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Interview method in research

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Methods in Research: This Presentation is helpful for Commerce Students studying at Bachelor's and Master's Level. Beneficial more for Indian Universities. Topic includes: What is Interview, Structured and Unstructured Interview, Questionnaire Method, Structured and Unstructured Questionnaire, Difference between questionnaire and schedule

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Interview method in research

  1. 1. Presented By: Talwinder Singh www.slideshare.net/singhts1234
  2. 2. Interview is the verbal conversation between two people with the objective of collecting relevant information for the purpose of research. Interview are a standard part of qualitative research. The main task of interviewing is to understand the meaning of what the interviewee says. In this method the interviewer personally meets the informants and asks necessary questions to them regarding the subject of enquiry.
  3. 3.  Interview are a personal form of research .  In personal interview, interviewer works directly with interviewee.  Interviewer has the opportunity to probe or ask follow up questions.  Interviews are time consuming .  Interview provide an opportunity of face to face interaction between two persons; hence they reduce conflicts
  4. 4.  1. Personal Interview  2. Telephone Interview  3. Focus Group Interview  4. Depth Interview
  5. 5.  This is also known as formal interview . The questions are in a set/standardized order and the interviewer will not deviate from the interview schedule or probe beyond the answers received . These are based on structured , closed ended questions.
  6. 6. 1. 1.Easy to replicate as fixed set of closed questions are used . 2. 2.Interview can take place within a shot amount of time 1.Structured interview are not flexible. 2. Lack detail as only closed questions are asked which generates quantitative data .  STRENGTHS  LIMITATIONS
  7. 7.  They are sometimes called informal interviews . An interview schedule might not be used, and even if used, that can be asked open ended questions that can be asked in any order. Some questions might be added/missed as the interview progresses.  The chief feature of the unstructured interview is the idea of probe questions that are designed to be as open as possible.
  8. 8. 1. 1. More flexible. 2. 2. Generate qualitative data through use of open questions. 3. 3. Increased validity 1. 1. It can be time consuming to conduct an unstructured interview . 2. 2.Expensive . 3.  STRENGTHS  LIMITATIONS
  9. 9.  In this method information can be gathered from illiterate people too.  There are no chances of non-response as the interviewer personally collects data.  The collected data is very reliable since the interviewer tactfully collects the data by cross examining the responders
  10. 10.  There is a chance of bias.  The informants may not answer some personal questions.  It is a time-consuming process.  Money and manpower requirements are very high.  Some time the interviewers are involved in pressurising respondents to share their personal information.
  11. 11.  Techniques of data collection in which each person is asked to respond to the same set of questions in a predetermined order.  Questionnaire is sent to persons with request to answer the question and return the questionnaire.  Questionnaire can be sent through- 1. Postal 2. Internet (e-mail, forum) 3. Manual delivery and collection
  12. 12. Stages that must occur if a question is to be valid and reliable
  13. 13.  It must look easy, attractive and interesting.  Keep it as uncomplicated as possible.  Clarity of wording.  Simplicity of design.  Simple, short and clear instructions for completion.  Avoid placing instructions at the bottom of a page.  Break down long lists of numbered items into separate sections, each item in the section starting with the number ‘1’.  Include a preliminary statement of anonymity/confidentiality.  Place response categories to the immediate right of the text.
  14. 14.  Structured questions are our workhorse. This question line relies on closed-ended categories pre-selected by the research.
  15. 15. a) Have definite and concrete questions. b) Is prepared well in advance. c) Initiates a formal inquiry. d) Supplements and checks the data, previously accumulated. e) Used in studies of the economics and the social problems, studies of the administrative policies and changes etc.
  16. 16. Unstructured Questionnaires are usually formulated around open questions. Open questions may give more valid data, as respondents can say what is important to them and express it in their own words. However, the data is difficult to measure, and understanding is required when using the data. Coding of the answers (putting them into categories) alters the actual replies given by respondents by linking responses that are not identical.
  17. 17. a) Used at the time of the interview. b) Acts as the guide for the interviewer. c) Is very flexible in working. d) Used in studies related to the group of families or those relating to the personal experiences, beliefs etc.
  18. 18.  Economical  Wide range  Rapidity  Suitable in special type of responses  An easier method  Uniformity  It put less pressure on respondent
  19. 19.  Limited responses  Lack of personal contact  Poor responses  Unreliability  Incomplete entries  Possibility of manipulated entries  Useless in depth studies  Not suitable for delicate situations
  20. 20. Questionnaire is generally sent through mail to informants to be answered as specified in a covering letter, but otherwise without further assistance from the sender. Data collection is cheap and economical as the money is spent in preparation of questionnaire and in mailing the same to respondents. A schedule is generally filled by the research worker or enumerator, who can interpret the questions when necessary. Data collection is more expensive as money is spent on enumerators and in imparting trainings to them. Money is also spent in preparing schedules.  QUESTIONNAIRE  SCHEDULE
  21. 21. Wider and more representative distribution of sample is possible. Risk of collecting incomplete and wrong information is relatively more under the questionnaire method, when people are unable to understand questions properly. There remains the difficulty in sending enumerators over a relatively wider area. The information collected is generally complete and accurate as enumerators can remove difficulties if any faced by respondents in correctly understanding the questions.  QUESTIONNAIRE  SCHEDULE
  22. 22. The questionnaire method is likely to be very slow since many respondents do not return the questionnaire. No personal contact is possible in case of questionnaire as the questionnaires are sent to respondents by post who also in turn returns the same by post. Information is collected well in time as they are filled by enumerators. Direct personal contact is established.  QUESTIONNAIRE  SCHEDULE
  23. 23. Non response is usually high as many people do not respond and many return the questionnaire without answering all questions. Bias due to non response often remains indeterminate. This method can be used only when respondents are literate and cooperative. Non response is very low because this is filled by enumerators who are able to get answers to all questions. But even in this their remains the danger of interviewer bias and cheating. The information can be gathered even when the respondents happen to be illiterate.  QUESTIONNAIRE  SCHEDULE

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