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Qualitative research study design.

Published in: Education


  1. 1. Phenomenology Tuesday, March 18, 2014 1
  2. 2. Common Types of Qualitative Research Design A research design is a logical model that guides the investigator through the research process. The major qualitative research designs include:  Grounded theory: theory (what happens and why?)  Phenomenology: event  Ethnography: person  Case study: describing experience Tuesday, March 18, 2014 2
  3. 3. Phenomenology Definition  Phenomenology (from Greek: phainómenon "that which appears"; and lógos "study")  Qualitative phenomenological research is to describe a "lived experience" of a phenomenon. • Phenomenology: A philosophy or method of inquiry based on the premise that reality consists of objects and events as they are perceived or understood in human consciousness and not of anything independent of human consciousness.  Describe the essences of lived experience Tuesday, March 18, 2014 3
  4. 4. Cont…  Phenomenology: the study of people‘s conscious experience of their life-world, that is, their ―everyday life and social action‖ (Schram, 2003, p. 71)  Phenomenologists focus on describing what all participants have in common as they experience a phenomenon (e.g., grief is universally experienced).  Study of ―phenomena‖: appearances of things, or things as they appear in our experience, or the ways we experience things, thus the meanings things have in our experience Tuesday, March 18, 2014 4
  5. 5. Cont …  insist on careful description of ordinary conscious experience of everyday life (the life-world)—a description of ‗things‘ (the essential structures of consciousness) as one experiences them.  In qualitative research, phenomenology ―aims to identify and describe the subjective experience of respondents. It is a matter of studying everyday experience from the point of view of the subject, and it shuns critical evaluation of forms of social life. Barritt, et al. (1984)  Lived experience – playing games  Life-world – the everyday world in which games are played Tuesday, March 18, 2014 5
  6. 6. History  First used by Johann Heinrich Lambert - Later used by Immanuel Kant and Johann Gottlieb Fichte  Made popular in 1807 in G. W. F. Hegel‘s book titled Phänomenologie des Geistes (usually translated as Phenomenology of Spirit)  Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) later refined the meaning into more of what we use today. - Phenomena can be studied only subjectively, not objectively—thus phenomenology is a close cousin of existentialism Tuesday, March 18, 2014 6
  7. 7. Assumption  There are essence(s) in shared experience(s) that are the core meanings understood through a phenomenon commonly experiences.  A philosophy without presuppositions – suspend all judgments about what is real.  Intentionality of consciousness – consciousness is always directed toward an object, reality of an object is then related to ones‘ consciousness of it.  Refusal of the subject-object dichotomy – without meaning by subject, no reality of object  Researchers must depict that essence or basic structure of experience - Must suspend prior knowledge &beliefs - helps heighten consciousness Tuesday, March 18, 2014 7
  8. 8. Types of Phenomenology 1) Transcendental constitutive phenomenology studies how objects are constituted in pure or transcendental consciousness, setting aside questions of any relation to the natural world around us. (2) Naturalistic constitutive phenomenology studies how consciousness constitutes or takes things in the world of nature, assuming with the natural attitude that consciousness is part of nature. Tuesday, March 18, 2014 8
  9. 9. Cont… 3) Existential phenomenology studies concrete human existence, including our experience of free choice or action in concrete situations. 4) Generative historicist phenomenology studies how meaning, as found in our experience, is generated in historical processes of collective experience over time. 5) Genetic phenomenology studies the genesis of meanings of things within one's own stream of experience. Tuesday, March 18, 2014 9
  10. 10. Cont… 6) Hermeneutical phenomenology studies interpretive structures of experience, how we understand and engage things around us in our human world, including ourselves and others. 7) Realistic phenomenology studies the structure of consciousness and intentionality, assuming it occurs in a real world that is largely external to consciousness and not somehow brought into being by consciousness. Tuesday, March 18, 2014 10
  11. 11. Characteristics 1. Emphasizes a focus on people's subjective experiences and interpretations of the world 2. Sometimes considered a school of thought or philosophical perspective 3. Wants to understand how the world appears to others 4. Analysis of experience Tuesday, March 18, 2014 11
  12. 12. Methods/Approaches 1. Describe a type of experience just as we find it in our own (past) experience. 2. Interpret a type of experience by relating it to relevant features of context 3. Analyze the form of a type of experience 4. Logico-semantic model: specify the truth conditions for a type of thinking or the satisfaction conditions for a type of intention - i.e., Bears hibernate in the winter - i.e., I intend to get an A in this class Tuesday, March 18, 2014 12
  13. 13. Methods/Approaches… 5. Neurophenomenology: assumes that conscious experience is grounded in neural activity in embodied action in appropriate surroundings - mixes phenomenology with biological and physical science Tuesday, March 18, 2014 13
  14. 14. Procedures to conduct phenomenological research  The researcher determines if the research problem is best examined using a phenomenological approach.  The type of problem best suited for this form of research is one in which it is important to understand several individuals‘ common or shared experiences of a phenomenon.  It would be important to understand these common experiences in order to develop practices or policies, or to develop a deeper understanding about the features of the phenomenon.  A phenomenon of interest to study, such as anger, professionalism, what it means to be underweight, or what it means to be a wrestler, is identified. Tuesday, March 18, 2014 14
  15. 15. Data collection  In-depth interviews (mainly)  Observations  written or oral self-report, or even their aesthetic expressions (e.g. art, narratives, or poetry). Tuesday, March 18, 2014 15
  16. 16. Data Analysis  The first principle of analysis of phenomenological data is to use an emergent strategy, to allow the method of analysis to follow the nature of the data itself. Steps,  Explore your own experiences & set aside your opinions/judgments  Bracket judgments and everyday understandings in order to examine consciousness itself  Phenomenological reduction: revisiting the experience to derive the inner structure/meaning in and of itself  Horizonalization laying out all the data and analyzing it equally - no one thing is more important Tuesday, March 18, 2014 16
  17. 17. Cont… Organize into clusters or themes textural description imaginative variation or structural description, viewing the data from multiple perspectives - seeing different things from different angles  The end product should be ―a composite description that presents the ―essence‖ of the phenomenon, called the essential, invariant structure”Tuesday, March 18, 2014 17
  18. 18. References  resources/research-guidelines/Phenomenological- Research-Guidelines    irstidea.html Tuesday, March 18, 2014 18