Evaluation Studies of Cross-Cultural Training Program
OF CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING PROGRAMS
A Review of the Literature From 1988 to 2000
Mu Tong & Dr. Hora Tjitra
Based on: LISA N. LITTRELL, EDUARDO SALAS:
A Review of Cross-Cultural Training: Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs.
Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 2005. p305-334
1. Past Reviews
2. The Purpose of This Review
3. The Efforts
5. Dependent Variables
6. The Rigor of the Studies
7. Conclusions and Implications
Black and Mendenhall (1990)
Deshpande and Viswesvaran (1992)
Bhagat and Prien (1996)
Kealey and Protheroe (1996)
Bhawuk and Brislin (2000)
Others have doubts Don’t establish a “link”
confirms the effect of
regarding the quality of between training and the
CCT on trainees’
these studies whether measured effect on a
CCT effectiveness has dependent variable.
In general, it remains
The result for the same
The effectiveness of CCT unclear which method of
studies does not always
in these studies was CCT is overall most
correspond in different
regarded as too positive effective and which
reviews due to the different
in previous reviews. methods are most
perspectives taken by the
effective in specific
English language vs. Multiple languages:
Specific domains vs. Wide varietay of disciplines:
Management, military studies,
human resource management,
political science and diplomacy,.
✓ U.S. trainees were evaluated most.
✓ Over half of the treatment groups
✓ Lack of manager subjects. Methods
✓ Lectures, culture assimilators and class
discussions were the most often used.
✓ Training was composed of three or
more methods .
Training Methods Used in the
✓ The training took place either prior to,
during, or independently of a sojourn
in another country.
✓ The duration of the training varied
from1/2 to 50 hours over a period of
time ranging from 1 day to 8 months.
✓ Most training focus on a specific
✓ Others were culture general or a
✓ Japanese, U.S. and Canadian cultures
were the most common focus.
The ability to make isomorphic attributions
Knowledge awareness of cultural differences
Problem-solving ability, the ability to deal with cross-culture
Behavior misunderstandings, display of cultural sensitivity
Cultural interest, positive attitude toward members of other
Attitude cultures, trainee ethnocentrism.
Perceived well-being, health and safety concerns, adjusted to
Adjustment a foreign culture, perceived control of the environment.
Performance contribution to company goal.
Satisfaction Trainee satisfaction