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Printer & scanner by sanyam s.saini (me regular)

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Printers
   &
Scanners
           Presented By-
       Er. Sanyam S. Saini
          ME (I&CE) (Regular)
                2012-14
Printer

• Printer is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked
  surface resting upon a medium such as paper or cloth, thereby
  transferring an image.

• A printer is used to transfer data from a computer onto paper. The
  paper copy obtained from a printer is often referred as printout
• An external hardware device responsible for taking computer data
  and generating a hard copy of that data.
• Printers are one of the most commonly used peripherals and they
  print text and still images on the paper.
Printer & scanner by sanyam s.saini (me regular)
Impact Printer


• These printers have a
  mechanism that touches the
  paper to create an image.
• These printers work by
  banging a print head
  containing a number of metal
  pins which strike an inked
  ribbon placed between the
  print head and the paper.
Non-Impact Printer



• These printers create an
  image on the print medium
  without the use of force.
• They don’t touch the paper
  while creating an image.
• Non-impact printers are much
  quieter than impact printers
  as they don’t strike the paper.
Dot-Matrix Printer
•    The term dot matrix refers to the
     process of placing dots to form an
     image.
•    Its speed is usually 30 to 550
     characters per second (cps).
•    This is the cheapest and the most noisy
     printer and has a low print quality.
•    Dot Matrix were 1st introduced by
     Centronics in 1970.

    How it works:-
•    The dot matrix forms images one character at a time as the print head moves
     across the paper.
•     Uses tiny pins to hit an ink ribbon and the paper much as a typewriter does.
•     This printer arranges dots to form characters and all kinds of images.
•    9 to 24 vertical column pins are contained in a rectangular print head. When
     print head moves across the paper, pins are activated to form a dotted
     character image. These printers can produce carbon copies along with the
     originals.

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Printer & scanner by sanyam s.saini (me regular)

  • 1. Printers & Scanners Presented By- Er. Sanyam S. Saini ME (I&CE) (Regular) 2012-14
  • 2. Printer • Printer is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium such as paper or cloth, thereby transferring an image. • A printer is used to transfer data from a computer onto paper. The paper copy obtained from a printer is often referred as printout • An external hardware device responsible for taking computer data and generating a hard copy of that data. • Printers are one of the most commonly used peripherals and they print text and still images on the paper.
  • 4. Impact Printer • These printers have a mechanism that touches the paper to create an image. • These printers work by banging a print head containing a number of metal pins which strike an inked ribbon placed between the print head and the paper.
  • 5. Non-Impact Printer • These printers create an image on the print medium without the use of force. • They don’t touch the paper while creating an image. • Non-impact printers are much quieter than impact printers as they don’t strike the paper.
  • 6. Dot-Matrix Printer • The term dot matrix refers to the process of placing dots to form an image. • Its speed is usually 30 to 550 characters per second (cps). • This is the cheapest and the most noisy printer and has a low print quality. • Dot Matrix were 1st introduced by Centronics in 1970. How it works:- • The dot matrix forms images one character at a time as the print head moves across the paper. • Uses tiny pins to hit an ink ribbon and the paper much as a typewriter does. • This printer arranges dots to form characters and all kinds of images. • 9 to 24 vertical column pins are contained in a rectangular print head. When print head moves across the paper, pins are activated to form a dotted character image. These printers can produce carbon copies along with the originals.
  • 7. Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages Dis-advantages (1) In-expensive. (1) Noisy (2) Low per page cost. (2) Low resolution (3) Energy efficient. (3) Limited fonts flexibility (4) Poor quality graphics output.
  • 8. Daisy Wheel Printer • A daisy wheel printer is basically an impact printer consisting of a wheel and attached extensions on which molded metal characters are mounted. • A daisy wheel printer produces letter quality print and it can’t produce graphics output. How it works:- • In a daisy wheel printer, a hammer presses the wheel against a ribbon which in turn makes an ink stain on the paper in the form of a character mounted on the wheel extensions. • These printers are very noisy as there occur great movement during the printing. Its printing speed is also very slow ,i.e. less than 90cps.
  • 9. Ink-Jet Printer • It is a non-impact printer producing a high quality print. A standard Inkjet printer has a resolution of 300dpi. • Newer models have further improved dpi. • Inkjet printers were introduced in the later half of 1980s and are very popular owing to their extra-ordinary performance. How it works:- • Print head having four ink cartridges moves . • Software instructs where to apply dots of ink, which color and what quantity to use. • Electrical pulses are sent to the resistors behind each nozzle. • Vapor bubbles of ink are formed by resistors and the ink is forced to the paper through nozzles. • A matrix of dots forms characters and pictures.
  • 10. Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages Dis-advantages (1) High resolution output. (1) Expensive. (2) Energy efficient. (2) Special paper required for (3) Many options to select. higher resolution output. (3) Time consuming in case of graphics printing.
  • 11. Thermal Printer • Thermal printers are in- expensive printers mostly used in fax machines. The Thermal printers are further classified into two types. (1) Electro thermal printers: (2) Thermal Wax printers: How it works:- • Thermal printers use heated pins and ribbons with different color bands. • These printers contain a stick of wax like ink. The ribbon passes in front of a print head that has a series of tiny heated pins. • The pins cause the wax to melt and adhere to the paper and when temperature reaches to a certain level, it is hardened.
  • 12. Laser Printer • Laser printers use very advanced technology and produce a high quality output. • Laser printers can also produce high quality graphics images. • Resolution is 600 to 1200dpi. How it works:- • The OPC first must be charged before it will accept the image. A special roller called the “Charging roller” applies the electrostatic charge uniformly across the OPC . • After the full width of an area of the OPC gets it charged, it rotates in front of the modulated light beam. • To form a visible image, a “developing roller” then dusts the OPC drum with particles of tonner. • The printer rolls the paper between the OPC drum & transfer roller , which has strong electrostatic charge that attract the tonner off the drum.
  • 13. Laser Printer • To make image permanent , the printer squeezee the paper between fuser & backup roller. • Cleaning blade scrapes any leftover toner from it.
  • 14. Multi-function Printer • A multi function printer abbreviated as MFP is an all purpose device that prints, faxes, copies and scans. • A single multi function printer can replace several bulky devices. • A multi function printer is also known as AIO. • These printers use inkjet technology and provide high quality print but at slow speed.
  • 15. Plotter • A large scale printer which is very accurate in producing engineering drawings and architectural blueprints. • Two types of plotters are flatbed and drum. • Flatbed plotters are horizontally aligned while drum plotters are vertically positioned.
  • 16. Different Printer & their Speed S.No Type Mode of Printing Speed Dot- Prints the character in dotted 200/300 to 1. Matrix pattern through ribbon using 700 CPS either 24 pin or 9 pin 2. Ink-jet Slow , 90 Works by spraying ionized ink CPS 3. Also called page printer. Uses Laser 6 to 12 PPM laser beam to produce an image. Produces drawing or graph 4. Plotter through pens which are filled ----- with different colours. CPS = Characters per Second; PPM = Page per Minute
  • 17. Features of Printers (1) Near typeset quality: • A Lower quality print similar to the output of a type-writer. (2) Letter quality: • Print made up by fully formed (solid line) characters. (3) Near letter quality: • A print of high quality formed by multiple passes of print head over the same letter. (4) Standard quality: • A high quality print formed by a single pass of the print head. (5) Draft quality: • A print formed with minimum number of dots or lines and are smaller than the standard quality characters.
  • 18. Factors Affecting Printing Quality DPI: • It is a measurement of printer’s resolution indicating how many ink dots can be placed by the printer in one square inch. The higher the DPI, the sharper is image. Type of printer: • Each type of printer has its own capabilities of printing. Some types of printers produce high quality print while other produce low quality print. Print Mode: • The printing mode may also affect the quality. For example the draft mode increases the print rate but quality is reduced. Toner: • The quality and amount of toner also affects print quality.
  • 19. Scanners • To convert an existing drawing or photograph into electronic form. • Scanner has a linear array of sensors, charge-coupled devices (CCD), squeezed together hundreds per inch in a narrow strip that stretches across the full width • This line of sensors registers a single, thin line of the image at a time. • Circuitry inside the scanner reads each sensing element one by one in order, and creates a string of serial data representing the brightness of each point in each individual scan line. • Once the scanner collects and arranges the data of one line, it advances to read the next line.
  • 20. Types of Scanners Drum Scanner or Page Scanner • The image sensor to move across a fixed original • Drum scanner uses a linear array so that a single spin of the drum covers the entire image • Paper wraps around a rotating drum that spins the image past a sensor string that’s fixed in place inside the machine. • Moderate in price • Compact in size, because their mechanisms are relatively simple. • Only certain sizes of paper may be accepted
  • 21. Types of Scanners Flat Bed Scanners • Moves its line-up of sensors down the sheet. • Flat glass surface on which the item be scanned mused be placed • Flat bed scanners have precision mechanisms that step the sensors or image, a small increment at a time, each increment representing a single scan line. • Movement of the mechanism, which is carefully controlled by the electronics of the scanner, determines the width of each line. • Books, magazines, sections of poster can be scanned
  • 22. Types of Scanners • T shaped hand scanner dragged across the image to be scanned • A string of sensors peers through a plastic window to register the image • Speed at which the hand is moved makes a whole lot of difference • Most hand scanners have a roller that presses down against the image to sense how fast the scanner is dragged. • Compact, easy to carry and quick in using • Adapt to non-flat surfaces and three dimensional objects
  • 23. Types of Scanners Video Scanner • Electronic equivalent of a photographic copy stand • Operates like a camera- captures the entire image in a single look. • Uses a conventional video camera to capture an image. • Fast in operation, but low quality • Video scanners require a CCD element for every pixel they scan, and affordable two-dimensional CCD arrays have only a few hundred thousand pixels. • Resolution- pixels across the entire the image.
  • 24. Types of Scanners Photo Scanners • Special purpose devices aimed at capturing digital images from photographic prints. • A flat bed scanner can do this, but it will be quicker and easier with a dedicated device. • A transmissive scanner rather than reflective Slide Scanners • It registers the light that is transmitted through an image • Source of illumination is on one side and the image sensor is on the other • The image must be on a transparent medium
  • 25. Features of Scanners Colour • Gray scale scanner are able to see only levels of brightness. • Innately simpler, often faster and lower in cost. • Monochrome Scanners are sufficient for some applications Scanning Speed • Earliest color scanners were three-pass machines, one pass for each of the primary colours. • Modern scanners use one-pass designs. They have a single light source and rely on filtering to sort out the colors • Pre-scan, relatively quick, low resulting pass across the image, establishing the brightness range and target a specific area for scanning. Then the actual scan at the required resolution. • The interface used by a scanner influences the speed of scans – a slow interface constricts the flow of huge amount of data.
  • 26. Features of Scanners Dynamic Range • The compass of colors a scanner can discern is the scanner’s dynamic range. • Bit-depth - Number of bits needed to digitally encode the total color capacity. • 256 (8-bit), 1024 (10-bit), 4096 (12-bit) brightness levels in each primary color. • Bit-depth specifies the range of A-D converters that convert the level detected by the scanner’s CCD sensors into digital signals. • 8 bit to 24 bit color means the computer can display 256 to 16.7 million different hues
  • 27. Features of Scanners D-max • The maximum image density that the scanner can handle. • D-max indicates how dense an image can be before the scanner can no longer distinguish the light shining through it. • Any part of an image that’s more dense than the scanner’s D-max rating, blocks up as solid black. D-max = log (incident light/transmitted light) • D-max of best slide scanners is 4.2. That means they can detect light that’s diminished by a factor of more than 10000.
  • 28. Features of Scanners Resolution • Smallest step that the sensor can advance. • Resolution of a minimal scanner is about 300 dots per inch - 600, 1200, 2400 dpi. • Represents the limit of the quality the scanner hardware is able to resolve - hardware resolution. • Interpolated resolution – control software of the scanner computes additional dots in between those that are actually scanned, and thus pushes the claimed resolution to 4800 or 9600 dpi. • Adds no more information to the scan • The greater number of dots reduces the jaggedness or stair-stepping in the scan and makes lines looks smoother.
  • 29. Features of Scanners Light Sources • Drum and Flatbed scanners – one or three cold cathode tubes • Hand held Scanners – Light emitting diodes • Slide scanners – source of transmitted light built in – transparency adapter
  • 30. Optical Character Recognition • OCR software can convert into word processor, data base or spreadsheet files. • Matrix matching – small parts of each bit image it scanned is compared to a library of bit patterns. • It must be tuned to the particular typeface and type size scanned. • Depends on the regular spacing between characters to determine the size and shape of the character matrix. • A matrix-matching OCR system must have either an enormous library of bit patterns or the system must be limited to matching a few typestyles and fonts.
  • 31. Features of Scanners Feature matching – analyze each bit pattern that is scanned. • It derives the essential features of the character from the pattern of bits – an up slope, a peak, and a down slope. In that every letter has the same characteristic features. • No need to know the size or font of the characters it is to recognize. • No need of elaborate library of bit patterns. Sheet Feeders • Primarily used for OCR applications • Automatically runs each sheet of a multiple page document through a scanner.
  • 32. Interfacing Electrical Interfacing Six different interfaces designs: 1. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI), 2. General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB), 3. Standard serial, 4. Parallel, 5. USB, 6. Proprietary. • Almost all current products rely on parallel, SCSI, or USB connections. • Parallel models plug into legacy printer ports. • Easy to plug in and get work done. • Inexpensive, but slow performance. • SCSI Interface is the fastest and easy to work with. • A SCSI port is required. SCSI based scanners have their own SCSI host adapters and cables.
  • 33. Interfacing Application Interfacing Twain, released in 1992, is a scanner software interface standard developed by a consortium of scanner and software makers. • Twain is not an acronym, it derives from making the twain (two) meet, i.e. applications and scanners • Twain stands for “Technology Without An Interesting Name” • Interface which brings together two entities, applications and input devices. • Twain links programs and scanner hardware, giving software writers a standard set of function calls by which to control the features of any scanner. • Twain defines its hardware interface as its Source. • Source is hardware or firmware in a scanner that controls the information that flows from the scanner into Twain. • The software links to the Twain source through Source Manager, which is a set of program calls.
  • 34. Conclusion Before scanning any image consider: 1. what format you want (black & white, grayscale or color) 2. the resolution 3. preliminary scan is made to define the image area and dynamic range. 4. make the final scan 5. before scanning, how to adjust the image with the graphic software you use 6. crop off unwanted areas 7. shaper or soften the details 8. fine tune. 9. save the image for later use.
  • 35. Questions asked in Previous Examination 1. Enlist different types of Scanners & explain their characteristics , advantages, & disadvantages. (M.Imp) 2. Enlist different types of printers and explain the working of Laser printer . (M.Imp) 3. Write short notes on printers & scanners.