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Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme

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This research done for Thulasivarman's Town Planning Degree.

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Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme

  1. 1. A Study on the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human Settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula. Thulasivarman. K 072361 JA Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  2. 2. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionBACKGROUND • The Jaffna Lagoon Scheme is a solution for the problem of the quality of freshwater that has occurred due to salinization and salt water intrusion. • With the increase of the availability of fresh water, there is a potential for the increasing water catchment areas to 195 sq miles and agricultural lands to 17.5 sq miles • At present, 20,000 acres of land is being cultivated • After the project, there will be additional 11,000 acres extent of land for cultivation in another 15 years. • It is expected that this project will make bigger impacts on the human settlement development pattern. (Jaffna Lagoon Scheme 1982; District Annual report 2009) A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  3. 3. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionResearch question • When the Jaffna Lagoon Scheme is implemented, will there be any new changes in the settlement pattern in Jaffna peninsula? • If there will be changes, what will be the new settlement pattern? • If the plan is not being prepared, what will be the pattern of the settlement? A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  4. 4. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Objective •Study the effects of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme on human settlement development Pattern. •Identify the future settlement patterns with and without the Jaffna Lagoon Scheme. A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  5. 5. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionFlow of Study Study of the human settlement pattern Study the Jaffna Lagoon and the determining factors Scheme Expected impacts on the human Concepts related to human settlement pattern settlement development Analyzing Techniques Identified the changes of human settlement pattern Derived settlement development pattern alternatives based on the analysis A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  6. 6. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Literature Review A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  7. 7. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion •Concept of Human Settlement •Elements of Human Settlement •Human Settlement Development •Factors Influencing on Human Settlement •Type of Settlements •Settlement Patterns A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  8. 8. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionUnderstanding the concept of Human Settlements “Human settlements means the totality of the human community - whether city, town or village - with all the social, material, organizational, spiritual and cultural elements that sustain it. The fabric of human settlements consists of physical elements and services to which these elements provide the material support.” (UNHABITAT, 1976) The human settlements are constructed by all sedentary societies over several millenniums in each continent of the world in order to provide secure living conditions and guarantee sustenance Bairoch, 1988 A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  9. 9. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionElements of Human Settlements “…Human settlements consists several elements: Networks nature, the earth and the natural site on which they are built; man who creates and inhabits them; Society which is formed mainly in them and whose Networks functions allow them to survive and grow; and Shells Nature Shells (Structures), which are built to transform the first and to house the other three elements. Man, Society and Networks are the contents of the elements and Nature and Shell form the container. It is the Interrelationship of these five elements which forms human settlements. …” Man Society (C.A.Doxiadis ,1970) A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  10. 10. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionHuman settlement development Mental Health Physical HealthAdministration of justicecrime and safety Health Visual perception and scenic Quality NuisanceHousing Security Physical Environment Climate The human settlement development leads to aPersonal economic securityand standard of living Pollution definite improvement of quality of life. The Quality quality of life consist several components Individual development through of Life Natural Resource learning Natural Goods Lawrence, 2000 Personal Resources, Goods Development and services Social Infrastructure Individual development through and services recreation and leisure Community Political Community structure Participation Development Social networks and group relations A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  11. 11. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Factors influencing Human settlement There are various factors and conditions responsible for different types of rural settlements.  Physical features – Nature of terrain, Altitude, Climate and availability of water  Cultural and ethnic factors –Social structure, Caste and Religion  Security factors – defense against thefts and robberies. (Hudson, 1969) A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  12. 12. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Human Settlement Urban Settlement Rural Settlement Life support or basic economic Processing of raw materials and needs from land based primary manufacturing of finished goods economic activities (Sarkar, 2010) A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  13. 13. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Rural settlements Clustered, agglomerated or nucleated Dispersed or isolatedFigure 2.3 a) Clustered Settlement b) Linear Settlement Reproduced from: Settlements Patternand Functional Distribution in Emerging Communities. Figure 2.4 widely dispersed settlements on land subject to complete inundation in south eastern bakarganj Reproduced from: The Pattern of Rural Settlement in East Pakistan. (Ahmad, 1956) (Silberfein, 1989) A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  14. 14. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionCase studies on Similar Project in the National and International Context •Mahaweli – Sri Lanka •Three gorge Dam – China •Powers Lake - USA A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  15. 15. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionMahaweli Development ProjectBefore the Mahaweli development project• The settlement pattern was a Dispersed Pattern.• Lot of arable lands were under forest cover.After the Mahaweli development project•The settlement pattern is transformed to clustered withhierarchy of towns.• Arable land extent was increased by the irrigation schemes.Thus, the Mahaweli development programme has impacted the settlements positively. (WJG Mendis, 1973) A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  16. 16. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionThree Gorges Dam Project In China• The main goal is power generation.• Dams are built across the Yantze River in China.•Programme is covered huge extent of agriculturalland and residential land.•Peoples are relocated by government withoutproper resettlement plans and forced to migratethem.•This project is negatively affected the humansettlement development(Seeber.C et al, December 2010) A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  17. 17. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Crops & Grazing lands Around the LakePowers Lake ProjectPowers Lake is located on the edge ofthe City of Powers Lake in USA. This project is improved • Crop land (16 000 acres), • Grass seeding lands (870 acres) • Grazing lands (4100 acres). (Powers Lake Watershed Project) Marshy & Scrub lands Around the polluted Lake A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  18. 18. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Analyzing Techniques 1. Analysis of Hierarchy of functions and settlement structure 2. Nearest Neighbor Analysis A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  19. 19. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionAnalysis of Hierarchy of functions and settlement structure:In this method, a points system is devised for allocation to certain defined categories of servicesoffered by each settlement.The categories are actually chosen and the relative importance of the sub services within thesecategories. •Local and central government Administration, Protective services and Judiciary services •Social services: •Communication and transportation •Commerce and major public works initiations •Industry and public utility services (Electrical and water supply). (WJG Mendis, 1973) A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  20. 20. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionNearest Neighbor Analysis The method is used to assess if there is any degree of physical dispersion or clustering of settlements in the areas. WhereThe nearest neighbor is the observed mean distance between eachstatistic is given by— settlement and its nearest neighbor. is the expected mean distance for the settlements given a random pattern. Distance between settlement I and its nearest settlement n Correspond the total number of settlements A Total study area. (Sarkar. 2010) A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  21. 21. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion CASE STUDY A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  22. 22. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion •Jaffna Lagoon System •Study Area •Settlement Identification •Present Land Use •Water Quality •Soil Salinity •Salinization Issues •Proposals A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  23. 23. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionJaffna lagoon System Internal lagoons •Upparu Lagoon •Vadamaradchi Lagoon External Lagoon •Elephant Pass Lagoon A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  24. 24. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionStudy AreaBased on:•Potential reclaimable agriculturalland•Areas where the ground water isaffected•GN Division BoundaryArea Covered: •Thenmaradchi •Vadamaradchi •Part of ValikamamStudy Area Extent is 727 Sq km A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  25. 25. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionSettlement IdentificationGN Division Population DensityPopulation Density > 500 Persons per Sq km Total Number of Settlements 159 A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  26. 26. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Description No of Plots Area (Ha) Built Up Area 88 245.7402 Present Land use in Study area Coconut 173 5749.3964 Garden 2026 19659.8642 Grassland 35 1217.6884 Jeep or Cart Track 622 4444.3978 In Study Area Lagoon 3 44803.5094 Main Road - Class A 1 546.4271 Main Road - Class B 2 985.2998 •Arable Land ≈ 20 600 acres Marsh 46 2835.8670 Minor Road 77 1420.8758 •Non Arable Land ≈ 19 300 acres Other Plantation 162 1528.8031 Paddy 634 13314.5067 Sand or Beach 50 5065.7490 Scrub 315 16287.9509 Tank with Bund - Working 136 1239.3031 Transport and Utilities 3 2.7696 Water Hole 494 585.9963 Land uses in Study area and its Extent in Hectares. Source Survey Department GIS Data set. A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  27. 27. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionWater Quality: Irrigation Department Investigations shows close proximity area salinity level is moderate and liable to increase. A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  28. 28. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Soil Salinity Due to the soil salinity •Presently 11000 acres of land is Non Arable •20000 acres of land productivity is less A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  29. 29. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Problems & Its Root Causes Daily Use of Bracklsh Well Water Problems in routine life Salinization Drinking water Low Productivity Agriculture lands Social problems Reducing Unstable water Agriculture lands level in Lagoon Low Income Unstable fishing oppertunities in lagoon Unstable salinity level in Lagoon A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  30. 30. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionProposals Elephant pass lagoon –Provide a closure bund of 4700 feet with a spill cum causeway of 7000 feet along the eastern end of the lagoon. Vadamaradchi lagoon – Provide a barrage Thondamanaru. Upparu Lagoon – Screw operating Barrage in Ariyalai. Link canal 2.5 miles long , provide an inlet regulator – cum-bridge and provide a roadway along the link canal. A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  31. 31. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Impacts On The Human Settlement Pattern After The Jaffna Lagoon Scheme Implementation A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  32. 32. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion •Potential Agriculture Based Settlements •Potential Agriculture Based Settlements •Potential Agriculture Based Settlements •Existing Human Settlement Pattern •Expecting Human Settlement Pattern A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  33. 33. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionThe Potential AgricultureBased Settlements •11 000 acres of agriculture Land •20 000 acres land Productivity increasing by 50% •Irrigation Based Cultivation Like Mahaweli Settlements A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  34. 34. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionThe Potential FishingBased Settlements •Water Level Stabilized •Salinity level stabilized •Land for Development •Fresh water Availability A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  35. 35. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionThe Potential TourismBased Settlements •Stabled Lagoon water Level •Fresh Water Availability •Accessibility •land for New Development Like Powers Lake In USA A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  36. 36. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionNearest Neighbor Analysis showsthat the settlements areClustered-based. A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  37. 37. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme DiscussionNearest Neighbor Analysis showsthat the potential settlements willbe Random-based. A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  38. 38. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Conclusion Presently Settlements are clustered in 3 areas •Close of Jaffna town Urban Activities •Chavakacheri and surrounding Agriculture Activities •Point Pedro and adjacent Fishing Activities A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  39. 39. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion After the Project Implementation Since the potentials of job opportunities will be dispersed, the settlement pattern will be changed to Random. Before the Project After the Project Cluster-based Random-based A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  40. 40. Introduction Literature Review Jaffna Lagoon Analysis & Conclusion Scheme Discussion Works Cited Ahmad, N. (1956, July). The Pattern of Rural Settlement in East Pakistan. Geographical Review , pp. 388-398. Ahmed, Y. A. (2009). Settlements Pattern Functional Distribution in an Emerging Communities. The Social Science , pp. 256-263. Anish Joshi et all. (2009). Report on Impact of Settlement Pattern, LandUse Practice and Options in High Risk Areas. UNDP. Doxiadis, C. A. (1970). Ekistics, the Science of human settlement. Ekistics , 345-355. Hudson, J. C. (1969, Jun). A Location Theory for Rural Settlement. Annals of the Association of American Geographers , pp. 365-381. Kawashima T ; Korcell P. (1982). Human Settlement Systems: Spatial Pattern and Trends. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Lawrence, R. J. (2000). Sustaining Human Settlement. Urban International Press. Perera, L. S. (1991). Some issues in human settlement Development. Report on Jaffna Lagoon Scheme. (1982). Sarkar, A. (2010). Analysis of Human Settlement Patterns. The On-Line Indian Journal of Spatial Science . Silberfein, M. (1989, November). Settlement from and Rural Development :Scattered versus Clustered Settlement. Economic and Social Geography , 80 (5), pp. 258-268. UNHABITAT. (1987). Global Report of Human Settlement. United Nations Center for Human Settlement. A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J
  41. 41. Waiting for Comments…A Study of the Impacts of Jaffna Lagoon Scheme in Human settlement Development Pattern of Jaffna Peninsula 072361 J

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