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  1. 1. IMAX Authored by M.SESHU KUMARDepartment of Computer Science & Engineering S.V.V.S.N ENGINEERING COLLEGE MOBILE:9848986844. B. CHADRASEKHARDepartment of Computer Science & Engineering S.V.V.S.N ENGINEERING COLLEGE
  2. 2. Abstract During Expo 67 in Montreal, Canada, In the Labyrinth, their multi-projector giant-screen systemIMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format had a number of technical difficulties that led them tocreated by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the design a single-projector/single-camera system.capacity to display images of far greater size and Tiger Child, the first IMAX film, was demonstratedresolution than conventional film display systems. A at Expo 70 in Osaka, Japan. The first permanentstandard IMAX screen is 22 m wide and 16.1 m high IMAX system was set up in Toronto at Ontario Place(72.6 ft x 52.8 ft), but can be larger. Currently, in 1971, and is still in operation. During Expo 74 inIMAX is the most widely-used system for large- Spokane, Washington, a very large IMAX screen thatformat, special-venue film presentations. As of measured 90 x 65 ft (27.3 x 19.7 m) was featured inMarch 2007, there were 280 IMAX theatres in 38 the US Pavilion (the largest structure in the expo).countries (60% of these are located in Canada and the About 5 million visitors viewed the screen, whichUnited States). Half of these are commercial theatres covered a persons total field of vision when lookingand half are in educational venues. A variation of directly forward. This easily created a sensation ofIMAX, IMAX Dome (originally called motion for nearly everyone, and motion sickness in aOMNIMAX), is designed for projection on tilted few viewers. However, it was only a temporarydome screens. Films can also be projected in 3D with screen for the six-month duration of the Expo.IMAX 3D. The Hyderabad, India IMAX has the Several years later, a standard size IMAX screen wasworlds largest display screen. The biggest "IMAX installed, and is still in operation at the renamedDome" is in the Liberty Science Center in Jersey "Riverfront Park IMAX Theatre."City, New Jersey. The worlds largest IMAX 3Dcinema screen is located in Sydney, Australia. The first permanent IMAX Dome installation, the Reuben H. Fleet Space Theater and Science Center,Contents opened in San Diegos Balboa Park in 1973. The first permanent IMAX 3D theatre was built in Vancouver, British Columbia for Transitions at Expo 86, and is • 1 Precursors still very much in use, as it is situated at the tip of • 2 History Canada Place, a Vancouver landmark. • 3 Technical aspects • 4 IMAX Dome/OMNIMAX Over the summer of 2006, IMAXs stock fell markedly (by as much as 60%) with the • 5 IMAX 3D announcement of an SEC investigation[2], falling • 6 IMAX HD again when the announced third quarter earnings • 7 IMAX Digital 3D were behind the previous years. • 8 Content • 9 Other Uses for IMAX Technical aspects • 10 Technical specifications • 11 IMAX venues • 12 See also A comparison between 35 mm and 15/70 mm • 13 References negative areas • 14 External linksPrecursors An IMAX camera inside a display caseThe desire to increase the visual impact of film has along history. In 1929, Fox introduced Fox Grandeur,the first 70 mm movie format, which quickly fellfrom use. In the 1950s, Cinemascope andVistaVision widened the projected image from 35mm film, and there were multi-projector systemssuch as Cinerama for even wider presentations.While impressive, Cinerama was difficult to set up,and the joints between the screens were difficult tohide.History The 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAXThe IMAX system was developed by four Canadians: projectorsGraeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor, Robert Kerr andWilliam C. Shaw. [1]
  3. 3. The intent of IMAX is to dramatically increase the projector--was commonly used to "dub" or insertresolution of the image by using much larger film studio sound into the mixed soundtrack ofstock at a resolution comparable to about 10000 x conventional films.) By the early 90s, a separate7000 pixels. To do this, 70 mm film stock is run digital 6-track source was synchronized using a more"sideways" through the cameras. While traditional 70 precise pulse-generator as a source for a conventionalmm film has an image area that is 48.5 mm wide and SMPTE timecode synchronization system. This22.1 mm tall (for Todd-AO), in IMAX the image is development presaged conventional theatrical69.6 mm wide and 48.5 mm tall. In order to expose at multichannel sound systems such as Dolby Digitalstandard film speed of 24 frames per second, three and Digital Theater System. This digital source cametimes as much film needs to move through the in the form of a unit called a DDP (Digital Disccamera each second. Playback) in which the soundtrack was recorded onto multiple CD-ROM discs which would play the soundDrawing the large-format film through the projector which was recorded to the discs as a digital audiowas a difficult technical problem to solve; file. This DDP system has been replaced in almost allconventional 70 mm systems were not steady enough theaters with the newer DTAC (Digital Theaterfor the 586x magnification. IMAX projection Audio Control) system which utilizes a computerinvolved a number of innovations. William Shaw of running the IMAXs proprietary DTAC software. TheIMAX adapted an Australian patent for film transport software works in a similar style as the DDP exceptcalled the "rolling loop" by adding a compressed-air that instead of the audio file being based on discs, it"puffer" to accelerate the film, and put a cylindrical is instead played directly off a hard drive in the formlens in the projectors "block" for the film to be of a single uncompressed audio file containing the 6vacuumed up against during projection (called the channels which are distributed directly to the"field flattener" because it served to flatten the image amplifiers rather than using a decoding method suchfield). Because the film actually touches the "field as Dolby Digital.flattener" lens, the lens itself is twice the height of thefilm and is connected to a pneumatic piston so it can IMAX theater construction also differs significantlybe moved up or down while the projector is running. from conventional theaters. The increased resolutionThis way, if a piece of dust comes off the film and allows the audience to be much closer to the screen;sticks to the lens, the projectionist can switch to the typically all rows are within one screen-height.clean side of the lens at the push of a button. The lens (Conventional theaters seating runs 8 to 12 screen-also has "wiper bars" made of a felt or brush-like heights) Also, the rows of seats are set at a steepmaterial which can wipe the dust off the lens as it angle (Up to 23 degrees in some domed theaters) somoves up or down to keep the show clean. IMAX that the audience is facing the screen directly.projectors are pin-stabilized, meaning 4 registrationpins engage the sprockets at the corners of the IMAX Dome/OMNIMAXprojected frame to ensure perfect alignment. Shawadded cam-controlled arms to decelerate each frameto eliminate the microscopic shaking as the frame"settled" onto the registration pins. The projectorsshutter is also open for around 20% longer than in The frame layout of the IMAX Dome film.conventional equipment and the light source isbrighter. The largest 12-18 kW xenon arc lamps havehollow, water-cooled electrodes. An IMAX projectoris therefore a substantial piece of equipment,weighing up to 1.8 tonnes and towering at over 70"[178 cm] tall and 75" [195 cm] long. The xenonlamps are made of a thin layer of quartz crystal, andcontain xenon gas at a pressure of about 25atmospheres; because of this, projectionists arerequired to wear protective body armor whenchanging or handling these lamps because the flyingshards of crystal could be deadly when combinedwith the high pressure of the gas within. The Control room of an IMAX Dome Theatre.IMAX uses a stronger "ESTAR" (Kodaks trade In the late 1960s the San Diego Hall of Science (nowname for PET film) base. The reason is not for known as the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center) beganstrength, but precision. Developing chemicals do not searching North America for a large-format filmchange the size or shape of Estar, and IMAXs pin- system to project on the dome of their planned 76-registration (especially the cam mechanism) is foot tilted-dome planetarium. One of the front-intolerant of either sprocket-hole or film-thickness running formats was a double-frame 35 mm system,variations. The IMAX format is generically called until they saw IMAX. The IMAX projector was"15/70" film, the name referring to the 15 sprockets unsuitable for use inside a dome because it had a 12-per frame of 70 mm stock. The bulk of the film foot-tall lamp house on top. However, IMAXrequires large platters rather than conventional film Corporation was quick to cooperate and was willingreels. to redesign its system. IMAX designed an elevator to lift the projector to the center of the dome from theIn order to use more of the image area, IMAX film projection booth below. Spectra Physics designed adoes not include an embedded soundtrack. Instead suitable lamphouse that took smaller lamps (about 18the IMAX system specifies a separate six-channel 35 inches long) and placed the bulb behind the lensmm magnetic tape synchronized to the film. (This instead of above the projector. Leitz of Canadaoriginal system--35 mm mag tape locked to a
  4. 4. developed a fisheye lens that would project the image become a "cash cow" for financially strapped publiconto a dome instead of a flat screen. institutions.The dome system, which the San Diego Hall of Another use of IMAX Dome technology is to provideScience called OMNIMAX, uses a fisheye lens on an immersive visual experience to go with a ridethe camera that squeezes a highly distorted 180 simulator, as in Back to the Future: The Ride. IMAXdegree field of view onto the 70 mm IMAX film. The Dome was also used in the former EPCOT attractionlens is aligned below the center of the frame and Horizons and another Disney attraction, Soarin Overmost of the bottom half of the circular field falls California. "Soarin" Featured at Disneys Californiabeyond the edge of the film. The part of the field that Adventure and EPCOT.would fall below the edge of the dome is masked-off.When filming, the camera is aimed upward at an IMAX 3Dangle that matches the tilt of the dome. Whenprojected through a matching fisheye lens onto adome the original panoramic view is recreated.OMNIMAX wraps 180 degrees horizontally, 100degrees above the horizon and 22 degrees below thehorizon for a viewer at the center of the dome.OMNIMAX premiered in 1973 at the Reuben H.Fleet Space Theater and Science Center showing twoOMNIMAX features, Voyage to the Outer Planets(produced by Graphic Films) and Garden Isle (byRoger Tilton Films) on a double bill.IMAX has since renamed the system IMAX Dome.Many theaters continue to call it OMNIMAX. IMAX 3D theatre in Eilat, IsraelOMNIMAX theaters are now in place at a number of An IMAX 3D camera.major American museums, particularly those with ascientific focus, where the technical aspects of thesystem may be highlighted as part of the theme To create the illusion of 3-dimensional depth, theinterest. The projection room is often windowed to IMAX 3D process uses two camera lenses toallow public viewing and accompanied by represent the left and right eyes. The two lenses areinformational placards like any exhibit. Inside the separated by an interocular distance of about 64theatre, the screen may be a permanent fixture, such mm/2.5 in., the average distance between a humansas at the St. Louis Science Center (which also plays a eyes. By recording on two separate rolls of film forshort educational video about the OMNIMAX the left and right eyes, and then projecting themsystem just before the feature film); or lowered and simultaneously, we can be tricked into seeing a 3Draised as needed, such as at the Science Museum of image on a 2D screen. The IMAX 3D camera is veryMinnesota (where it shares an auditorium with a cumbersome, weighing over 113 kg/250 pounds. Thisstandard IMAX screen). Before the feature begins, makes it extremely difficult to film on-locationthe screen is backlit to show the speakers and girders documentaries.behind the screen. IMAX Dome screens may also befound at several major theme parks. There are two methods to creating the 3D illusion in the theatre. The first involves polarization. DuringThe OMNIMAX experience is quite different from projection, the left and right eye images are polarizedthat of a regular IMAX theater. The image wraps perpendicular to one another as they are projectedaround both sides of the viewer and upwards as well, onto the IMAX screen. By wearing specialwhich can give the impression one is actually inside eyeglasses with lenses polarized in their respectivethe scene being projected. (A plain IMAX screen is directions to match the projection, the left eye imagelarge but does not create such a natural feeling of can be viewed only by the left eye since theimmersion because the viewer is aware that the scene polarization of the left lens will cancel out that of theends where the rectangular walls and ceiling begin.) right eye projection, and the right eye image can be viewed only by the right eye since the polarization of the right lens will cancel out that of the left eyeBut despite their impressive capabilities and unique projection. Another method for 3D projectionexperience, the system seems likely to remain a involves LCD shutter glasses. These glasses containnovelty rather than a widespread commercial LCD panels which are synchronised to the projectorphenomenon. Relative to their size, OMNIMAX which alternates rapidly at 96 frames per secondtheaters are very expensive to build and maintain, between displaying the left and right images whichand have a relatively small seating capacity. To make are momentarily viewed by the appropriate eye bymatters worse, only those seats closest to the center allowing that eyes panel to become transparent whileof the theater provide the full effect of the immersive the other remains opaque. While the panels withinview. Museums are able to run the theaters at a profit these active-shutter 3D glasses alternate at 96 framesonly because they are able to subrogate the per second, the actual film is displayed at 24 framesconstruction expenses through grants and public per second.fundraising and then show relatively inexpensivedocumentary films, often while still being able tokeep admission prices lower than those of standard One particular problem that 3D movies face is thatcinemas. In this way, OMNIMAX theaters have the 3D effect does not extend past the boundaries of the physical screen. It is for this reason that the
  5. 5. screen must be large enough to cover as much of the been praised for their technical quality, critics haveviewers peripheral vision as possible. Another also complained that many have banal narration. [citation needed]problem with IMAX 3D movies is due to an inherentdifference between our eyes and the film format.Because of the large negative, depth of field is Some IMAX theaters had shown conventional filmsdramatically reduced, causing an often distracting (using conventional projection equipment) as adepiction of the scene. Computer-generated imagery sideline to the native-IMAX presentations. In the latefilms do not have this problem as they are able to 1990s there was a wave of interest in broadening thecontrol the depth of field in the images to allow use of IMAX as an entertainment format. A feweverything to be in focus. While some may argue that pure-entertainment IMAX short films have beenthis is less artistic than regular 2D films that created, notably T-Rex: Back to the Cretaceouspurposefully employ shallow depth of field for (directed by Brett Leonard), which had a successfulaesthetic reasons, IMAX screens take up more of the run in 1998 and Haunted Castle, released in 2001viewers vision than regular 2D films, and therefore (both of these were IMAX 3-D films). In 1999, Thethe viewer can be disoriented by seeing images that Old Man and the Sea became the first fully-animatedare out of focus. The biggest 3D IMAX screen is in film to be released on IMAX screens and proceededPrasads IMAX located in Hyderabad, India.[3] to win an Oscar. The same year, Disney produced Fantasia 2000, the first full-length animated featureImprovements in the sound systems have included a released exclusively in the IMAX format (the film3D sound system and the elliptical-pattern speaker- would later have a conventional-theatrical release).clusters. Disney would also release the first 2-D live-action native IMAX entertainment film, Young BlackIMAX HD Stallion, in late 2003.Further improvements and variations on IMAX In the fall of 2002, IMAX and Universal Studiosinclude the possibility of a faster 48 frames per released a new IMAX-format of the 1995 theatricalsecond rate, known as IMAX HD. This system was film Apollo 13. This release marked the first use oftested in 1992 at the Canada Pavilion of the Seville the IMAX-proprietary "DMR" (Digital Re-Expo 92 with the film Momentum, but was deemed mastering) process that allowed conventional films totoo costly and abandoned but not before many be "up" converted into IMAX format. Othertheaters were retrofitted to project at 48 frames, theatrically-released films, would subsequently be re-especially in Canada.[citation needed] released at IMAX venues using the DMR process. Because of a technical limitation on the size of the film reel, these early DMR releases were edited toA theme park in Germany also used IMAX HD for a conform to a two-hour length limitation. Laterfilm in the mid-1990s.[citation needed] Soarin Over releases did not have this limitation. Current IMAXCalifornia, originally built at Disneys California platters allow a run length of up to 150 minutes. ItAdventure before being replicated at Epcot, features was previously reported that Star Wars Episode III:a modification of both IMAX HD and IMAX Dome, Revenge of the Sith was released with an IMAXprojecting in 48 frames per second. DMR version, however it never underwent the DMR process. Venues that showed this film in an IMAXIMAX Digital 3D screen used standard 35 mm projection.A new IMAX projection system slated for use in In 2003 a notable IMAX re-release, again using themid-2008 simulates a 3D view and uses new digital DMR process, was The Matrix Reloaded. Later intechnology. This will alleviate the need for the use of 2003, the sequel The Matrix Revolutions was the firstbulky film reels and facilitate inexpensive live action film to be released simultaneously indistribution of IMAX features. Deals have already IMAX and conventional theaters, the first featurebeen signed with Hollywood studios for such film being Treasure Planet.features, such as "Shrek Goes Forth 3D" [4] Reviewers have generally praised the results of theIMAX recently signed a deal with AMC to start DMR blowup process, which have superior visualutilizing this new technology beginning July 2008[5]. and auditory impact to the same films projected in 35 mm. Many large format film industry professionalsContent point out, however, that DMR blowups are not comparable to films created directly in the 70 mm 15-perf IMAX format. They note that the decline ofAlthough IMAX is an impressive format from a Cinerama coincided roughly with the supersession oftechnical perspective, its popularity as a motion the original process with a simplified, reduced-cost,picture format has traditionally been limited. The technically inferior version, and view DMR withexpense and logistics of producing and presenting alarm. IMAX originally reserved the phrase "theIMAX films has dictated a shorter running time IMAX experience" for true 70 mm productions, butcompared to conventional movies for most now allows its use on DMR productions as well.presentations (typically around 40 minutes). The However, IMAX DMR versions of commercialmajority of films in this format tend to be Hollywood films are generally popular withdocumentaries ideally suited for institutional venues audiences, with many people choosing to pay moresuch as museums and science centers. IMAX than standard admission to see the IMAX version.cameras have been taken into space aboard the SpaceShuttle, to Mount Everest, to the bottom of theAtlantic ocean, and to the Antarctic to film such Since 2002 many other Hollywood films have beendocumentaries. Although IMAX documentaries have remastered for IMAX. Warner Brothers has
  6. 6. especially embraced the format with the • projected elliptically on a dome screen, 20aforementioned Matrix sequels and since 2004 has degrees below and 110 degrees abovebeen releasing its Harry Potter film franchise in perfectly centered viewersIMAX to strong financial success. In 2005 WB alsoreleased Batman Begins simultaneously in IMAX,which buoyed the films strong legs helping it reach$200 m at the domestic box office, and before thefourth Harry Potter film was released in IMAXformat in November had claimed the record for mostbox office by a DMR movie. In summer 2006 WB IMAX venuesreleased the highly anticipated Superman Returnsremastered for IMAX and partially digitallytransformed into 3D (director Bryan Singer chosefour action scenes in the film to show in 3D). AnIMAX exclusive film about the enormous, surprisingsuccess of the Mars Exploration Rovers was releasedin 2006, titled Roving Mars and used exclusive datafrom the Rovers. Spider-Man 3 broke the IMAXgross record in 2007 by a huge margin.Up to 2002, eight IMAX format films have receivedAcademy Awards nomination with one win, theanimated short, The Old Man and the Sea in 2000. The black structure seen in this photo is the LuxorMany IMAX films have been remastered into HDTV IMAX Theater, situated in the Luxor Hotel.format for the INHD channels. Main article: List of IMAX venuesOther Uses for IMAXIn July 2005 the BFI IMAX Cinema in Londonbecame the first to host live music concerts. IMAX Referencestheater owners increasingly look to use the venue atvarying times for alternatives to films. 1. ^ Science Museum London and BFI IMAX 2. ^ National Post Story "Red Flags at IMAX",Cinema have also hosted computer game Monday, April 09, 2007tournaments using digital projectors on the large 3. ^ "Prasads, "Prasads IMAX Multiplex TheaterIMAX screen. Other IMAX Theatres have also - a review"followed suit with game tournaments on their screens 4. ^as well. ries/2007/12/03/daily35.htmlTechnical specifications 5. ^ (15/70) ml?.v=2 • spherical lenses • 70 mm film, 15 perforations per frame • horizontal pulldown, from right to left (viewed from base side) • 24 frames per second • camera aperture: 70.41 mm (2.772″) by 52.63 mm (2.072″) • projection aperture: at least 20.3 mm (0.80″) less than camera aperture on the vertical axis and at least 0.016″ less on the horizontal axis • aspect ratio: 1.34:1IMAX Dome/OMNIMAXSame as IMAX except: • special fisheye lenses • lens optically centered 9.4 mm (0.37″) above film horizontal center line