Vits. Mins. Water
7-15% 2-7% 70-77% 0.5% B 1%
Useful amount of protein, HBV, gluten, growth.
Small amount of unsaturated fat, energy.
Lots of carbohydrate, cellulose, starch, energy.
Vitamin B group for nerves and energy.
Calcium and Phosphorus for bones and
Iron for the blood.
Very little water so they are easy to store.
Nutritious, especially whole grain products.
Good sort of protein for vegans.
Easy to store, prepare, cook.
Over eating cereals can cause obesity.
Starch grains swell and burst.
The starch grains absorb liquids and thicken them.
Starch becomes digestible.
Loss of vitamin B.
Fibre, Iron, Vit. B
Starch and Protein (gluten).
Fat, Vit. B, Iron, Protein
Protein found in wheat
Becomes stretchy when
Allows dough to stretch
when it is rising.
At a certain temperature
it sets and the dough
keeps the risen shape
Flour can be made from wheat, rye, oats, maize, rice.
Most common is wheat flour because of the gluten.
To make wholemeal flour, grains are ground (milled).
To make white flour the bran and germ are sieved out of
the wholemeal flour
White flour is fortified with vitamins and minerals
Wholemeal Flour Contains all parts of the grain
White Flour All the germ and bran removed
Self-raising Flour White flour with baking powder added
Strong Flour Contains extra gluten for yeast bread.
Gluten Free Flour Gluten removed for coeliacs
Made from the endosperm
(semolina) of durum wheat mixed
with water, shaped and then dried
Sometimes eggs are added.
Brown pasta made from wholemeal
Green pasta has spinach purée
Red pasta has tomato purée added.
Black pasta has squid ink added
Grown mostly in the Far East
White “polished” rice loses fibre and vitamin B
Other rice products:
krispies, flour, cakes, paper, wine, ground rice.
Long grain rice (Patna) Savoury dishes e.g. curry
Medium grain rice (italian) (arborio) Risotto
Short grain rice (pearl) (pudding) (Carolina) Sweet dishes e.g. rice pudding
Basmati rice Savoury dishes
Treated rice Quick to cook e.g. “Uncle Bens” boil
in the bag
Brown rice More nutritious, 40 mins. to cook