Actuators      Presented by:-    Er. Sanyam S. Saini      ME (I&CE) (Regular)            2012-14
Outlines Introduction to Actuators. Classification of Actuators Pneumatic Actuators & Classifications-              (i)...
Introduction to Actuators. An actuator is something that actuates or moves something. An actuator is a device that cover...
Introduction to Actuators An actuator is that creates motion in a straight line, as  contrasted with circular motion of a...
Classification of Actuators Pneumatic Hydraulic Electrical/Electronic3/17/2013                5           Er. Sanyam S....
Pneumatic Actuators3/17/2013            6            Er. Sanyam S. Saini
Pneumatic Actuators A set of devices into with one or more pneumoengines, which  are determined to start mechanisms or so...
Basic Construction                                                 1 1 cushion seal                                      2...
Types of Pneumatic Actuator Pneumatic actuators are made in a wide variety of sizes, styles and  types including the foll...
Single acting spring return           Single acting cylinders have a power stroke in one direction only               No...
Double acting  Double acting cylinders use compressed air to power both the   outstroke and instroke.  Superior speed co...
Advantages of Pneumatic                  Actuators. Simplicity of realization relatively to small back and forth  motions...
Disadvantages of Pneumatic              Actuators. Compressibility of the air ; Impossibility to receive uniform and con...
Hydraulic Actuator3/17/2013           14           Er. Sanyam S. Saini
Introduction A hydraulic drive system is a drive or transmission system that  uses pressurized hydraulic fluid to drive h...
Working Principle of Hydraulic           Actuator            Pascal’s Law Pressure applied to a confined fluid at any poi...
Construction of Hydraulic Actuator       A hydraulic drive system consists of three parts:      1.Generator (e.g. a hydra...
Hydraulic Actuator Parts of a typical cylinder3/17/2013                18      Er. Sanyam S. Saini
Working of Hydraulic                 Actuators Hydraulic actuators or hydraulic cylinders typically involve a  hollow cyl...
Classifications of Hydraulic                  Actuator Cylinders are typically classified by operating principle or by  c...
Hydraulic Actuator Single- and Double-Acting Cylinders            Single-acting        Double-acting3/17/2013            ...
Hydraulic Actuator Tie-Rod Cylinder3/17/2013            22          Er. Sanyam S. Saini
Hydraulic Actuator Mill cylinders3/17/2013           23           Er. Sanyam S. Saini
Hydraulic Actuator Threaded-end cylinder3/17/2013             24         Er. Sanyam S. Saini
Advantages of Hydraulic                   Actuators Infinitely variable control of gear-ratio in a wide range and an  opp...
Disadvantages of Hydraulic                    Actuators Efficiency of a volumetric hydraulic actuator is a little bit  lo...
Applications of Hydraulic                   Actuators3/17/2013               27          Er. Sanyam S. Saini
Electrical Actuators3/17/2013            28            Er. Sanyam S. Saini
Introduction An electrical motor is an Transducer & an Actuator because it  converts electrical current into a large magn...
Classification of Electrical                     Actuators  Solenoid  Electrical Motors  Stepping Motors3/17/2013      ...
Solenoid Simple form of electromagnet that  consists of a wire bobbin of isolated  copper, or of another appropiate  cond...
Electric Motors  Electromechanical device that converts electrical energy to   mechanical energy  The physical principle...
Electric Motors                                  Electric Motors            Alternating Current                       Dire...
Applications3/17/2013        34        Er. Sanyam S. Saini
Thank You3/17/2013      43       Er. Sanyam S. Saini
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Actuators er.sanyam s. saini (me regular)

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Actuators er.sanyam s. saini (me regular)

  1. 1. Actuators Presented by:- Er. Sanyam S. Saini ME (I&CE) (Regular) 2012-14
  2. 2. Outlines Introduction to Actuators. Classification of Actuators Pneumatic Actuators & Classifications- (i). Introduction; (iv). Working ; (ii). working Principle; (v). Advantages & Disadvantages; (iii). Construction; (vi). Applications Hydraulic actuators & Classifications- - (i). Introduction; (iv). Working ; (ii). working Principle; (v). Advantages & Disadvantages; (iii). Construction; (vi). Applications Electrical Actuators & Classifications- - (i). Introduction; (iv). Working ; (ii). working Principle; (v). Advantages & Disadvantages; (iii). Construction; (vi). Applications3/17/2013 2 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  3. 3. Introduction to Actuators. An actuator is something that actuates or moves something. An actuator is a device that coverts an input energy into motion or mechanical energy. The input energy of actuators can be “manual” (e.g., levers and jacks), hydraulic or pneumatic (e.g., pistons and valves), thermal (e.g., bimetallic switches or levers), and electric (e.g., motors and resonators). Actuators are final element in a control system. The actuator was discovered by Logan in 1969.3/17/2013 3 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  4. 4. Introduction to Actuators An actuator is that creates motion in a straight line, as contrasted with circular motion of a conventional electric motor. Linear actuators are used in machine tools and industrial machinery, in computer peripherals such as disk drives and printers, in valves and dampers, and in many other places where linear motion is required. Hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders inherently produce linear motion; many other mechanisms are used to provide a linear motion from a rotating motor3/17/2013 4 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  5. 5. Classification of Actuators Pneumatic Hydraulic Electrical/Electronic3/17/2013 5 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  6. 6. Pneumatic Actuators3/17/2013 6 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  7. 7. Pneumatic Actuators A set of devices into with one or more pneumoengines, which are determined to start mechanisms or some other objects by means of pressed working gas is called pneumatic actuator, or pneumoactuator. The devices intended for transformation of potential and kinetic energy of the stream of compressed gas in mechanical energy of the output link that can be, for example, a rod of the piston, a shaft of the turbine or the case of the jet device is called pneumatic engines of the automated actuator. They are devices providing power and motion to automated systems, machines and processes. A pneumatic cylinder is a simple, low cost, easy to install device that is ideal for producing powerful linear movement. 3/17/2013 7 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  8. 8. Basic Construction 1 1 cushion seal 2 2 magnet 14 3 4 3 cushion sleeve 5 4 barrel 6 5 guide bush 6 rod and wiper seal 7 front end cover 8 front port 9 reed switch10 piston rod 1311 wear ring 1212 piston seal 1113 rear end cover 1014 cushion screw 9 8 7 3/17/2013 8 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  9. 9. Types of Pneumatic Actuator Pneumatic actuators are made in a wide variety of sizes, styles and types including the following Single acting with and without spring return Double acting Rod less Rotary Clamping Bellows3/17/2013 9 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  10. 10. Single acting spring return Single acting cylinders have a power stroke in one direction only  Normally in  Normally out3/17/2013 10 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  11. 11. Double acting  Double acting cylinders use compressed air to power both the outstroke and instroke.  Superior speed control is possible  Non cushioned cylinders are suitable for full stroke working at slow speed.  Higher speeds with external cushions.3/17/2013 11 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  12. 12. Advantages of Pneumatic Actuators. Simplicity of realization relatively to small back and forth motions; Sophisticated transfer mechanisms are not required; Low cost; High speed of moving; Ease at reversion movements; Tolerance to overloads, up to a full stop; High reliability of work; Explosion and fire safety; Ecological purity; Ability to accumulation and transportation.3/17/2013 12 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  13. 13. Disadvantages of Pneumatic Actuators. Compressibility of the air ; Impossibility to receive uniform and constant speed of the working bodies movement ; Difficulties in performance at slow speed; Limited conditions - use of compressed air is beneficial up to the definite values of pressure; Compressed air requires good preparation3/17/2013 13 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  14. 14. Hydraulic Actuator3/17/2013 14 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  15. 15. Introduction A hydraulic drive system is a drive or transmission system that uses pressurized hydraulic fluid to drive hydraulic machinery. The term "hydraulic actuator" refers to a device controlled by a hydraulic pump. A familiar example of a manually operated hydraulic actuator is a hydraulic car jack. Typically though, Principle Used in Hydraulic Actuator System3/17/2013 15 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  16. 16. Working Principle of Hydraulic Actuator Pascal’s Law Pressure applied to a confined fluid at any point is transmitted undiminished and equally throughout the fluid in all directions and acts upon every part of the confining vessel at right angles to its interior surfaces. Amplification of Force Since pressure P applied on an area A gives rise to a force F, given as, F=P A Thus, if a force is applied over a small area to cause a pressure P in a confined fluid, the force generated on a larger area can be made many times larger than the applied force that crated the pressure. This principle is used in various hydraulic devices to such hydraulic press to generate very high forces.3/17/2013 16 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  17. 17. Construction of Hydraulic Actuator A hydraulic drive system consists of three parts: 1.Generator (e.g. a hydraulic pump), driven by an electric motor, 2. Combustion engine or a windmill; valves, filters, piping etc. (to guide and control the system) 3. Motor (e.g. a hydraulic motor or hydraulic cylinder) to drive the machinery.3/17/2013 17 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  18. 18. Hydraulic Actuator Parts of a typical cylinder3/17/2013 18 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  19. 19. Working of Hydraulic Actuators Hydraulic actuators or hydraulic cylinders typically involve a hollow cylinder having a piston inserted in it. An unbalanced pressure applied to the piston provides force that can move an external object. Since liquids are nearly incompressible, a hydraulic cylinder can provide controlled precise linear displacement of the piston. The displacement is only along the axis of the piston. The piston forms sealed, variable-volume chambers in the cylinder System fluid forced into the chambers drives the piston and rod assembly Linear movement is produced3/17/2013 19 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  20. 20. Classifications of Hydraulic Actuator Cylinders are typically classified by operating principle or by construction type – Single-acting or double-acting – Tie rod, mill, threaded end, or one piece Single-acting cylinders exert force either on extension or retraction. They require an outside force to complete the second motion Double-acting cylinders generate force during both extension and retraction – Directional control valve alternately directs fluid to opposite sides of the piston – Force output varies between extension and retraction3/17/2013 20 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  21. 21. Hydraulic Actuator Single- and Double-Acting Cylinders Single-acting Double-acting3/17/2013 21 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  22. 22. Hydraulic Actuator Tie-Rod Cylinder3/17/2013 22 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  23. 23. Hydraulic Actuator Mill cylinders3/17/2013 23 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  24. 24. Hydraulic Actuator Threaded-end cylinder3/17/2013 24 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  25. 25. Advantages of Hydraulic Actuators Infinitely variable control of gear-ratio in a wide range and an opportunity to create the big reduction ratio; Small specific weight, i.e. the weight of a hydro actuator is in ratio to transmitted capacity (2-3 kg / kWt); Opportunity of simple and reliable protection of the engine from overloads; Small sluggishness of the rotating parts, providing fast change of operating modes (startup, dispersal, a reverser, a stop); Simplicity of transformation of rotary movement into reciprocating one; Opportunity of positioning a hydraulic engine on removal (distance) from an energy source and freedom in making configuration. 3/17/2013 25 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  26. 26. Disadvantages of Hydraulic Actuators Efficiency of a volumetric hydraulic actuator is a little bit lower, than efficiency of mechanical and electric transfers, and during regulation it is reduced; Conditions of operation of a hydraulic actuator (temperature) influence its characteristics; Efficiency of a hydraulic actuator is a little reduced in the process of exhaustion of its resource owing to the increase in backlashes and the increase of outflow of liquid (falling of volumetric efficiency); Sensitivity to pollution of working liquid and necessity of high culture service.3/17/2013 26 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  27. 27. Applications of Hydraulic Actuators3/17/2013 27 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  28. 28. Electrical Actuators3/17/2013 28 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  29. 29. Introduction An electrical motor is an Transducer & an Actuator because it converts electrical current into a large magnetic field which then turns a shaft. (Mechanical energy) All electric motors use electromagnetic induction to generate a force on a rotational element called the rotor. The torque required to rotate the rotor is created due to the interaction of magnetic fields generated by the rotor, and the part surrounding it, which is fixed, and called the stator. 3/17/2013 29 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  30. 30. Classification of Electrical Actuators  Solenoid  Electrical Motors  Stepping Motors3/17/2013 30 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  31. 31. Solenoid Simple form of electromagnet that consists of a wire bobbin of isolated copper, or of another appropiate conductor, who is coiled in spiral around the surface of a cylindrical body, generally with transverse circular section. When the electrical current is sent across these wound, they act as electromagnet. The created magnetic field is the motive force used to open the valve.3/17/2013 31 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  32. 32. Electric Motors  Electromechanical device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy  The physical principle of all electric motors is that when an electric current is passed through a conductor (usually a coil of wire) placed within a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the wire causing it to move.  Mechanical energy used to e.g.  Rotate pump impeller, fan, blower  Drive compressors  Lift materials  Motors in industry: 70% of electrical load3/17/2013 32 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  33. 33. Electric Motors Electric Motors Alternating Current Direct Current (DC) (AC) Motors MotorsSynchronous Induction Separately Self Excited ExcitedSingle-Phase Three-Phase Series Compound Shunt3/17/2013 33 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  34. 34. Applications3/17/2013 34 Er. Sanyam S. Saini
  35. 35. Thank You3/17/2013 43 Er. Sanyam S. Saini

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