WHAT IS ADVERTISING?Advertising has affected and is still affecting the life of all of us. It is defined as“a paid, mediated presentation of information about services, products, or ideas with the specific goal of informing, persuading and reminding the target market about the companys offerings”Today we are surrounded by a number of products. Each company is battling for consumer mind space and this has increased the scope of advertising.
ADVERTISING IMPACTS Today, the viewers are exposed to thousands of ads !!It is almost impossible for them to pay attention to all those ads.Only those ads are able to catch their attention, which are different in some way or another from the other bouquet of ads. It is often seen that in the name of experimentation and in the desire to win the market game, marketersevery now and then are involved in making ads, which cannot be termed as `ethical.
Ethical Issues in AdvertisingToday, some advertising is simply and deliberately untrue. The problem of truth in advertising is somewhat more subtle: it is not that advertising says what is explicitly false, but that it can distort the truth by implying things that are not so or withholding relevant facts. There are numerous such examples of advertisements related to cosmetics, bathing soaps, detergent soaps, health drinks, etc. claiming brand supremacy over their competitors brands on debatable grounds.
EXAMPLEMost of the advertisements of `Fair & Lovely beauty cream (a product of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.) In one of the advertisements, they have portrayed the young woman who, after using Fair & Lovely becomes attractive and therefore gets a good job. This implies that the main qualification for a woman to get a job is the way she looks. Many people in India thought that Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) had violated Indian advertisement ethics by openly insulting a majority of dark skinned Indian women.
NEITHER FAIR NOR LOVELY Bleaching agent – Most creams contain a bleaching agent called hydroquinol. Up to 3-4% of these bleaching agents in the cream are acceptable as far as side effects are concerned. But most creams do not mention the percentage and on long term use these chemicals can cause skin problems like thinning of the skin and making the skin sun sensitive. Steroids – Fairness creams contain strong steroids especially the ones that promise ‘faster and better’ results. But the introduction of these steroids can suppress the body’s natural steroids resulting in other side effects like permanent stretch marks, pimples, darkening of the skin, skin-allergy, disfiguration, etc.
Mercury – Many creams are also found to have mercury in them which may cause problems with our nervous system. (In a test at the Prince of Wales Hospital in Honk Kong on 36 fairness cream brands manufactured and distributed all over the world, it was found that eight of those, made in China and Taiwan, had more mercury contents than prescribed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.) Other harmful ingredients – There are many other harmful ingredients in the creams that can cause a number of side effects like rashes, skin irritation and blemishes. Even those that claim to be herbal, natural or ayurvedic contain chemicals. According to most dermatologists, achieving fairness up to 20% is possible, but not more than that. The creams only bleach and prevent secretion of Melanin. So in effect fairness creams reduce tan, prevent the skin from getting darker by preventing melanin secretion; but they cannot change a persons natural skin color.
UNETHICAL PRACTICES OF ADVERTISING: 1. ADVERTISING AND CHILDREN Use of children in advertising is arguable especially when marketers are using children to promote the products, which are not meant for children. They know that children nowadays are playing the role of influencers in the consumer decision-making process. Sometimes, it is also seen that children force their parents to buy those products, which they cant afford to buy.
2. FALSE CLAIMS BY ADVERTISERSAdvertisers are also charged of making false claims in their advertisements just to prove that their product is superior over that of their competitors and to deceive the customers.
4. ADVERTISING AND SOCIETYWhile advertising marketers should keep in mind therich heritage and culture of our country.
Advertising Ethics: An Empirical StudyVarious groups of people like students, housewives,businessmen and employees were questionedregarding their views on the level of ethics intelevision advertisements and social responsibility ofthe advertisers, about the factual information in theseadvertisements, and what kind of issues they findunethical in a given set of advertisements.Researchers said that about 51% of the viewers are ofthe opinion that the level of ethics in televisionadvertising is average and about 19% feel that it is low.
CONCLUSIONIndia is a free country and all the citizens have a freedom of expression. In this scenario, it is up to advertisers to ensure ethically responsible practices while making commercial ads. In this extensive market economy, advertising has become an important element of the society. Advertisements have the power to play a constructive role in the economic growth of a country. Yet it also can do, and often does, severe harm to individuals and to the common good.