Belgium.Ghent and Brussels 6Hogeschool voor Wetenschap & Kunst
Ghent&BrussBelgiumBelgium in general:Through the agesToday: Mainly for special occasions funerals, weddings, Solemn Communion...Consequence = an increasing secularizationWhy keep the churches? It determines the image, the heart of the village/town. A lot of people get emotionally connected to it. It’s an important spatial, cultural and historical point of orientation, St.-Niklaas Church, Ghent
els.Vision Since 1931,the Belgian government protects valuable buildings as monuments. Reorientation of churches: Abandoned Sarcred Places.The original function of the building is in most cases difficult to maintain, dueto the decreasing number of church user. Althaugh trying to maintian it’s originaluse is preferable, new functions need to be causiderd in order to keep it’s valuablecontribution to societyand it’s urban fabric.examples: Musical performances Party hall Beer depot Restaurant Museums Class rooms Four star hotel Brigittinenkerk Augustijnen Church Hairdresser Brussels, Cultural Centre Antwerp, Concert Hall 8 ...
Antwerp.BelgiumVACANT SACRED BUILDINGS PROBLEMATICBELGIUM: past = Catholicism was very popular present = decrease of active believers limited number of participants in masslarge scale sacred buildings high maintenance costs renovation and conservation costsless participants + high costs less income financial aid of the government new (commercial?) functionsreticent attitude of the church towards newfunctions
DESECRATIONDesecration condition for conversion?Is the church a willing party?Reticent attitude of the churchCHURCH COUNCIL OR ‘KERKFABRIEK’ public organisation for material andfinancial support exists of the priest and religiousappointees Belgium, Italy and parts of France Antwerp, the Onze-Lieve-Vrouw CathedralInfluences the functional future of church buildings 12
Torino.italySacred Sacredas emotion and as collectivity,mystic experience commuity and public spaceintrospection communitytradition identitydogma cohesionemotions urban formintimacyspirituality public spacemysticism memoryunfathomed folklore
Sacred example Sacred as identityas a containerfor new Designing fromfunctions the ruinscontainerreuse Cathedral destroyed by the earthquakescenography between public and sacral spaces:design a new plaza for Salemitrend Salemi Cathedralperformance Alvaro Siza, Roberto Collovàaesthetics Sicily, 1983 20
Tallinn.Estonia 1. 2 . 3.1. Estonian religion before Christianity was strongly connected with forests and nature.2. For Estonians a sacred place could be any place in the forest, related to legends or myths.3. Sacred tree in Laekvere, worshipped in ancient times. This 9.5 m high pine tree was one of the pair of trees, called “Bride and Groom”.
as many churches in Estonia was theRoots Mihkli Church in Tallin 1531reformd in a GYM from 1944-1990 24
How is today’s understanding of religion and historic places withinour country developing?The English Heritage protects historic buildings and theirmeanings by developing them for modern uses but at the same timeby being sympathetic to what they once were.Without the English Heritage, history would be lost and historicbuildings would be subjects to crude conversions. 28
Staffdifferent schoolsStijn Cockx Bonino Michele Riet Eeckhout Tom Callebaut Ephraim joris Paul Wauters firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Karel Deckers Vladimir Milenkovic Marjan Michels Tomà Berlanda Branko Belacevic Stefaan Onraert firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 30
It’s organized round the idea of a matrix: 10 topics for 10 mixed groups of students.These ten topics should be elaborated on by each group in a ‘spatial’ and conceptual way. This workshop should thus enable students to create a theoretical model. This model should be applied into the two the two churches: St. Suzanne and St. Nicholas Church. Exteriorisation Circulation Evolution Typology Environment Vocabulary Groups Taboos Rituals Localisation Buildings Social entities Tradition Icons Climate Organisation Spirituality Indi.collective Monuments geography materialisation Behaviour conflicts Identity Sence of space/placeReligion Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Team 5Reorientation Team 6 Team 7 Team 8 Team 9 Team 10
What makes you identify in relegion?what is identity?? Does identity still exsists? Is identity related to a specific form? team 4
MatrixWorkshop r e l i g i o n g o e s beyond p l a c e , i t n e e d s s p a ce m u l t i fo r m m o d e l / s p a ce C l o s e d p l a ce _ s o r row, re f l e c t i o n , meditation, interiorisation Team 5 Permeable space_ different points of v i e w, m u l t i p l e space Open space_ communion, gathering, identity catacomb sacred hollow sacred building37
MatrixWorkshop Team 9 The elements are part of the church The church will keep his identity because The church will contain its history it is a monument itself. The remaining members of congregation wont be dissappointed. Creating a new perspective of wider popula- tionby looking less sacral. Conclusion Retaining the sacral building and the feel of sacracy by the present of his structure, Identity depends on the namely thick walls, brick walls, big doors, type of reoriantation, no high seeling... strickt rules can be made The church looses his meaning en histry, because every project will many churches are named to a holy man be individual. standing as a statue in front of the church.41
abcdefghi jklminopqrst uvwxyz abcdef ghijklm LECTU LE LECTURES nopq43
1. YOT B: Religion & Re-Orientation2. KERKFABRIEK: Sint-Anna-ten Drieën Church3. Sven Sterken: 20th century religious heritage (in Flanders)4. Flemish government: heritage5. Hans Foncke: Modelling sacred space6. Jos Vandenbreedenen: St. Suzanne and St. franciscus church 44
lectureReligion & Re-orientation 1. Yot B Yot B is a team that assists groups in the startup and development of innovative projects at the intersection of aesthetics and spirituality. They asked Tom Callebaut Sofie Verschuere to re-Orientate the MagdalenaChurch for ‘Bruges cultural capital’ in 2002TO MEET
an experiment about space, man and religionthe Neo-Gotic Church retains its function, but by upgrading you’ll geta different kind of costum. 46
lectureSint-Anna-ten Drieën Church 2. Kerkfabriek This is a public institution designed to provide the management of movable and immovable property of the church, maintenance and security of the church heritage , recruiting and hiring of paid staff. Erik Balbaert He is the president of ‘the Kerkfab_riek’ Sint-Anna-ten-drieën,Antwerp,Linkeroever see www.sint-anna-at-drieen.be winning project
Working Group mission In our church community at Builder priest Local contact Linkeroever churchfabric person all people of goodwill are welcome,Eric Antonis KIEZEL Flemish Irrespective of their country(ex-intendant Government of origin, age, sex or Architect religion,Antwerpen ‘93) + art cell We invite everyone to parishioners Parish team celebrate life together, every day, in joy or in pain,in a contemporary form and language Because we believe that, in this way,we can make the house of God a warm home that brings us a little closer to the discovery of heaven... 48
lecture20th century religious heritage (in Flanders) 3. Sven Sterken (1975) is an engineer-architect. Before graduating at Ghent University (B) in 1998, he studied in Pretoria and Paris. In 2004, he obtained a PhD in architectural history at Ghent University with a dissertation on the spatial and media work of the composer, engineer and architect Iannis Xenakis.Future use of church buildings: strategiesRe-orientation Demolition Deliberate vacancy Joint use
Conclusion: challenges ahead!Ecclesiastical authorities: allow alternative use, conversion, sale or even demolition as these processes are of all times.Civil authorities: Raise awareness to the problem Invest money not only in buildings but also in research ‘Master plan’ to rationalize cost for societyArchitectural community: creative solutions to accommodate new functions with respect for building’s sacral character and typological features 50
lectureFlemish government: heritage 4. Piet Geleyns (1975) has studied engineer-architect at KUL, he has also a master in conservation of historic towns and buildings at the R. Lemaire Center for Conservation (2000) Since August 2004 is piet heritage adviser to the Flemish Government (RO Vlaanderen) to contact UNESCO for World Heritage Flanders.Possible solutions ? Preserve the original function, but add additional uses. Preserve these buildings, but look for a new function. Abandon these buildings, in order to replace them with new, more suitable buildings & projects.
Listed religious buildings are no different thanother listed buildings …But the features that make up the essence of thesebuildings (specific decoration, typical spaces, …) often makeit harder to find acceptable new functions.exemples W L E E L S L SCovered market @ Sarlat-la-Canéda,Fr Small shop @ Wolweverskapel + Chapel of the Holy
lectureModelling sacred space 5. Hans Foncke (1965) is a architect and has a degree in Art History. He’s Practice Assistant at Ghent University and assistant at the School of Science and Art, Department of Architecture, Campus Sint-Lucas Ghent and Brussels since 1993. Hans Foncke is a great lover of books, Berlin and Rome. A model is universally applicable, not because it’s narrowed down to fit in everywhere, but because it’s so rich and layered that it conquers any context. A model estranges the commonplace. A model questions the question. The model is a research tool.
[a] modelfrom philosophy construction modelling sacred spaceSir John Soane, Sir Bruno Taut, Glasbauspiel Le Corbusier: Andrea Pozzo, Corridoio.(Rome)John Soane’s Museum Alan Wexler, Crate House. Maison Dom-ino.(1914-1915) Bramante, la Santa Casa di(London, 1796-1837) Bruno Taut, Glashaus (Keulen,1914) Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut. Loreto. (Loreto, 1507-)
lectureSt. Suzanne and St. franciscus church 6. Jos Vandenbreeden is director of St. Luke Archives and professor at the Department of Architecture Sint-Lucas. He is the author of various publications on Art Nouveau and Art Deco in Belgium.55
St. Suzanne is a modern church built from 1925 to 1928 to plans of the architect Jean Combaz. It is the first church in Belgium made entirely from concrete. Remarkable are the spetial windows of Simon Steger and master of the glass Jacques Colpaert. The monument is protected by the Brussels-Capital Region.The Sint-Fransiscuschurch is an neogothic church, witha neo-byzantine bell tower. The church is built in twoparts.The oldest part at the back dates of 1893, the new partdates of 1937 to plans of the architect Colles. In 1994the exterior was restored, now they restoring the inside.
- Visit to Duffel, Bruges and Edelare (BE)- Dance performence in KVS (BE)- Visit to Wachendorf Mechernich, KÖLN (DE) and Vaals (NL) 58
Field Trip Visist to Duffel Bruges and Edelare Duffel, 1Thierry De Cordier . (Oudenaarde, Belgium, 1954) Is a Flemish Belgian visual artist, painter, sculptor, designer, graphic, poet- philosopher and builder of installations and environments.For the garden of the psychiatric center at Sint- Norbertus, Duffel,built Thierry De Cordier a ‘Chapel of nothingness’ (2007).This sacred space conceived as a quiet space for patients and visitors tothe institution, a place of relaxation and meditation.The chapel is a mysterious black box, with a contrasting white interior were we find justone bench and a black pillar in front of the eight meter high wall.
wednesday 11 february 2 .Yot B (Bruges, Belgium, 2003) Yot is a team that assists groups in the startup and development of innovative projects at the intersection of aesthetics and spirituality.The neo-Gothic Magdalenakerk received in 2002 in honor of‘Bruges Cultural Capital’ a new interior.The re-orientation of the church is a place for every person who islooking for meaning. 60
Field Trip Visist to Duffel Bruges and Edelare Duffel, 3 . Robbrecht and Deam (Ghent, Belgium, 1970) They are architects from Ghent and they belong to the representatives of the New Simplicity.Their work is characterized by a strong belief in the autonomy of the architectural form.The concert hall clad in red terracotta tiles is built in function of Brugescultural capital of Europe. The 4 different facades of the building showseveral views of the city: a park, the shops, the station, a square ...The building creates a new, modern look for the historical Bruges.The concert hall is built on springs so that the vibrations from the outsideare absorbed by the structure. The two music rooms also have a very good acous-tics by lining the vagaries of the ballustrades.
wednesday 11 february 4 . Juliaan Lampens (Eke, Belgium, 1926) He is graduated in 1950 as architect of the school of architecture Sint-Lucas in Ghent. His oeuvre consists mainly of building houses, with the exception of a library and the chapel.EdelareThe Onze-Lieve-vrouw chapel was built in 1570 and burned down on February 21, 1961. Butthat does not means the end for the chapel, a new modern chapel built by the architect JuliaanLampens.He had a preference for concrete: “I’m not in love with concrete, but on the opportunities thatthis material offers. The constructive gesture that you as an architect suggests, is the firststep to beauty. “ 62The architecture is stripped to the bane necessity with just the essence remaining.
Field TripVisist to Duffel Bruges and Edelare Duffel,
rmance 1 Fender Bender Saterday 14 february Asli Öztürk / Rosa Mei / Jeanfrançois Blanquet In Fender Bender the dancer, Asli Öztürk, plays with the idea of twin reverb. The twins, in this case, are nor indentical dancers, but one dancer and an everchanging sound element. Sound preform- er, Jeanfrançois Blanquet, views sound as a living object that changes constantly from both shape and function. It can be smarmy or spluttering like drops of water in bruning hot oil. Asli Öztürk was finalist in 2007 at the INternational Solo Dance Festival in Stuttgart. 2 Can You Repeat? Ayse Orhon Can you, as an onlooker, whilst watching a performance, discern the physical voyage of discovery the dancer makes? Figure out the movement codes? Dancer/ choreographer Ayse Orhon takes you along on the intimate journey of how the performance was put together, from reharsal to presentation. She hasn’t put the emphasis on her physical strength and beauty, what she has done is take time out the stress those incredibly awkward moments that arise when finding out new movements. Ayse Orhon was one of the 3laureates of the very first Prix Jardin d’ Europe. 3 Masar Kadrievi, Gipsy Orchestra, Dj Shantel, Merdan Taplak 66
Field TripVisist to KÖLN and Wachendorf Mechernich Veldchapel,1. Peter Zumthor Wachendorf MechernichThe tent shape placed long trunks served as formwork for the enclosure of the chapel area,with in the roof a hole. Then they burned the timber away with a slightly smoldering firewith the result a cave-like room with the remaining structure of concrete printed logs.Zumthors prayer house is a strong sign of recognition in the landscape.
Sunday 15 februaryKÖLN city and metropolitan district in Germany and is famous for its fairs,Köln is athe carnival, the various Christmas markets and Kölsch beer. The Gothic cathedral is the most important church of the diocese of Köln.2. It is the largest cathedral in Germany and one of the largest in Europe. The cathedral is 144 meters long and 86 meters wide. The towers are 157 meters high. 68
Field Trip Visist to KÖLN and Wachendorf Mechernich Kolumba Museum,3. Peter Zumthor kölnThe building, located in the center of Köln, was founded on the ruins of an old Gothic church.In the museum there is also a modern chapel of the architect Gottfried Böhm.The museum was an architectural integrity where the artwork was displayed to its maximum effect.Sunday: 12h-17h
Sunday 15 february Jesuit church Sankt Peter,4. KölnLocated in the center its the last preserved Gothic cathedral in the city, originally built (1513-1525)as a 3-aisled gallery basilica. Kunst-Station Sankt Peter Köln is a sensuous haven for contemporary artexhibitions from the likes of David Salle, Francis Bacon, Anish Kapoor and many others.Sunday: 13h-17h clock 70
Field Trip Visist to KÖLN and Wachendorf Mechernich The Abby Sint Benedictusberg,5. Father Hans van der Laan Vaals, NL.Father van der Laan studied architecture under Professor Grandpre-Molière in Delft. He has built severalmonasteries including the Dominican monastery in Vaals, for which he received an architectural price.The Rule of Saint Benedict writes prayer, but also manual, as far as possible in their own living needs.There is a chapel, laundry, kitchen, bakery, tailor, smith, garden, guesthouse…http://www.benedictusberg.nl/
Exploring potential in/ near/between places of worship inBrussels.(St.- Suzanne and St. Nicholas)The key question is not why churches are being abandoned. Theworkshop focuses on the church as a public realm: a place wherepeople can gather, interact regardless of any kind of belief.The potentiality of a religious building lies in the multiple usewithout abandoning the religious function and character of thebuilding.The goal is to deepen knowledge, to inspire, to communicate, toresearch and eventually to trying to reach a tangibleresult. 74
Project‘Abandoned Sacred Spaces’ BECAUSE OF RELIGION BEEING PARTCIPATED BECAUSE OF RELIGION BEEING PARTCIPATED MORE INDIVIDUALLY. RELIGION DOESN’T A SPECIFIC PLACE ANYMORE. THERE FOR RELIGION DOESN’T A MORE INDIVIDUALLY. WE CALLED THIS SPECIFIC PLACE ANYMORE. THERE FOR WE CHURCH A NON-PLACE. CALLED THIS CHURCH A NON-PLACE. OUR PROJECT IS ABOUT MAKING A STATEMENT ABOUT THE EMPTY CHURCHES. IS ABOUT MAKING A STATEMENT OUR PROJECT WE WANT TO EXP EXPLODE THIS EMPTYNESS ALL OVER THE CITY. ABOUT THE EMPTY CHURCHES. WE WANT TO SO THE CHURCH’S INTERIOR WOULD BE DEVIDED EXP OVER THE URBAIN EXPLODE THIS EMPTYNESS ALL OVER THE CITY. SPACE. BY PLACING A CAMERA INSIDE WE WANT THE CHURCH’S OUT THE SO TO BRING INTERIOR WOULD BE DEVIDED EMPTYNESS ANDOVER THE URBAIN SPACE. BYIT. CONFRONT PEOPLE WITH PLACING A CAMERA IN THE SAME TIME PEOPLE WHO SEE THE INSIDE WE WANT TO BRING OUT THE BROADCASTED EMPTYNESS ARE FILMED AND PEOPLE WITH IT. EMPTYNESS AND CONFRONT PROJECTED AFTERWARDS INTO THE CHURCH. IN THE SAME TIME PEOPLE WHO SEE THE BROADCASTED EMPTYNESS ARE FILMED AND THE INTERIOR SPACE STAYS MENTALLY LOCKED BECAUSE PEOPLE DON’T KNOW WICH CHURCH ITINTO THE CHURCH. PROJECTED AFTERWARDS IS ABOUT. IN THE SAME TIME THE NON-PLACE FYSICALLY SPACEFYSICALLY IN SAME TIME THE NON-PLACE STAYS MENTALLY LOCKED THE INTERIOR STAYS A NON-PLACE, BUTA NON-PLACE, BUT MENTALLY THE SEVERAL WICH CHURCH IT IS STAYS MENTALLY THE SEVERAL BECAUSE PEOPLE DON’T KNOW PLACES IN THE CITY CANINBECOME ACAN BECOME A PLACE PLACES THE CITY PLACE ABOUT. AGAIN FOR CERTAIN PEOPLE. CERTAIN PEOPLE. AGAIN FOR IN THE SAME TIME THE NON-PLACE FYSICALLY STAYS A NON-PLACE, BUT MENTALLY THE SEVERAL PLACES IN THE CITY CAN BECOME A PLACE AGAIN FOR CERTAIN PEOPLE.Team1 N O N - P L A C E P L A C E
Identity carpet_shifts in perspectiveThe concept is the carpet in the meaning of a surface where people of differ-ent identities can lay down and experience the sense of community.Carpet has areligious universal value and give to people a warm and confortable sensation.The carpet allowes to add new functions connected with soft activities(dances, pilates, talking and laying togheter)but also it can be used connectedwith the history and the icons of the church in order to valorize them or tohide them to give a more neutral view.Putting a carpet and working with strips of different high that create a newlandscape it’s possible to change the way of perception in a church, by themeans of tentative contamination, adding different plans and using thepossibility of attraction and atmosphere, like warmth and comfort. The sitting of the curch are flexible and movable, are balls hidden behind the carpet and each person can move and place it, in order to create different settings according to the performance (religious or not). 82
A volume containing three different entrancescreates three new approaches to the church.They symbolise the ideas of progressin religiouscontext.Each one of the entrances reflects a basic aspectof religious feelings throughout the history andseveral religious traditions.Each approach allows people to have a variedperception of religious environment. 84
Reorientation – MaterialisationWhen thinking about the materialisation of a church, we came to the conclusion that air is the main material.It takes in the largest space in the building. It contains the speciﬁc atmosphere of the church.Our main goal with our model is to preserve this typical atmosphere. On the other hand, we also have anaspect of church that we deﬁnitely want to change. We want to change the main rules and traditions. In liveplenty of things al already forced on us. Therefore in the church we want people to think for themselves.They have to make their own decisions and really commit to being there.We take boundaries as decision points and as difﬁculties to cross to another level. The walls on itself are noboundaries.By crossing it you come into the public space. The boundary makes it easy to access the public space butmakes it hard to return. This public space is very ﬂexible, it can be used for different kinds of public events.It is actually an extension of the outside. From this area you can choose to move up to a superior level bycrossing another boundary. This boundary is harder than the previous one and works in the opposite way.It’s very hard to cross it but easier to come back to the public space.The proportions are always similar in every situation, but the exact dimensions change within every case. 86
‘Personal growth through communal experiences, enriched by the past.’The tree offers a conceptual framework which combines our research and functional demands. Symboli-cally the tree offers a wide range of meanings and influences. In our project the focus is placed on thebuild-up of a tree and the different significations of each part. The roots stand for history, back-ground, community. All this comes together in the stem of the tree which is a way to grow as an indi-vidual. A person is a sort of conclusion of his roots. Meetings, education and experience make you growas an individual. You branch out and become a ‘richer’ individual.Rope is used to translate the tree-idea to reality. The roots are exposed to attract people and lurethem in from the street. You enter the space next to the roots following them up from the street. Onceinside the church the roots go up and come together in a central spiral (the stem). This creates a cen-tral square for various functions, according to the time of day or need. During the day families withchildren can make it their ‘city garden’.Congresses can be held with a speaker standing centrally surrounded by his public. Besides new functionsthe reorientation also allows for the original religious celebrations.The priest preaches from the middle and the parishioners can place themselves in thestructure listening, watching,. Group-functions are completed with the possibility ofexperiencing the church privately.The tree-structure allows for people to climb up to higher, more individual spaces. Thehigher you go the more secluded you are.The communal feeling is placed centrally, your origin, your past, your roots... these are the points ofcontact. Every ‘tree’ is different according to the church or building in which it is implemented.The essence is connecting roots. 88
Our project is about restoring religion andreasserting the church as an importantfeature of a community and of religion viathe deconstruction and reconstruction ofthe church tower.By deconstructing it, we create a scar inthe city skyline, drawing people to theplace the tower should be, thereforebringing it closer to the people.It then becomes a community project inwhich the community rebuilds the towereither the same or differently.The church then becomes a pinnacle partof the community once more through thememories and activities around theproject. 90
Our ﬁrst intention of reorientation is not to look at the architectural structure,but the purpose of the church. As a group we feel it is not necessary tomake a spectacle out of the church (Tourist Attraction). We wish to create anobject that can change and adapt to the cultural diversity of the community. relevant to the people that use it. We wish to createOur design needs to bean internal environment within the church. The sacredness of the churchis not in dispute but the relevance of religion is. We believe that making thechurch more accessible for different activities. We can revive the church asthe heart of the community. We want to keep the initial experience of thechurch intact, and not obstruct the view with are design. Our design needsto benegotiable within the space and will have a multifunctional purpose.The Design needs to be able to grow and adapt to perform its function. 94
The fact that abandoned places are not demolished and nobody wants toremove them means that interior architecture and architecture is morethan form and materialisation. Spaces have a history, a story, alocal legend, an emotion… The reorientation of churches has historicallyalways been a point of discussion but when we look at our heritage history we see that our churches today also have a future.When I look back at our ten days of the workshop, I’ve seen all ourstudents asking questions, working together, arguing, researching, anddesigning with one purpose: giving all those buildings a new future.The different nationalities, backgrounds and cultures have given them alot of knowledge in approaches, backgrounds, and conflicts… There is notone answer for the reorientation question, but the internal discussionsand the research by design became the working method and proved to besuccessful.First of all I would like to thank all the students for their positivecooperation and way of working. It was a tough workshop and for the oneswho reached the finish line: I’m very proud of the results.Secondly I would like to thank all the people who gave a lecture, mycolleagues who supported the workshop and the administration for makingall this possible. A special thanks to Nele, who did not participate inthe workshop, but did all the administration.It was a great experience! Thanks,Stijn Cockxorganisator ASP - workshop 2