ISPER - 7th National Seminar_5th-6th April, 2013


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Presentation on Spatial planning Structure prepared by Former President ITPI, Chief Town Planner & Head T&CP Dept., Govt. of Pb. and Professor of Physical Planning, Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar Punjab in National Seminar Organised by ISPER, Amravati Enclave, Panchkula Haryana on 5th-6th April, 2013

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ISPER - 7th National Seminar_5th-6th April, 2013

  1. 1. SPATIAL PLANNING STRUCTURE EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: ECO-TOWNSHIPS REAL ESTATE AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT BY Prof. Jagjit Singh Ghuman Former President ITPI, Chief Town Planner & Head T & CP Dept. Govt. of Pb. and Professor of Physical Planning, Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar Punjab.
  2. 2. PLANET EARTH Pawan Guru, Pani Pita, Mata Dhart Mahat, Diwas Raat Doye Dayi Dayeya, Kheley Sagal Jagat Life on Earth • Planet Earth is the only place in our Solar System where life is known. • It is home to 1.5 million distinct life forms and more are being discovered all the time. • Earth is just far enough away from the Sun for liquid water and life to exist. If it were any closer, Earth would be too hot, any further away and it would be too cold. • More than 70 per cent of Earth is covered in water. • Earth has just the right temperature for its water to be liquid. • Mercury and Venus are too hot, and their water has evaporated. • Most of Mars’ water is frozen beneath its surface.
  3. 3. GEO-PHYSICAL GLOBAL SPATIAL STRUCTURE Global Land Surface Area 148,940,000 (29.2%) The global land surface area is 148,940,000 KM2 (29.2 %) and constitutes 1/4th of the global surface area excluding oceans & seas. It is estimated that only 1/8th of the total land resource is suitable for human habitation—and half of the land area is either desert (14%), high mountains (27%), or other less suitable terrain. The land-based ecosystem depends upon topsoil and fresh water, and the oceanic ecosystem depends upon dissolved nutrients washed down from the land. The estimated amount of irrigated land in 1993 was 2,481,250 km2.The land is also used for building & to construct shelters. In 1993, habitable use of land is approximately is as follows: Land Use Percentage Arable Land Permanent Crops Permanent pastures Forests and woodland Urban areas Other 13.13% 4.71% 26% 32% 1.5% 30% Source: McKinsey Report Urban India 2030 Projections and Statistics
  4. 4. Geo-Political & Spatial Structure • The total geographical area of India is 3,287,240 square kilometers (1,269,210 sq mi) • As per census data 2011, the total population of India is: 1,210,193,422 with a population density of 382 persons/km2 rounded to the nearest integer.
  5. 5. GEO-PHYSICAL STRUCTURE INDIAN PENINSULAR S.N O UNITS AREA KM (Sq) (appro) % OF TOTAL AREA 01 Northern mountains 578,000 17.9 02 Great Plains 550,000 17.1 03 Thar Desert 175,000 5.4 04 Central Highlands 336,000 10.4 05 Peninsular Plateaus 1,241,000 38.5 06 Coastal Plains 335,000 10.4 07 Islands 8,300 0.3 Mega-Cities, Urbanization and Economic Growth India’s rapid economic growth and development is accompanied by the dramatic rise and growth of so- called mega-cities. People across India and other developing countries flock to cities and urban areas in search of greater opportunity and higher living standards. The fruits of their labour and the economic advantages of cities’ financial, human and social capital help fuel India’s development and urbanization. India will have more than 68 cities with populations of more than one million people by 2030, and more than 40 percent of Indians will live in cities of greater than one million people by 2025 according to the McKinsey Global Institute.
  6. 6. INDIA GROWTH DYNAMICS ECONOMIC PARAMETERS The “Mckinsey Report on India” identify and prioritize the measures that help accelerate India's economic development by focusing on India's fiscal deficit and its capital distortions, restrictive labour laws, and poor infrastructure are the most important barriers to rapid growth. However, research shows that the most important problems are product and land market barriers, and India has the ability to absorb growth of the working age population within the dominant microeconomic growth parameters i.e. • Automotive Sector The continuous liberalization of the automotive sector in India has resulted in impressive growth and is fast emerging as the world’s largest car & heavy vehicle manufacturer. • Electric Power Sector India's power sector suffers from near bankrupt organizations, low tariffs for farmers and domestic consumers, and distribution losses from theft. Privatization and unbundling of state organizations are the key to growth. • Housing Construction Sector Productivity is 1/5th of its potential because of the artificial scarcity of land created by distortions in the land market as well as poor enforcement of standards. • Retail Banking Sector Deregulation in the 1990s has led to the creation of aggressive and productive banks, but the sector is still dominated by large public sector banks. Other key sectors affecting growth are: Industrial; Software; Telecommunications; Steel; Apparel; Dairy Farming & Processing; Retail; Wheat Farming; etc.
  7. 7.  Town & Country Planning in India, also known as Urban, Regional or Rural Planning or ”Spatial Planning” is governed by the hierarchy of Geo-Political, Geo-Physical & Administrative Structure and the Socio-Economic & Cultural life of the people in the Country.  Land Use Planning secures consistency & continuity in the framing & execution of the National & State Policies for use & development of the scarce habitable land recourses in general “Public Interest”.  Spatial Land Use Planning relates to;  agricultural activity & availability of fresh water  industrialisation & level of industrial activity (mining & mineral resources), including marketing, business and trading economies  the Physical Form, its composition, shape & size  Physical Growth comprises of;  Regional Plans for Resource Regions.  Master Plans for Cities & Towns.  Zoning Plans, and Layout Plans etc. These integrate the perspective urban growth with proposed land uses, including land required for a well laid out regional & urban transportation network system, urban infrastructure, public utilities & services in a Spatial Settlement Structure Plan. SPATIAL LAND USE PLANNING: A PERSPECTIVE
  8. 8.  Globalization & privatisation of the socio-economic activities  rapid industrialisation in India  composition, shape, size & form of the urban settlements have undergone a quantum change  deficient regional & urban infrastructure,  sporadic and haphazard location of mega-projects, real estate development of colonies,  Need to create an “Urban Land Bank” for development purposes through public-private participation (PPP  Urbanisation an integral part of spatial growth & development.  time to bridge the gap in the Urban-Rural divide  An innovative Spatial Planning approach  regulating the exploitative & speculative tendencies by the property dealers, colonisers, land speculators  planned & organised growth and development of the Metro Regions-Urban Areas  healthy Physical Urban Structure
  9. 9. 1) The post-independent Indian peninsular land resource is 32,87,263 km2 out of which 9.56 % is in sweet water bodies i.e. other comprises of the Indian Ocean in the south, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The estimated population of India by 2011 is 1,19,08,44,000 persons with a density of 382 persons per km2. At present there are 42 cities each with more than 1 million people in India. On the world scale, India’s urbanisation by 2030 will be immense with 68 cities having more than 1 million people, 13 with more than 4 million, and six megacities with population of 10 million or more, at least two of which (Mumbai and Delhi) will be among the five largest cities of the world by 2030. 2) Projections made by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) predict a general spreading out of urbanisation across the whole country, impacting almost every state. It shows that the urban population in five states of India, i.e. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra & Karnataka, including Punjab, is slated to outstrip the rural population by 2030. The McKinsey report projects the population of India’s cities from 340 million in 2008 to 590 million by 2030 – i.e. 40 per cent of India’s total population. In short, India will witness an unparallel urban transformation matched perhaps only by China. 3) Correspondingly the area of Punjab State is 50,362 km2 and has a density of 550 persons / km2, Haryana State is 44,212 km2 and has a population density of 573 persons / km2. Chandigarh City UT area is 114 km2 and has a density of 9252 persons per km2. The Chandigarh City Inter State Capital Region (ISCR) prepared by TCPO GoI comprises of 2421.3 area and extends upto 35 km. in Punjab, Haryana & Himachal Pradesh. GEO-SPATIAL STRUCTURE: URBAN GROWTH DYNAMICS
  10. 10. 4) The McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) also predict that many Indian cities will become larger than many countries today in terms of both Population and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For instance, Mumbai Metropolitan Region’s GDP is projected to reach $265 billion by 2030, larger than the GDP of many countries today, including Portugal, Colombia, and Malaysia. The MGI also projects reduction of poverty as a result of this population explosion, saying that India’s fast-growing and productive cities will drive a near four-fold increase in India’s per capita income between 2008 and 2030. The number of households earning less than Rs. 90,000 per year will fall below 20 per cent, while the number of middle class households (earning between Rs. 200,000 and Rs. 1 million a year) will increase more than four-fold from 32 million to 147 million. These economic trends will unlock many new growth markets, many of them not traditionally associated with India, including infrastructure, transportation, health care, education and recreation. 5) Life for the average city dweller in India would become a lot tougher. Water supply for the average citizen could drop from an average of 105 ltr. to only 65 ltr. a day with a large section of the population having no access to potable water at all. India’s cities could leave between 70 to 80 per cent of the sewage untreated. While private car ownership would increase, shortcomings in the transportation infrastructure have the potential to create urban gridlock -- similar to the acute congestion that cripples some Latin American cities. Therefore, till the construction of urban infrastructure is dramatically increased, India will not be able to bridge the gap between demand and provision of basic services. 6) To meet the needs of this new emerging middle class, the economy will have to build between 700 and 900 million square mtr. of residential and commercial space a year — equivalent to adding more than two Mumbai’s or one Chicago every year. In transportation, the projections focuses on urban infrastructure demand to build 350 to 400 km. of metros and subways every year, more than 20 times the capacity in the past decade. In addition, between 19,000 to 25,000 km. of new road network would be required to be built every year (including lanes for bus-based rapid transit systems etc.), equivalent to the backlog in the last decade. But if the current low rate of investment in urban infrastructure continues then in 20 years time, the urban infrastructure will fall woefully short of what is necessary to sustain growth in the urban sector.
  11. 11.  Post-Independence (15th Aug, 1947), first priority was given to consolidate & form a Union of the many Princely States, rehabilitation & settlement of the people from across the borders on the North East & North West India and construction of the Mega Hydroelectric Project (Bhakra Dam) on the Satluj River and setting up of the Nangal Township in Punjab. The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 Nov. 1949 and came into force on 26 Jan. 1950. It provides for Fundamental Rights to Freedom & Equality of life to all in a Federal System of Governance in the Indian Republic comprising of 28 States and 7 Union Territories.  The Nation embarked upon the implementation of its first 5 year Socio-Economic Development Plan in 1951. The Institute of Town Planners India (ITPI) was set up in 1951.  The School of Physical Planning & Architecture at Delhi and IIT Kharagpur (WB) were also established to develop requisite Human Resource in Physical Planning in the country.  The Chandigarh City as a New Capital for Punjab with statuary provision to regulate its periphery (16 KM radius) was set up in the early 50’s as a symbol of a Free & Resurgent India.  The first generation of Socio-Economic & Physical Planners i.e. 1951-1971 focused on research & development in the Agriculture Sector (green revolution), regulate land reforms related to ceiling on holding of agriculture & urban lands; with equity & justice to all in a Healthy Living Environment.  In the Pre & Post Independence period i.e. up to 1962, the Provincial Town Planner in the State PWD (B&R) Dept. looked after the Physical Planning requirements for the Cities & Towns in the State i.e. formulation of Layout Plans for Municipal Schemes, under the Act 1911 and Development Schemes under the Town Improvement Act 1922, development of Damaged Areas in Amritsar City, setting up Model Towns for rehabilitation, marketing centres (new mandi townships) etc. PHYSICAL PLANNING PERSPECTIVE IN PUNJAB CHANDIGARH & HARYANA
  12. 12.  The focus on Micro Level Physical Planning i.e. for localities in the local Urban & Rural Area and not on Comprehensive Physical Planning i.e. Regional Plans or Master Plans for overall growth of Cities & Towns.  Long range physical planning requirements in laying out of a network of major roads for safe and speedy movement of traffic, public utilities and services in the city was successfully achieved through formulation of municipal schemes at the micro level  The land for this purpose was created free of cost as part of the Micro level Spatial Planning Municipal Schemes. This was possible through forethought and advanced Spatial Planning at the Micro level.  The National 5 year Fiscal Plan early in the 1960’s, made provision for Town & Country Planning (Spatial Planning) as a socio-economic need and gave financial assistance to the States to set up T&CP Departments in the State Services.  The first Spatial Structure Plan for Human Settlements prepared by TCPO (GOI) and the State T&CP Depts.  The Punjab State Spatial Structure Plan including the Border Area Development Plan, aimed at channelization of the public & private resources.  Master Plan or Comprehensive Development Plan for the Metropolitan Area, selected Cities & Towns were also prepared by the State T&CP Dept.  Micro Planning & Development – provision of socio economic infrastructure and development of services in the Rural Sector was taken up by the Pb. State T&CP Dept. through Community Block Development Plans.  Focal Point Villages;  Measures taken to check & regulate building construction up to 30 meters along the Scheduled
  13. 13.  Spatial Planning & Development in the urban & rural sectors continued in the 1970’s.  Nucleus Industrial Townships,  Free Enterprise Zones (FEZ) later referred to as Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in an around major cities and towns, namely; Chandigarh Periphery etc.  Environmental Research Planning and Development Organisation (ERPDO) was set up in the Pb. State T&CP Dept. in 1981-91 decade.  Integrated Urban Development Program (IUDP) as a basic tool for implementation of the master plans.  Traffic Operations Plan (TOP) for major Cities.  Study of the Environmentally Critical Wetlands at Harike Patan & Goindwal Sahib.  The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro (1992).  Sustainable development concepts.; new perceptions in Spatial Planning & Management of the scarce habitable land resources.  Introduction of the Punjab Regional, Town Planning & Development Act 1995 by delineating Urban Planning Areas.  Changed socio-economic service perspective of the State T&CP Dept. to a Revenue Earning Department.
  14. 14.  Spatial planning functions & activities of the State Govt. Town & Country Planning Department has inadvertently shifted to private consultants & agencies.  Setting up of a number of Development Agencies in the 1991-2001 decade.  Shortage & proliferation of trained professional Spatial planning human resources.  Change in the Spatial Planning & Development perspective in India with the 73rd & 74th amendment of The Constitution of India in 1992, transferring the functions & powers to regulate growth & development in the urban & rural sectors to the local authorities.  Establishment of a three tier Panchayati Raj System .  The municipalities for the major Cities & Towns have skeleton human resources for carrying out Spatial planning activity.  In the rural sector there is no human resources to regulate Spatial planning applications at the community development block.  The Municipal and Panchayati Raj enactments are often seen as tools for party politics or vote banks. This presentation on Spatial or Physical Planning with focus on Real Estate & Property Management aims to help with discussing sustained economic growth in a scarce National & State Land Resource. Attention is also focussed on the need to bridge the gap created in Physical Planning in the Rural & Urban Sectors with the 73rd & 74th Amendments in 1992, i.e. the 11th & 12th Schedule: article 243G & 243W of The Constitution of India. It also focuses attention on the need to evolve a viable mechanism for Spatial Planning at the micro level, namely; Rural Sector i.e. the village (Gram Panchayat), block (Panchayat Samitti) & the district (Zila Parishad) under the Panchayati Raj System.
  15. 15.  The National & State Policies on “Housing & Urban Development” in the past has focused on Government interventions with Mega Development Authorities to regulate growth in major cities & towns in the country.  The number of “Property Dealers & Colonisors” informal sector have out grown the formal sector Real Estate, Property Development & Management activities resulting in land speculation & disposal of properties without basic infrastructure public utilities & services.  The formal sector “Governmental & Private Real Estate Developers” have not been able to check or reverse the process of unauthorised & illegal residential colonies, increasing the backlog in deficit Infrastructure public utilities & services in the Mega Cities/Towns in the Country.  The Government sector or the Mega Real Estate & Property Management authorities/agencies have not been able to generate self supporting & self sustaining societies in the urban sector. REAL ESTATE AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT:
  16. 16. Enabling Laws: The enabling laws to provide civic amenities, public utilities & services including the need for to regulate subdivision of lands in and around Urban settlements were first introduced as early as 1911, • Punjab Municipal Act 1911 • Punjab Town Improvement Act 1922. • Punjab Development of Damaged Areas Act 1952 (built areas in Amritsar City) • Punjab New Capital Development and Periphery Control Act of 1952. • Punjab Urban Estates (Development & Regulation) Act 1964, • Punjab Housing Development Board Act 1972; • Punjab Sewerage Board Act and the Regulation of Colonies Act 1975 • Punjab Regional and Town Planning Development Act 1995 and the Amendments in 2006 Urban Land Resource: • Enhanced Public Private Partnership to mobilise Urban Land resource • Foster Real Estate Developers in the organised “Formal Sector” • Regulate property dealers and urban market speculators in the “Informal Sector”
  17. 17. Human Resource : Real estate relates to all properties consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as trees, crops, minerals, or water; immovable property and interest vested in it, i.e. buildings or housing in general.  The “Formal Sector” in Real Estate Development comprise of corporates, societies and other organised agencies, established under an Act of the Govt. or registered under the Factories/Societies & Trust Acts.  The “Informal Sector” in real estate development comprise of land & property speculators and dealers who outnumber the players in the organised sector.  Against 5 real estate developers in the Formal Sector, there are more than 100 property dealers, land speculators and other operators in the unorganised Informal Sector. The formal sector Real Estate Development generally have access and inputs to Spatial Planning / real- estate management and hence ensure quality service in making available developed sites i.e. b for residential, commercial, industrial, institutional and other purposes. This has substantially contributed to the organised spatial growth in and around mega cities and towns.  create awareness and accountability in real estate sector.  regulate & harness the informal sector  ensure orderly spatial growth and development of the human settlements
  18. 18. Other Enablers:  Check the haphazard location of mega-projects multiplexes & malls, multi storey high rise buildings in the urban peripheries, creating imbalances in the regional & urban physical structure.  Restore functional accountability to Physical Planners (Town & Country Planners) in the state and government services so as to ensure application of the use of land.  Strategic Environmental Assessment & Land Use Planning including EIA, be made an essential requirement in all policy making and development processes to safeguard public interest, the quality of life, health and living conditions of the community in the region/country.  To tide over this short fall & deficiency in the “Urban Sector”, environmentally sustainable “Eco-Townships” in the periphery of urban settlements need to be setup as self –contained & self-supporting settlements to co-exist with the agriculture activity in the periphery.  “Mini Eco-Townships” in less than 50 acres land  “Mega Eco-Townships” having more than 50 acres land.
  19. 19. Eco-Township Concept: The key elements in the “New Eco-Townships” strategy should include: • Economic needs of “New Eco-Township” development, ensuring a balance with social & environmental parameters including self-supporting & self-sustaining local area societies. • Deal with all local site related matters i.e. assured accessibility & approaches, free of HT electric lines, existing green cover, hydrology, storm water drainage, water quality, meteorology & air quality etc. • Master Plan, Design & Layout of the site for a viable “Road Network System” for movement of light & heavy vehicle traffic, including fire safety vehicles and layout of public utilities & services. • Landscape, contiguous public open spaces, traffic segregated pedestrian walkways, cycle tracks etc. • Ensure development does not exceed ecological thresholds i.e. morphology & assured soil quality,, slopes & soil stability, environmentally critical & derelict sites, excavations etc. • Maintain and hence the quality of local environment, tree plantation etc. • Provision of public utilities & services, Water Supply, Sewerage including “Sewage Treatment Plant” and recycle storm & sewage waste water for landscaping & tree plantation. • Community & society amenities i.e. community centre, club house etc. • Public & educational, institutional amenities i.e. neighborhood primary & middle schools, sports ground etc. • Adequate commercial activity, SCO/SCF or shop booths & where required malls & multiplexes. • Environmentally sustainable & satisfactory arrangements for solid waste collection & disposal etc.
  20. 20. Thank You