Temporal and Spatial trends
of Bluetongue in India

Dr. M.Senthil Murugan (Student MVSc. , EDM)
Dr. Bhoj R Singh, Principa...
Temporal and Spatial
distribution
Temporal distribution
 distribution of
disease in relation to
time,
 e.g. occurrence o...
Blue Tongue - Indian Scenario


Endemic in India



22 serotypes are recorded in India out
of 26 serotypes of BTV



Mo...
Major Vectors
Midges
South India
 Culiciodes brevitarsis
 Culicoides imicola
(Ilango et.al 2006)

North India
 Culicoid...
Vector Breeding places
Manure pits
 Biogas slurry waste
 Incessant rain in
rainy season
 Wind based
movement of
midges
...
Serotypes reported in India
State








Serotypes
Neutralizing Ab’s

Virus Isolation

J&K

-

23

Himachal

4

3,4,9...
Blue Tongue Serotypes in
India

Srinivasalu ., et al 2004
BT Outbreaks in India

Source: IBVNet, 2005
Incidence of BT, DAHF, Govt of India
Outbreak
300000

250000

1400

Attack
Death

1200

1000

200000
800

150000
600

1000...
Seasonality



Cyclical occurrence
June to September
South-western
monsoon
October to December
North eastern Monsoon
Mons...
Month wise outbreak in
Karnataka
( Source: PDADMAS 2010-11)



Higher incidence in

winter months


November and
Decembe...
Prevalence of BTV antibodies in Sheep and Goats








Northern IndiaHarayana, H.P, J&K, Punjab,
Rajastan, UP
Centra...
Seroprevalence in Cattle and
Buffaloess


First Reported in Annual Report of IVRI,1978



3.7% Cattle positive for BTV
P...
Seroprevalence in Cattle and
Buffaloes


Currently
Seroprevalence has
been (Sub clinical)
reported in North Eastern
State...
Why endemic in India?


22 serotypes reported



Clinical signs not reported in Goat, Cattle, Buffalo
and deer RESERVOIR...
Periodic Hyper Endemicities are
associated with
Monsoon
 Poor flock nutrition
 High parasitic burden
 Lack of affordabl...
How BTV reached India?
1964 – BTV reported in Maharashtra ,U.P –




Movement of
infected
animals/Vector form
Paksitan?
...
Prevention and Control


Effective vaccination may
reduce incidence



Many Countries eradicated BT
and possible in Indi...
Vaccines in India





Technology
transferred from
IVRI, July 2012.
BTV serotypes are
1, 2, 10, 16 and 23
Under All Ind...
Temporal and spatial distribution of blue tongue in india
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Temporal and spatial distribution of blue tongue in india

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Blue tongue is an important disease of ovines in India but other domestic and wild ruminants might be serving as reservoir.

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  • Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. © 2007
  • Temporal and spatial distribution of blue tongue in india

    1. 1. Temporal and Spatial trends of Bluetongue in India Dr. M.Senthil Murugan (Student MVSc. , EDM) Dr. Bhoj R Singh, Principal Scientist (VM) I/C Epidemiology; Centre for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar243122, Bareilly, UP, India. TeleFax +91-581-2302188
    2. 2. Temporal and Spatial distribution Temporal distribution  distribution of disease in relation to time,  e.g. occurrence of disease incidents in different seasons Spatial distribution  distribution of disease in relation to position in space,  e.g. Incidence of disease in specified geographical areas Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. © 2007
    3. 3. Blue Tongue - Indian Scenario  Endemic in India  22 serotypes are recorded in India out of 26 serotypes of BTV  Morbidity and mortality – High in Sheep, low in Goats  Cattle and Seroprevalence clinical disease is Buffaloes evident (Prasad et.al . 1992) – without
    4. 4. Major Vectors Midges South India  Culiciodes brevitarsis  Culicoides imicola (Ilango et.al 2006) North India  Culicoides oxistoma  Culicoides monocoli (Maheswari, 2012)
    5. 5. Vector Breeding places Manure pits  Biogas slurry waste  Incessant rain in rainy season  Wind based movement of midges 
    6. 6. Serotypes reported in India State     Serotypes Neutralizing Ab’s Virus Isolation J&K - 23 Himachal 4 3,4,9,16,17 Harayana 2,8,12,16 1,4 Rajastan - 1 UP 23 9,8,13 UK - 23 MP 18,23 23 Gujarat 1,2,3,5,8,9,10,11,12, 13,15,16,17,20 6 Maharashtra 2,3,4,5,5,7,8,10,12,13, 16 1,9,16,18,4,17 Andhra 4,6,12,13,14,17,18,19 2,9,15 Karnataka 1,2,4,12,16,17,20 18,23 TN Through Virus Isolation (11) 1,2,3,4,8,9,15,16,17,18,2 3 Through detection of Neutralising antibodies(11) 5,6,7,10,11,12,13,14,15, 1 9,20 1,3,4,5,6,7,11,12,14, 15,16,17,19,20 1,2,3,16,23 Newer Concepts in Animal Diseases, 2011, IVRI
    7. 7. Blue Tongue Serotypes in India Srinivasalu ., et al 2004
    8. 8. BT Outbreaks in India Source: IBVNet, 2005
    9. 9. Incidence of BT, DAHF, Govt of India Outbreak 300000 250000 1400 Attack Death 1200 1000 200000 800 150000 600 100000 400 50000 0 200 0
    10. 10. Seasonality  Cyclical occurrence June to September South-western monsoon October to December North eastern Monsoon Monsoon leads to High Vector population Overall Morbidity 9.3% Mortality 2.7% CFR 28.8%  (Srinivasalu et.al 2004)      
    11. 11. Month wise outbreak in Karnataka ( Source: PDADMAS 2010-11)  Higher incidence in winter months  November and December  Moist soil after flood with ideal wind speed- large scale breeding of Culicoides
    12. 12. Prevalence of BTV antibodies in Sheep and Goats      Northern IndiaHarayana, H.P, J&K, Punjab, Rajastan, UP Central India– M.P Western India– Gujarat, Maharashtra Southern India– Andhra, Karnataka, Kerala and T.N North Eastern India– No reports (Prasad et.al 2000) (Bitew.,et.al, 2013, African J. Biotech)
    13. 13. Seroprevalence in Cattle and Buffaloess  First Reported in Annual Report of IVRI,1978  3.7% Cattle positive for BTV Punjab Andhra Pradesh 70% • Cattle 23% • Native 37.5 % • Buffaloes 71.9% • Exotic Srinivasalu., et.al 2004
    14. 14. Seroprevalence in Cattle and Buffaloes  Currently Seroprevalence has been (Sub clinical) reported in North Eastern States too. 58.2 % 31.79 % 70 % Joardar SN, et.al Vet.World, 2013 Rev.Sci.Tech.Off.Int.Epiz:1992 Prasad et.al
    15. 15. Why endemic in India?  22 serotypes reported  Clinical signs not reported in Goat, Cattle, Buffalo and deer RESERVOIR??  Seroprevalence in Camels, Deers and Elepahant (Prasad et.al,1992)  Knowledge of fauna & biology of Culicoides spp. is poorly known in India.  Vaccines – Not very good have Poor immunogenicity Prasad,et.al 1992
    16. 16. Periodic Hyper Endemicities are associated with Monsoon  Poor flock nutrition  High parasitic burden  Lack of affordable veterinary care  Sheep rearing in poorest areas in India as major source of income  Poor immunogenicity of the inactivated vaccines  Ilango et.al 2006
    17. 17. How BTV reached India? 1964 – BTV reported in Maharashtra ,U.P –   Movement of infected animals/Vector form Paksitan? It is probable because India shares long border with Pakistan. Import of cattle, Sheep and Goat for cross breeding?  1973 – outbreak in Hisar in Russian Merino   Prasad,et.al 1992 1975- outbreak in CSBF, Hisar Corridale Sheep – Indo Australian project 1974 - outbreak in Dorset breed, Andhra
    18. 18. Prevention and Control  Effective vaccination may reduce incidence  Many Countries eradicated BT and possible in India. (UK 2008)  Restricting animal movement  Insecticide sprays,  Habitat removal - Vector  Timely announcement of satellite based weather forecasting and educating sheep farmers  Community Participation Bhanuprasad., et al 2009
    19. 19. Vaccines in India    Technology transferred from IVRI, July 2012. BTV serotypes are 1, 2, 10, 16 and 23 Under All India Network Project on Blue Tongue, ICAR, effort s are concentrated on developing effective vaccine

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