kristen agak sedikit di kawasan sentral Arabia
  7. 7. Kediaman suku Badui di zaman sekarang
  8. 8. Rute perdagangan klasikkaum Arab
  9. 9. “Bodoh teologi (kufur) dan Bodoh Moral”
  10. 10.  Muhammad  Lahir di Mekkah pada tahun 570 M  Sering menyendiri dan meditasi di gua  Turun Wahyu melalui perantara Jibril di Gua Hiro ketika Muhammad berusia 40 tahun.  Al-Qur‟an sebagai pegangan utama syiar Islam untuk merubah masyarakat10/6/2011 copyright 2006 BrainyBetty.com and our licensors 14
  11. 11. Kota utamaAgama Islam
  12. 12. • Mekkah sebagai pusat tradisi spiritual, mistik dan agama.• Terdapat Ka‟bah yang dibangun Nabi Ibrahim dan Ismail. Saat itu banyak dipenuhi dengan berhala-berhala.• Karena dianggap pusat agama, berkelahi di Mekkah tidaklah boleh untuk kurun tertentu, sehingga strategis dibuat area pusat perdagangan.
  13. 13.  Islam: penyerahan diri, selamat, damai Rukun Islam 1. Syahadah 2. Sholat Lima Waktu, Menghadap kiblat Ka’bah 3. Zakat 4. Puasa Ramadan 5. Haji
  14. 14.  Firman Allah; 6666 ayat, 114 surat, 30 juz, 7 bacaan Hanya ada 2 nama surat yang berkaitan dengan ibadah, selebihnya lagi memiliki nama yang berhubungan dengan fenomena alam, sosial-politik, ekonomi, sejarah, dan akhlak. Nama surat yang berkaitan dengan Ibadah adalah al-Sajdah dan al-Hajj; kemudian al-Ra‟d, al-Nahl, al-Nūr, al-Baqarah, dan lainnya itu masuk dalam kategori Fenomena Alam; al-Nisā, al-Munāfiqūn, al-Shūrā, dan yang semisalnya dimasukkan tema Sosial-Politik; lalu nama surat semisal al-Anfāl dan al-Zakāt masuk lajur tema Ekonomi; nama surat seperti „Abasā dan al-Mutaffifīn dikaitkan dengan bidang Akhlak; sedangkan nama-nama surat yang berkonotasi Kesejarahan adalah al- Anbiyā‟, Ali Imrān, Yūsuf, Nūh, Ibrāhīm, dan al-Rūm.
  15. 15.  Kitab suci yang harus dipegang secara hati-hati; dalam keadaan suci, ditradisikan untuk dibaca keras-keras (recite), memiliki materi ajaran yang komplit, terkadang dijadikan untuk bacaan- bacaan mistik oleh sebagian kalangan. Ahlul Kitab: Yahudi dan Kristen ▪ Muslim harus toleran dengan mereka ▪ Meyakini keberadaan nabi mereka, namun Yesus adalah nabi saja, bukan messiah apalagi tuhan ▪ Muhammad adalah rasul terakhir
  16. 16.  Iman, Islam dan Ihsan Syari‟ah, Thariqat, Hakikat Muslim harus hidup dengan aturan hukum dan moral. Semua orang adalah sama posisinya, tidak ada diskriminasi. Sebagai bagian dari agama samawi; Islam meminjam atau meneruskan ajaran Yahudi dan Kristen, dan kemudian menyempurnakannya. Abrahamic Tradition; Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition (kasus Palestina)
  17. 17. This same rock isbelieved by Jews tobe the slab uponwhich Abrahambound Isaac andnearly sacrificed him(in Islamic tradition,it was Ishmael). Andthat it was the rockupon which the Arkof the Covenant wasput.
  18. 18.  Konflik di Mekkah Hijrah ke Yathrib (Madinah) pada tahun 622 M Memperkuat basis umat dan pembentukan masyarakat Madani di Yathrib Kembali untuk „Penaklukan Mekkah‟ pada tahun 630 M
  19. 19.  Uswatun Hasanah (teladan bagi umat Islam)  Ketekunan Beribadah (Ibadah Ritual)  Hidup Bermasyarakat (Ibadah Sosial)  Kehidupan Rumah Tangga  Akhlak dan Kepribadian Hadith dan riwayat sahabat Tidak meninggalkan apa-apa selain dua hal: “Al-Qur‟an dan Sunnah Nabi”
  20. 20. The Rightly-Guided Caliphs Khalifah politik dan agama setelah rasul wafat: •Abu Bakr •Umar bin Khattab •Uthman bin „Affan •Ali bin Abi Thalib Sahabat Nabi terdekat, Muslim shalih, sebagiannya diikat menjadi saudara sekeluarga dengan pernikahan
  21. 21. Perluasan Wilayah Islamera Khulafaur Rashidin
  22. 22.  The caliph  Upon Muhammads death, Abu Bakr served as caliph ("deputy")  Became head of state, chief judge, religious leader, military commander  First four called Orthodox caliphs because they were original followers The expansion of Islam  633-637, seized Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia  640s, conquered Egypt and north Africa  651, toppled Sassanid dynasty  711, conquered the Hindu kingdom of Sind  711-718, conquered northwest Africa, most of Iberia  Success due to weakness of enemies, vigor of Islam  Referred to Islamic world as Dar al Islam The Shia and Sunnis  The Shia sect supported Ali (last caliph and son in law of Muhammad) ▪ A refuge for non-Arab converts, poor; followers in Iraq, Iran ▪ Felt caliphs should be directly related to Muhammad  The Sunnis ("traditionalists") accepted legitimacy of early caliphs ▪ Were Arab as opposed to Islamic ▪ Did not feel caliphs had to be related to Muhammad  Two sects struggled over succession; produced a civil war, murder
  23. 23. Dua Aliran Besar Islam pasca Rasul WafatSunni (90%) percaya bahwa penerus nabi (khalifah) itu dipilih ummatShi‟ah (10%) percaya bahwa khalifah itu dari keturunan nabi Muhammad SAW
  24. 24.  Setelah era Khulafaur Rashidin selesai, Islam didominasi sistem kerajaan  Umayyah (661-750 M)  Abbasiyah (750-1258 M)  Seljuks (1055-1090)  Fatimiyyah (909-1171 M)  Turki Ottoman (1281-1924 M)  Safawiyah (1501-1722 M)
  25. 25.  Dinasti Umayyah (661-750 M)  Setelah perang saudara; Khalifah Ali dibunuh, terbentuklah dinasti ini  Memindahkan ibu kota Islam ke Damaskus, Syria  Arabian military aristocracy Kebijakan bagi umat yang ditaklukkan  Dhimmis adalah untuk Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians  Wajib bayar jizya (head tax) bagi mereka yang tidak berpindah ke Islam Kehancuran Dinasti  Khalifah teralienasi dari orang Arab sekitar abad 8  Perlawanan fraksi Shi‟ah  Ketidakpuasan publik dengan perilaku pemimpin  Dibasmi oleh kalangan Abbasiyah, semua keluarga Umayyah dibunuh  Satu keturunan berhasil lolos dan mendirikan dinasti Umayyah di Spanyol; Abdurrahman Ad-Dakhil
  26. 26.  Periode diskriminasi budaya Ibu Kota berpindah ke Damaskus, Syria Budaya Arab berkembang pesat 39
  27. 27.  Abu al-Abbas  A descendant of Muhammads uncle; allied with Shias and non-Arab Muslims  Seized control of Persia and Mesopotamia during 740s  Shattered Umayyad forces at a battle in 750; annihilated the Umayyad clan The Abbasid dynasty (750-1258 C.E.)  Showed no special favor to Arab military aristocracy  Empire still growing, but not initiated by the central government Abbasid administration  Relied heavily on Persians, Persian techniques of statecraft  Central authority ruled from the court at Baghdad, newly built city  Governors ruled provinces; Ulama, qadis (judges) ruled local areas Harun al-Rashid (786-809 C.E.)  Represented the high point of the dynasty  Baghdad became metropolis, center for commerce, industry, and culture Abbasid decline  Struggle for succession between Haruns sons led to civil war  Governors built their own power bases, regional dynasties  Local military commanders took title of Sultan  Popular uprisings and peasant rebellions weakened the dynasty  A Persian noble seized control of Baghdad in 945  Later, the Seljuk Turks controlled the imperial family
  28. 28.  Toleransi keberagamaan dan budaya  Ibu kota di Baghdad  Damai
  29. 29. BaghdadGenerasi emas Islam; Baghdad menjadipusat pembelajaran dan perdagangan. Dibawah Dinasti Abbasiyah, Baghdadmenjadi “a city of museums, hospitals,libraries, and mosques.”Baghdad was one of the largest and mostcosmopolitan cities in the world, home toMuslims, Christians, Jews and pagansfrom across the Middle East and Central “Istana Abbasiyah di Baghdad”Asia.Menjelang tahun 800 M, populasi Baghdad mungkin mencapai setengah juta orang (ini berartisebesar Roma di masa Kekaisaran Romawi) dan merupakan kota terbesar di dunia di luar China.
  30. 30. The Golden Agethe "Golden Age" of Islamic civilization, karena sumbangsih ilmuwan Islam dibidang sciences and humanities: medicine, mathematics, astronomy,chemistry, literature, dan sebagainya. Kebanyakan sarjana Muslim dari abad 9 hingga 13 mendapatkan pendidikan di Baghdad. “Here, teachers and students worked together to translate Greek manuscripts, preserving them for all time. They studied the works of Aristotle, Plato, Hippocrates, Euclid, and Pythagoras.” The House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikmah) adalah pusat utama; yang juga melahirkan ahli matematika Islam, Al-Khawarizmi, “the father of algebra”
  31. 31. Harun al-Rashid Raja sekaligus Tokoh seni dan pembelajaran. “is best known for the unsurpassed splendor of his court and lifestyle. Some of the stories, perhaps the earliest, of The Thousand and One Nights were inspired by the glittering Baghdad court, and King Shahryar.” Harun built a palace in Baghdad, far grander and more beautiful than that of any caliph before him. He established his court there and lived in great splendor, attended by hundreds of courtiers and slaves.
  32. 32. Seni dan Arsitektur Abbasiyah PaintingsCalligraphy Great Mosque at Samarra
  33. 33. Kemunduran Abbasiyaho Perang saudara sesama penguasao Tensi semakin memanas antara Sunni dan Shi‟aho Korupsi penguasao Pemberontakano Orang Persia yang semakin mengontrol Abbasiyaho Orang Mongol mengakhiri dinasti ini pada tahun 1258 M.
  34. 34.  Seljuks  Muslim Keturunan Turki  Tinggal di kawasan Iran  Menaklukkan Baghdad dan melemahkan kekaisaran Byzantium
  35. 35.  The Crusades  Crusade: holy war  Christian Pope menyerukan perang salib pada tahun 1095 M.  Tujuannya menaklukkan Palestina, “the holy land”  Ada 6 seri perang salib  Beberapa sukses, beberapa gagal
  36. 36.  Mongols  Datang dari Central Asia  Mengambil Baghdad dari tangan Seljuks dan menghancurkannya pada tahun 1258 M.  Merusak peradaban Islam hingga 100 tahun  Ada juga yang masuk Islam dan bergabung dengan budaya Timur Tengah
  37. 37.  Ottoman Empire  1281-1924 M  Turkish speaking Muslims  Sunni  Menaklukkan Constantinople pada tahun 1453 dan mengakhiri era kekaisaran Byzantium; lalu merubahnya dengan nama Istanbul
  38. 38.  Safavid Empire  1501-1722 M  Iran di masa sekarang  Shi‟ah  Pesaing Ottomans
  39. 39.  Arab Urban History  Pre-Islamic Arabs were both urban, bedouin ▪ Mecca, Medina, Yemeni cities, cities of Palmyra, Arab Petropolis ▪ Center of the city was a market place often shared with religious center ▪ Cities designed with human-environment interaction in mind ▪ Nomads came to city to trade, city often settled by whole tribes ▪ Arabs had settled in cities in Syria, Iraq, Jordan  Arabic cities linked to wider world through merchants, trade  Arab cities exposed to Jews, Persians, Monophysites, Sabeans Arabic Empire and Urban Growth  Islam as a culture requires mosque, merchant: very urban in outlook ▪ Capital moved from Mecca to Damascus by Umayyads ▪ Arabs founded military cities on edges of desert to rule empire  As empire grew, needed something more permanent ▪ Abbasids moved capital from Damascus, Kufa to Baghdad ▪ Other designed for purpose cities include Fez, Cairo, Tunis  Increasing agricultural production contributed to growth of cities ▪ Cities: centers for administration, industry, trade, education, faith ▪ Many different ethnic minorities settled in Muslim cities (quarters) ▪ Mosque at center surrounded by suk, square, in decreasing social order
  40. 40. THE FIRST TRANS-REGIONAL CIVILIZATION
  41. 41.  Merchants, pilgrims, travelers exchanged foods across empire The exchange and spread of food and industrial crops  Indian plants traveled to other lands of the empire  Staple crops: sugarcane, rice, new varieties of sorghum and wheat  Vegetables: spinach, artichokes, eggplants  Fruits: oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, coconuts, watermelons, mangoes  Industrial crops: cotton, indigo, henna Effects of new crops  Increased varieties and quantities of food  Industrial crops became the basis for a thriving textile industry  Foodstuffs increased health, populations of cities Agricultural experimentation  Numerous agricultural manuals  Agricultural methods and techniques improved  Improved irrigation
  42. 42.  Pre-Islamic Arab Women  Arabs as nomads allowed women many rights  Women often poets, tribe leaders  Some evidence of matrilineal tribes The Quran and women  Quran enhanced rights, security of women  Forced husbands to honor contracts, love women  Allowed women to own property, protected from exploitation What produced the change  Foreign Contacts changed the perspective ▪ Adopted veiling from Mesopotamia, Persia ▪ Isolation from India through purdah, harem  Muslim rights for women ▪ Often weaken through Hadith, traditions ▪ Often reduced, ignored ▪ Patriarch beliefs reinforced by conquest ▪ Yet Quran, sharia also reinforced male domination ▪ Role of Hadith, Arab traditions reinforced male domination
  43. 43.  Camels and caravans  Overland desert trade traveled mostly by camel caravan  Caravanserais (motel, corrals) in Islamic cities  Trading goods usually luxury in nature Maritime trade based on technological borrowing  Arab, Persian mariners borrowed ▪ Compass from the Chinese ▪ Lateen sail from southeast Asian, Indian mariners ▪ Astrolabe from the Hellenistic mariners  Organization and dominance of trade ▪ In North Africa across Sahara, down Nile, SW Asia, to India ▪ Eastern Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabia Gulf down coasts ▪ Many cities grew rich from trade ▪ Entrepreneurs often pooled their resources in group investments ▪ Different kinds of joint endeavors Banks  Operated on large scale and provided extensive services  Letters of credit, or sakk, functioned as bank checks Exchange of Ideas included Islam, technology, culture
  44. 44.  Al-Andalus  Islamic Spain, conquered by Muslim Berbers  Claimed independence from the Abbasid dynasty  Participated in commercial life of the larger Islamic world  Products of al-Andalus enjoyed a reputation for excellence  Cordoba was a center of learning, commerce, architecture  After death of Abd al Rahman III broke up into petty kingdoms  A unique blended culture ▪ Arab, Latin, German, Islamic, Christian, Jewish ▪ Very tolerant and integrated society  Warred for 700 years with Christian kingdoms in north North Africa  Strong followers of Shia, broke with Abbassids  Berbers followed many puritanical Shia like movements  Eventually Fatimids conquered Egypt, formed rival caliphate Central Asia  Largely Turkish, Persian and Islamic but not Arabic  Tended to be distant from Baghdad and more tolerant  Integrated into trans-Eurasian trade network
  45. 45.  Persian influence on Islam  After Arabs most prominent of Muslims, resisted Arabization ▪ Cultural traditions often borrowed heavily by Islam ▪ Became early followers of Shia  Government and regionalism ▪ Many advisors (vizer is Persian word) to Caliphs were Persian ▪ Cultured, diplomatic language of Abbassid court became Persian  Literary achievements ▪ Omar Khayyam was greatest of Medieval Muslim poets ▪ The Arabian Nights largely in a Persian style Turkish influences  Central Asian nomads converted to Islam, developed literary culture  Invaded SW Asia and made caliphate dependent on Turkish nomads  Formed military might, leadership of late Abbassid state Indian Influences  Purdah and harem borrowed from Hindus  "Hindi numerals," which Europeans called "Arabic numerals" Greek Influences  Muslims philosophers especially liked Plato and Aristotle; Greek math  Effort of harmonizing two traditions met resistance from Sufis
  46. 46.  Quran, sharia were main sources to formulate moral guidelines Constant struggle between what is Arabic and what is Islamic  Use of Arabic script as only language of Islam strengthened trend  Persians, Turks, Indians, and Africans struggled for acceptance Promotion of Islamic values  Ulama, qadis, and missionaries were main agents  Education also promoted Islamic values Sufis  Islamic mystics, effective missionaries  Encouraged devotion by singing, dancing  Led ascetic, holy lives, won respect  Encouraged followers to revere Allah in own ways  Tolerated those who associated Allah with other beliefs The hajj  The Kaaba became the symbol of Islamic cultural unity  Pilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and values
  47. 47. Islam di tahun 750 M
  48. 48. Islam sekarang …
  49. 49. 22 Major “Religions”! 200 Countries! Image: http://www.adherents.com
  50. 50. http://www.religioustolerance.org/worldrel.htm

×