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- 1. Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment <ul><li>Principles of Flight </li></ul>
- 2. Principles of Flight <ul><li>Learning Outcome 5: </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to apply the principles of flight and control to rotary wing aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Part 1 </li></ul>
- 3. REVISION
- 4. Questions <ul><li>Name the Forces Acting on a Glider in Normal Flight. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Force, Weight and Lift. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Drag, Weight and Thrust. </li></ul><ul><li>Drag, Weight and Lift. </li></ul><ul><li>Drag, Thrust and Lift. </li></ul>
- 5. Questions <ul><li>How does a Glider Pilot Increase the Airspeed? </li></ul><ul><li>a. Operate the Airbrakes. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Lower the Nose by pushing the Stick Forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Raise the Nose by pulling the Stick Back. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower the Nose by pulling the Stick Back. </li></ul>
- 6. Questions <ul><li>A Viking Glider descends from 1640 ft (0.5 km). </li></ul><ul><li>How far over the ground does it Travel (in still air)? </li></ul><ul><li>a. 17.5 kms. </li></ul><ul><li>b. 35 kms. </li></ul><ul><li>70 kms. </li></ul><ul><li>8.75 kms. </li></ul>
- 7. Questions <ul><li>When flying into a Headwind, the distance covered </li></ul><ul><li>over the ground will: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Be the same. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Decrease. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase. </li></ul><ul><li>No change. </li></ul>
- 8. Propellers <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Define Blade Angle and Blade Angle of Attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Show with the aid of a diagram the Aerodynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Forces acting on a Propeller Blade in flight. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Aerodynamic and Centrifugal Twisting </li></ul><ul><li>Moments acting on a propeller. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Explain the effect of changing forward speed on: </li></ul><ul><li>a. A Fixed Pitch propeller. </li></ul><ul><li>b. A Variable Pitch propeller. </li></ul><ul><li>(and thus the advantages of a variable pitch propeller). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Explain the factors causing swings on take-off for: </li></ul><ul><li>a. A Nose-Wheel aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>b. A Tail- Wheel aircraft. </li></ul>
- 9. Propellers MOD
- 10. Propellers (Terminology)
- 11. Propellers (Terminology) Airflow due to Rotational Velocity
- 12. Propellers (Terminology) Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity
- 13. Propellers (Terminology) Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity Relative Airflow
- 14. Propellers (Terminology) Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity Relative Airflow Chord Line
- 15. Propellers (Terminology) Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity Relative Airflow = AofA Chord Line
- 16. Propellers (Terminology) Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity Relative Airflow = AofA = Blade Angle Chord Line
- 17. Total Inflow Propellers Blade Twist Rotational Velocity Approx 4 o Angle of Attack
- 18. Effect of Airspeed Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity At Zero Airspeed
- 19. Effect of Airspeed Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity (Same) At a Forward Airspeed = Total Inflow TAS + -
- 20. Effect of Airspeed Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity (Same) = Total Inflow TAS + - At a Forward Airspeed Need larger for same
- 21. Effect of Airspeed _ _ _ _ 100% 75% 50% 25% True Airspeed Propeller Efficiency at Max Power Fine Coarse
- 22. Pitch of Propeller Blade _ _ _ _ 100% 75% 50% 25% True Airspeed Fine Coarse Propeller Efficiency at Max Power Variable Pitch
- 23. Why a different Number of Blades?
- 24. Aerodynamic Forces Total Inflow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF
- 25. Aerodynamic Forces Total Inflow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF Total Reaction
- 26. Aerodynamic Forces Total Inflow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF Lift Drag Total Reaction
- 27. Aerodynamic Forces Total Inflow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF Total Reaction Thrust
- 28. Aerodynamic Forces Total Inflow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF Total Reaction Thrust Prop Rotational Drag
- 29. Aerodynamic Forces (Effect of High Speed) TAS+Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF Total Reaction Thrust Slow Speed Fixed Pitch
- 30. TAS+Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF Total Reaction Thrust High Speed Fixed Pitch Aerodynamic Forces (Effect of High Speed)
- 31. TAS+Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF Total Reaction Thrust High Speed Fixed Pitch Aerodynamic Forces (Effect of High Speed)
- 32. TAS+Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF Total Reaction Thrust High Speed Fixed Pitch Aerodynamic Forces (Effect of High Speed)
- 33. TAS+Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF NB: Rotational Drag reduced, RPM ? Thrust High Speed Fixed Pitch Aerodynamic Forces (Effect of High Speed)
- 34. TAS+Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF NB: Rotational Drag reduced, RPM increases. Don’t exceed limits. Thrust High Speed Fixed Pitch Aerodynamic Forces (Effect of High Speed)
- 35. TAS+Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF Total Reaction Thrust Slow Speed Variable Pitch Aerodynamic Forces (Effect of High Speed)
- 36. Faster TAS+Induced Flow Airflow due to Rotational Velocity RAF Total Reaction Thrust (eventually reduces) High Speed Variable Pitch (same or possibly greater) Aerodynamic Forces (Effect of High Speed)
- 37. Windmilling Propeller Negative TAS Airflow due to Rotational Velocity
- 38. Windmilling Propeller Negative TAS Airflow due to Rotational Velocity TR
- 39. Windmilling Propeller Negative TAS Airflow due to Rotational Velocity TR Negative Thrust (Drag)
- 40. Windmilling Propeller Negative TAS Airflow due to Rotational Velocity TR Negative Thrust (Drag) Negative Rotational Drag (Driving The Propeller)
- 41. Windmilling Propeller Negative TAS Airflow due to Rotational Velocity TR Negative Thrust (Drag) Negative Rotational Drag (Driving The Propeller) This may cause further damage, even Fire.
- 42. Feathered Propeller Note that in Firefly/Tutor prop goes to “Fine Pitch” if engine rotating, “Coarse Pitch” if engine seized Although twisted, in aggregate, blade at “Zero Lift α ”. Therefore drag at minimum.
- 43. Take-Off Swings All Aircraft: Torque Reaction means greater rolling resistance on one wheel Helical slipstream acts more on one side of the fin than the other
- 44. Take-Off Swings
- 45. Take-Off Swings Tail wheel aircraft only: Asymmetric blade effect Gyroscopic effect
- 46. Take-Off Swings
- 47. Take-Off Swings Affect all aircraft on rotate?
- 48. Take-Off Swings All Aircraft: Don’t forget crosswind effect!
- 49. Centrifugal Twisting Moment Tries to fine blade off
- 50. Aerodynamic Twisting Moment Tries to coarsen blade up Relative Airflow Total Reaction
- 51. Aerodynamic Twisting Moment Windmilling Tries to fine blade off Relative Airflow Total Reaction
- 52. ANY QUESTIONS?
- 53. Propellers <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Define Blade Angle and Blade Angle of Attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Show with the aid of a diagram the Aerodynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Forces acting on a Propeller Blade in flight. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Aerodynamic and Centrifugal Twisting </li></ul><ul><li>Moments acting on a propeller. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Explain the effect of changing forward speed on: </li></ul><ul><li>a. A Fixed Pitch propeller. </li></ul><ul><li>b. A Variable Pitch propeller. </li></ul><ul><li>(and thus the advantages of a variable pitch propeller). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Explain the factors causing swings on take-off for: </li></ul><ul><li>a. A Nose-Wheel aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>b. A Tail- Wheel aircraft. </li></ul>
- 55. Questions <ul><li>Blade Angle of Attack is between? </li></ul><ul><li>a. The Chord and Relative Airflow. </li></ul><ul><li>b. The Rotational Velocity and the Relative Airflow. </li></ul><ul><li>The Total Reaction and the Chord. </li></ul><ul><li>Lift and Drag. </li></ul>
- 56. Questions <ul><li>Increasing speed with a fixed pitch propeller will? </li></ul><ul><li>a. Be more efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Reduce efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Make no difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the Engine speed. </li></ul>
- 57. Questions <ul><li>The Forces trying to alter the Propeller Blade </li></ul><ul><li>Angle of Attack are? </li></ul><ul><li>a. ATM and CTM. </li></ul><ul><li>b. CDM and ATM. </li></ul><ul><li>CTM and REV. </li></ul><ul><li>AOA and ATM. </li></ul>
- 58. Questions <ul><li>The Resultant Forces that a Propeller produce are? </li></ul><ul><li>a. Lift and Thrust. </li></ul><ul><li>Thrust and Propeller Rotational Drag. </li></ul><ul><li>Drag and Total Reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Drag and Thrust. </li></ul>

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