Poetry• In Western civilization the oral tradition was how stories were told and preserved. This is the origin of poetry.• Poems always have themes. Love has been the preeminent theme throughout history.• Poetry in the earlier centuries had very strict conventions (closed-verse) when it came to rhyme and rhythm• In the 19th century more open forms of poetry emerged.• In the 20th century free verse dominated poetry and continues to today though some poets are returning to stricter formats.
Scansion• Scansion is the act of scanning a line of poetry• Each unit of stressed and unstressed syllable is a foot• The meter (formal rhythm) of a poem is signaled by the type of foot it employs and the number of feet in each line: 4 (tetrameter), 5 (pentameter), 6 (hexameter), 7 (heptameter) feet are the most common• Most poems employ a single meter throughout with specific feet to create emphasis• Scansion is relevant in the analysis of poems of a certain genre, by a specific author, from a certain time period as it is a way of identifying a pattern within a work (as discussed in the last lesson about Critical Reading)
Poetic Rhymes• Seen often in closed-verse• Emerged in the Middle Ages. Latin and Greek were based on meter.• End-rhyme is what we see most often in poems and songs• Masculine rhyme – Final syllables of an exact rhyme are stressed and identical – Short and Sort – Long and Throng• Feminine rhyme – Unstressed syllable rhyming with stressed syllable – Explicit and Visit• Triple rhyme – Final three syllables are identical – Merrily and Verily• Half or off-rhyme – Only final consonant rhymes exactly – Ill able and Syllable
Other Poetic Rhymes• Eye rhyme – Appears to rhyme based on spelling but pronounced differently – Plow and Blow• Internal rhyme – Two words in a line rhyming – I went home to find my comb• Alliteration – Repetition of initial sounds – Amazing America – Incredible India – Always asleep• Assonance – Repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonants – Coop, comb• Consonance – Repetition of consonant sound with different vowel sound – Come to my arms my beamish boys
Unrhymed Forms• Blank verse – epic poetry, mirrors the pattern of natural speech• Haiku, Tanka, Japanese poetry – determined solely by syllables• Free verse – enormous range of choice• Prose poem – visual appearance of prose but has poetic aspects
Analyzing Poetry• Poetic rhythm is identified by the meter of the lines• Structure of stanzas (groupings of lines)• Parse sentences of poem• Analyze adherence of diversion from poetic convention• Meter has a more subliminal effect affecting our feelings towards the tone of a poem• Rhyme and repetition can be more obvious and overt in their aesthetic and oral effect
Fiction• Artistic depiction of facts that may be real or completely imagined.• Classified by Genre (science fiction, romance) and by Length (novel, short story)• Common forms of fiction – Short Story – Novella – Novel
Elements of Fiction• Plot – Events which occur, motivation and driving force of the story• Character• Narration – Reliable Narrator – Unreliable Narrator – Different Points of View • First Person • Second Person • Third Person• Setting – Time period – Physical location and environment
Diction/Word Choice• Exercise – Asked vs. Interrogated – Existence vs. Life – Said vs. Declared – Dad vs. Father• Meaning and context – Father instead of Dad in a fight scene – what would that indicate?