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Damage assessment of archaeological transport vessels

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Anno Hein, Vassilis Kilikoglou

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Damage assessment of archaeological transport vessels

  1. 1. Damage assessment of archaeological transport vessels Anno Hein and Vassilis Kilikoglou Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology N.C.S.R. “Demokritos“
  2. 2. Ancient wide distance trade Agora Museum, Athens (ASCSA) 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr
  3. 3. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Transport of the containers
  4. 4. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Transport containers of the ancient world Transport amphorae present standardised volumes and shapes (specific for production place and particular content). They had to withstand considerable mechanical loads and stresses during use. Transport containers
  5. 5. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr The transport amphora The primary functions of an amphora were: • Steady containment of the commodity during trade, transport and consumption • Appropriate use of space in storing places • Feasibility to lift and move the container and its content usually by one person • External representation of the content (type of commodity and region of origin) The transport amphora as design problem
  6. 6. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr The transport amphora The transport amphora as design problem Material properties Vessel design
  7. 7. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Material properties Biaxial flexure test load 30 mm 5 mm 2.5 mm
  8. 8. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Material Properties Load – Displacement curves
  9. 9. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of the mechanical tests sphere cylinder ceramic disk Model design
  10. 10. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of the mechanical tests Meshed mechanical model
  11. 11. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of the mechanical tests Deformation and contact area c. 1.2 mm
  12. 12. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of the mechanical tests Contact status
  13. 13. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of the mechanical tests c. 1.2 mm Development of the contact area c. 0.8 mm c. 0.7 mm
  14. 14. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of the mechanical tests Stress in the ceramic disk
  15. 15. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of the mechanical tests 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0.00E+00 5.00E-05 1.00E-04 1.50E-04 2.00E-04 2.50E-04 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0.00E+00 5.00E-05 1.00E-04 1.50E-04 2.00E-04 2.50E-04 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0.00E+00 5.00E-05 1.00E-04 1.50E-04 2.00E-04 2.50E-04 Displacement of the steel sphere loadinN displacement in m Young’s modulus 12 GPa 15 GPa 18 GPa There is still some discrepancy between model and experiment.
  16. 16. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae Model design
  17. 17. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae Modeling of the storage
  18. 18. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae Modeling of the storage
  19. 19. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae
  20. 20. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae weight load fixed support Constraints
  21. 21. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae Estimated strain
  22. 22. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae Estimated stress
  23. 23. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae Contact area
  24. 24. Comparison with observed damages 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae
  25. 25. Comparison with observed damages 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae
  26. 26. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae Comparison with observed damages
  27. 27. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Modeling of amphorae Comparison with observed damages
  28. 28. 06/2016 a.hein@inn.demokritos.gr Summary Amphorae were the most common transport containers for a large variety of commodities in antiquity. Failure of the amphora resulted usually in loss of the content. FEM allows for assessing the mechanical behavior of different amphora types under load. Furthermore, evidence of failure, i.e. observed amphora damages, can be interpreted and reconstructed. Differences of mechanical behavior can be investigated in terms of improvement of design, technology transfer and strategies for design solutions.

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