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Smart and sustainable city case of urban transformation of seoul myounggu kang

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Smart and sustainable city case of urban transformation of seoul myounggu kang

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Smart and sustainable city case of urban transformation of seoul myounggu kang

  1. 1. Smart and Sustainable City Case of Urban Transformation of Seoul Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Seoul Former Director-General of International Urban Development Collaboration, Seoul Metropolitan Government mkangcity@gmail.com
  2. 2. WHY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? WHY CITY? Global Urbanization with Rapid Population Growth 2
  3. 3. Why Cities? – Poverty & Climate • Cities are the engine of growth to eradicate poverty and key to sustainable world to solve climate change problem. • Cities cover only 2 percent of land area of the world. However, they hold 50 percent of population and are responsible for up to 70 percent of greenhouse-gas emissions [and production]. (UN-HABITAT, 2011, Cities and Climate Change: Global Report on Human Settlements ) • "Cities are responsible for the majority of our harmful greenhouse gases. But they are also places where the greatest efficiencies can be made. This makes it imperative that we understand the form and content of urbanization so that we can reduce our footprint," said Joan Clos Executive Director of UN-HABITAT.
  4. 4. Global Urbanization is Surging 2010 2030 2050 2010-2050 World Pop (Billion) 6.90 8.32 9.31 2.41 Urban Pop (B) 3.56 4.98 6.25 2.69 Urban Rate(%) 51.6 59.9 67.2 - Developed Countries Pop 1.24 1.30 1.31 0.07 Urban Pop 0.96 1.06 1.13 0.17 Urban Rate(%) 77.5 82.1 85.9 - Developing Countries Pop 5.66 7.03 8.00 2.34 Urban Pop 2.60 3.92 5.12 2.52 Urban Rate(%) 46.0 55.8 64.1 - Asia Urban Pop 1.85 2.70 3.31 1.46 Africa Urban Pop 0.40 0.74 1.26 0.86 S. America Urban Pop 0.57 0.59 0.65 0.08 Magnitude and Speed of Urbanization do matter Two Chinas Nine USA’s
  5. 5. 5 The world’s megacities, 2007 and 2025
  6. 6. Benefit of Agglomeration • Why people agglomerate? Agglomeration Economies Productivity* increases by – Trade – Economies of Scale – Division of Labor – Knowledge Environmental Protection Current U$ Constant 2005 U$ 1960 156 1,107 1970 292 1,782 1980 1,778 3,926 1990 6,642 8,829 2000 11,948 15,162 2010 22,151 22,236 * Productivity is the fundamental basis of quality of life.
  7. 7. Invisible Beauty of Seoul: Green by “Proactive” Urban Planning
  8. 8. Cost of Congestion • Dis-economies: Challenges to be solved can’t be solved “naturally” – Congestion – Pollution – Water supply shortage – Waste – …
  9. 9. Jakarta Metro Area (Pseudo Urbanization has been happeinng) 10
  10. 10. Technology alone can’t stop Global Warming Impact = f(Pop, Prod, Tech, etc)
  11. 11. Poverty / Slum 12
  12. 12. God made the Country, Man made the Town. (in order for more people, all together, to live better). *word by William Cowper
  13. 13. Three Major Challenges and Corresponding Goals: Maximize the Benefit and Minimize the Cost of Urb. 14 Poverty / Low Productivity Pollution / Climate Change Inequality Growth Green Justice City is the key; Smart and Sustainable City Building
  14. 14. BACKGROUND ON SEOUL & KOREA 15
  15. 15. 16
  16. 16. 17
  17. 17. 18 Seoul Today
  18. 18. 19 Seoul, approx. 50 years ago
  19. 19. SEOUL TRANSFORMATION BEGAN From non-urban or pseudo-urban to city 20
  20. 20. Explosive Growth of Seoul • 270,000 people per year (22,000 people per month) for 3 decades, 1960-1990
  21. 21. School Shanty houses Shanty houses with common toilets by Cheonggyechoen Shanty houses down to Han River (Flood) Shanty houses climbing up to mountains
  22. 22. Urban Land & Housing Solution Until mid 1960’s • Restoration Housing, Prosperity Housing, Hope Housing, City Housing, Public Housing, Welfare Housing, … • Welfare Housing: an affordable housing for mid- and low-class 청량리 부흥주택 (1966) 용두동 후생주택 (1958) 23
  23. 23. Urban Land & Housing Solution until mid-1960’s 24
  24. 24. 3,000 vs. 300,000 1 housing unit per 100 people (existing housing shortage of 1M aside) Housing Supply and Demand early 1960’s Problem #1: Supply Shortage Problem #2: Land Consumption, Sprawl, Transportation, public service
  25. 25. CHANGE OF APPROACH From sprawl to compact; Smart and Sustainable Seoul 26
  26. 26. Spatial Pattern: Two ways to go 27 Explosion of Pop. Low- or hyper-density Large land consumption and/or Inefficiency High-density Small land consumption Market (individual freedom) Planning + Market Personal vs. Social Interest Tension btw landlords vs. tenants Tension btw selected vs. non-selected Sprawl and/or Chaotic Over-crowd Not sustainable Controlled Development Uncontrolled Expansion Compact Transit-Oriented Eco-Friendly Figures from UN-HABITAT (2013)
  27. 27. Which one is greener? 28 (a) (b)
  28. 28. 29 Source: UN-HABITAT (2013)
  29. 29. Invisible Beauty of Seoul: Green by “Proactive” Urban Planning
  30. 30. Walkable City • Spatial Framework (Land Use, Density, Location, Public Space) does matter 31 Source: UN-HABITAT (2013)
  31. 31. MASTER PLAN, 1966 Making a plan for sustainable future development 1962-1965 32
  32. 32. 33 1988 20051957 1972 Began with Urban Planning Seoul Metro Area Master Plan (1965) Visioning the future: Time, space, people, scope were not limited by then situation as was the future growth 7 New Towns
  33. 33. 7 New Towns Master Plan (1965) Master Plan (Revised 1970) Change New Town Pop. Plan Area New Town Pop. Plan Eunpyung 400 7.6 Eunpyung 300 Down Sungin 400 14.9 Miah 300 Down Mangwoo 150 6.9 Cheongryangri 400 Up Cheonho 300 8.6 Cheonho 400 Up Yungdong (Gangnam) 600 59.0 Yungdong(Gangnam) 600 Same Yungdungpo 800 8.6 Yungdungpo 800 Same - - - Gimpo 200 New Total 2,650 105.7 Total 3,000 34 (unit: 1,000 persons, km2) Source: Kwon (2013)
  34. 34. HOW TO REALIZE: GANGNAM & BUNDANG CASES Land Readjustment, 1960’s-1970’s 37
  35. 35. Transforming Land from non-urban to Sustainable Urban Form 38 Road is not only surface for cars but also artery (public space for public services) for a city. Water, Sewage Energy , Gas, Electricity Communication Heat, Cooling, Subway, etc.
  36. 36. Land Readjustment: Transforming Land Valuable Build Together, Benefit Together (BT2) 94 1,300 W/㎡ 36.8% 63.2% 6,200 W 9,750 W/㎡
  37. 37. Expansion of Boundaries Date Area(㎢) 1946. 10. 18 136.00 1949. 08. 13 288.35 1963. 01. 01 613.04 1973. 07. 01 627.06 1988. 01. 01 605.40* *the area did not shrink, but was merely readjusted by survey  Seoul doubled its administrative area in 1963 to resolve the urban problems, including southern area of Han river (In Korean, Gang means river and Nam means south) Gangnam was a New Town outside Seoul 39 Gangnam
  38. 38. ▲ 강남 1974년 Gangnam Development • Envisioning vs. Forecasting • 30 years of development from an idea to completion Source: Lee (2006 ▲ 강남 1988년▲ 강남 1957년
  39. 39. Urban Planning: Vision, Framework and Process 1976년 19951987년 출처:서울연구원 (2009) Government Planning and Private Development 출처:서울시 (2013) 1972년 19881980년
  40. 40. 사진출처: 서울역사박물관, 2011, 강남 40년 영동에서 강남으 ▲ AID아파트 미국 국제개발처(AID)자금을 들여와 논현동과 삼성동에 아파트를 지어 분양함 ▲1971. 12. 28 공무원아파트 준공(자료 : 국가기록원) Gangnam Development Phasing Issues due to Financing
  41. 41. • Set Land Use Framework as the Ground of Future Growth • Secure Public Space for Public Services (e.g., Transit, Water) • Set Growth Limit for Protecting Nature from Sprawl and Citizens from Disasters (e.g., Flood) • Provide Urban Land and Infrastructures for the Life, Work, and Play of Citizens Achievements 45 Pop in 1960: 2.45 M 1970 1976 1981 Population (Thousand) 5,509 7,150 7,500 Income per cap (KRW) 138,810 189,580 268,240 Urban Land (㎢) 130 201.7 261.7 Housing (Unit) 593,370 863,970 1,300,00 0 Hosing Supply Rate (%) 56.8 56.3 56.1 Housing Area per cap (㎡) 6.8 8.2 10.1 Water Prod (10T t/day) 111 210 302 Road Area (㎢) 34.85 44.57 55.69 Road Rate (%) 9.5 12.0 15.0 No. of Cars 61,000 170,000 315,000 Subway (km) - 26.5 64.0 Green/Park per cap (㎡) 4.04 5.73 6.60
  42. 42. Ⅱ. 토지구획정리사업의 전개과정 및 유형화 도출 46 Sum By Gov’t By Association By Housing Corp No of Sites Area(㎢) No of Sites Area(㎢) No of Sites Area(㎢) No of Sites Area(㎢) Sum 58 140 51 131.2 4 5.8 3 3  140㎢ (40% of Urban Area in Seoul) developed through Land Readjustment unit : year 1930’s 1940’s 1950’s 1960’s 1970’s 1980’s 1990’s Avg Avg 19.8 19.4 13.8 7.0 6.2 6.3 4.4 7.4 Public 19.8 19.4 13.8 7.0 6.5 6.3 4.2 8.3 Assoc. 5.7 5.6 6.8 4.5 5.6 출처 : 토지구획 정리사업의 고찰과 개선방안, 김동욱, 국토연구원 자료 : 건설교통부 도시관리과(1995. 6. 현재)  140㎢ (40% of Urban Area in Seoul) developed through Land Readjustment
  43. 43. 47 1st Phase Total Area 50 K㎡ Pop 1.2 M Housing 292,000 (Condo 281,000) 5 New Towns in 1990’s In the late 1980s, as the situation of housing shortages became worse and the existing available land for large-scale urban development was nearly exhausted, the population began to spillover beyond the green belt. Faced with limitations in land supply for urban development, the central government began to build several new towns in the Seoul Metropolitan Region including Bundang in Sungnam, Ilsan in Goyang, Pyeongchon in Anyang, Sanbon in Gunpo, and Jungdong in Bucheon.
  44. 44. Land Use Plan 48 Total % Bundang Ilsan Pyung- chon Sanbon Jung- dong Total 50,140 100.0 19,639 15,736 5,106 4,203 5,456 Residential 17,230 34.4 6,350 5,261 1,931 1,811 1,877 Commercial 3,866 7.7 1,640 1,233 247 178 568 Public 29,044 57.9 11,649 9,242 2,928 2,214 3,011 Road 10,388 20.7 3,860 3,290 1,187 639 1,412 Green 9,548 19.0 3,810 3,705 801 649 583 Gov't 676 1.3 166 92 150 100 168 School 2,402 4.8 732 584 343 327 416 Etc. 6,030 12.0 3,081 1,571 447 499 432 (unit: thousand ㎡, %)
  45. 45. Bundang 49 Urban Development Protects Environment
  46. 46. Seoul – Smart and Sustainable City
  47. 47. CHENGGYECHEON RESTORATION Urban Regeneration 51
  48. 48. 52
  49. 49. 7/2/2015 53 Cheonggyecheon, 1960’s
  50. 50. 7/2/2015 54
  51. 51. 7/2/2015 55
  52. 52. 7/2/2015 56
  53. 53. Cheonggyecheon Elevated Highway 57
  54. 54. 7/2/2015 59
  55. 55. Rising Congestion and Its Cost • Decreasing Average Travel Speed: 30.8 km/h in 1980 -> 13.6 km/h in 2004 • Increasing Socio-economic congestion cost: over KRW 7 trillion in 2007 (five times that of 1991) 58
  56. 56. Motivations • Safety: Fundamental Solution to Safety Problem Related to Cheonggye Expressway and Covering Road (re-building express highway was scheduled in 2001) • Environment: Creation of Nature and Human-centered Environment-Friendly City Space – Provision for citizens’ clear river and relaxation space by restoring Cheonggyecheon as a natural stream with bright sunshine and clean air and by developing the nearby area as an ecological park • Culture: Recovery of Seoul’s 600-year-old Historical and Cultural Importance as Capital – Restoration of cultural relics in Cheonggyecheon such as Gwanggyo(Bridge) and Supyogyo(Bridge); Reincarnation of traditional cultures including Supyogyo(Bridge) tread and lotus lantern festival; Reestablishment of Seoul’s history and cultural identity by creating cultural space linked to cultural relics within 4 great gates; Utilization of Cheonggyecheon as representative cultural tour resource in Seoul • Economy: Induction to Revitalization of Downtown Area’s Underdeveloped Area – Inducement to reorganize the industrial structure around the underdeveloped Cheonggyecheon area and invigorate the depressed downtown economy due to the lagging development for some 50 years since the Independence. 7/2/2015 60
  57. 57. Before-Restoration Situation • Characteristics – located in densely populated area – the area nearby is deteriorated – dried : natural water circulation system is blocked – various interest group • Functions – flood control – environmental and ecological space – historical and cultural place 7/2/2015 61
  58. 58. Key Issues in Engineering & Design 7/2/2015 62 Lake type Natural type Urban type preferable Types of Waterfront
  59. 59. Key Issues in Engineering & Design 7/2/2015 63 An example of modification: storm water diversion Urban type Natural type Requires pumping station and maintenance facilities Diversion tunnel Sustainable ?
  60. 60. Key Issues in Engineering & Design 7/2/2015 64 Allocation of Space Ecological space or a space for human ? ? Space for Human Ecological Space “limited access” “free access” optimal allocation Left side : for human activity Right side : mainly for ecology
  61. 61. Construction Process 7/2/2015 65
  62. 62. Cross-section of Cheonggyecheon 7/2/2015 66
  63. 63. 67 Urban Regeneration throu Cheonggyecheon Restorati
  64. 64. Green: Env. Sustainability 68
  65. 65. Cheonggyecheon: Place for People and Activity 7/2/2015 69
  66. 66. Cultural Assets and Green (Pedestrian) Network 7/2/2015 70
  67. 67. Change in Pedestrian Volume before (April 2003) and after (April 2006) 7/2/2015 71 Weekdays Sunday
  68. 68. Revitalizing Old Downtown 7/2/2015 73
  69. 69. Growth: Competitive City 74 New Developments Office Rent Increase Usage Changes: 44 during 2002~2005년; 895 during 2006~2009년 Land Price Increase
  70. 70. Cost 7/2/2015 75 Project Time Scale Cost ($) Cost/km ($) Cheonggyecheon Seoul, Korea 2003-2005 5.8 km 345M (KRW 380B) 59M The High Line (Section 1,2) New York, NY 2003- 1.6 km 152M 95M The Big Dig Boston, MA 1982-2007 12 km 22B 1,833M Sanjicheon Jeju, Korea 1997-2002 474 m 33M (KRW 36B) 69M
  71. 71. SMART CITY 76
  72. 72. What is Smart City? Increase the Benefit of Agglomeration Decrease the Cost of Congestion Infrastructure Technology Information Technology Next Technology Smart City Quality of Life Industrial Age Information Age
  73. 73. Urbanization Phase 1 Urbanization Phase 2 Urbanization Phase Infrastructure Technology Information Technology Major Tech Quantity (Capacity) QualityMajor Issue
  74. 74. Development of Urban Transportation System in Seoul Phase 1: Quantity - Infrastructure Technology 1. Buses 2. Roads 3. Rails (Subways)
  75. 75. Development of Urban Transportation System in Seoul Phase 2: Quality - Information Technology Smart management
  76. 76. Achievement: Output • the speed of bus in the peak time increased by 30% on average (10 ~ 80% depending on the section) • The citizens’ public transportation fee decreased by 30% on average. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012
  77. 77. Achievements: Outcome • Seoul’s PM10 decreased from over 75㎍/㎥ in 2002 to 44㎍/㎥ in 2013. NO₂ also decreased from 0.037ppm in 2001 to 0.033ppm in 2013. • Public transit ridership showed an increase by 5.5% during the period of July 2004 to June 2005. • The satisfaction rate increased from 14.2% to 36.9% after the reform. Major factors for the satisfaction were ‘discounted transfer fare’ and ‘integration of subway and bus. Mode Share
  78. 78. Phase 1: Quantity Infrastructure Technology Tukdo 0.5 M m3/d Amsa 1.6 M m3/d Gui 0.25 M m3/d Kang Book 1.0 M m3/d YDP 0.6 M m3/d Kwang Am 0.4 M m3/d [Tukdo WTP] [YoungDeungPo WTP] [Gui WTP] [AmSa WTP]
  79. 79. Phase 2: Quality Information Technology Flow monitoring system : 437 flow meters RWR Increase  DB for pipes of 9,844km  DB of 1.44 million attributes of the facilities GIS system - Production cost reduction: Source water, chemicals, energy ※ 1.64 M. $ of direct cost reduction by RWR 1% increase Reduced direct cost - Reducing construction cost and capacity ·9 WTP’s with 7,300,000㎥/day (1999) ·Closed 4 WTP’s and supply reduction by 1,900,000 ㎥/day Reduced indirect cost  Monitoring water flow using flow meters installed at water supply points, districts, mid-scale blocks, reservoirs, and booster stations.  Systematic and scientific management of data  Appropriate decision making and utilities investment  Scientific maintenance of utilities
  80. 80. Category 1960 1970 1980 19891) 2012 Pop. Served (1,000) 1,462 4,738 7,756 10,507 10,442 Water post (1,000) 107 329 724 1,5042) 2,024 Service rate (%) 59.8 85.6 92.7 99.3 100 Ave. production (103 m3/d) 30 81 223 448 321 Supply (L/d/capita) 163 171 395 426 303 Pipe network (km) 564 6,518 13,942 18,084 13,801 RWR (%) 38.2 55.63) 51.5 55.2 94.3 Output 1) Office of Waterworks started its service, 2) as of 1990, 3) as of 1969 Quantity Resolved w/ Infrastructure Technology Quality Resolved w/ Information Technology
  81. 81. Urban Planning Information System (UPIS) Foundation
  82. 82. E-Governance • More Participation and Bi- or Multi-lateral Collab. (Democracy) • Faster Process and Response (Efficiency) • Transparency
  83. 83. SUMMARY 89
  84. 84. Urbanization is an Opportunity Source: Bloom and Khanna (2007)
  85. 85. 1966 Seoul Metro Area Master Plan: Sustainable Development Guide to Compact, Transit-oriented, Eco-Friendly Seoul 90 1960 1975 1990 Greenbelt Old Center Pop: 2.4M Density: 91 인/ha Area: 268 km2 Priority: Spatial Framework, Public Space, Water Pop: 6.9M Density: 110 인/ha Area: 600 km2 Priority: Urban Land, Urban Rail, Sewage Pop: 10.6M Density: 175 인/ha (Net Density 265 인/ha) Area: 600 km2 (developed Land 400 km2) Priority: Compact, Smart, Urban Transit, e-Gov (Density, Location) Environment Protection by Proper Development (Roads, Schools, Parks, etc.)
  86. 86. 1M Creative Economy People and Nature10MIndustrial Economy Quantity and Efficiency Decline Regeneration by Creative of (Public) Space 92 Cheonggyecheon Destruction Re-creation
  87. 87. What to do to become a Smart and Sustainable City 1. Supply urban land (new towns, if necessary) 2. Transform land from non-urban to urban form 3. Secure Public Space (Roads, Green, Schools, Public facilities, etc.) • Quantity – at least 40% of urban land • Quality – Good Network 4. Urban Structure: Sub-centers (new towns) and Public Transportation 5. Density: 1st 100 people/ha (public transp.), 2nd 200 people/ha (walk) 6. IT Technology for Smarter City 7. Green, Blue (Water), and Sustainability for our children 7/2/2015 91
  88. 88. Action without Vision is only passing time, Vision without Action is merely day dreaming, but Vision with Action can change the world. Dream don’t work, unless YOU DO. – Nelson Mandela – June 2015 Myounggu Kang, Ph.D. Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Seoul Former Director-General of International Urban Development Collaboration, Seoul Metropolitan Government mkangcity@gmail.com

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