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Seoul internationalurbandevelopmentcollaboration 20140517

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Seoul internationalurbandevelopmentcollaboration 20140517

  1. 1. 1 Infrastructure Development for Growth and Sustainability: Experience of Seoul KOTRA Global Project Plaza 2014 Seoul, Korea, May 20-22, 2014 Myounggu Kang, Ph.D. Director-General, Int’l Urban Development Collaboration, Seoul Metropolitan Gov’t Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Seoul mk@uos.ac.kr kang1116@seoul.go.kr
  2. 2. 2 Outline • Why City? • Why Urban Infrastructure? • Where to start? • How to build? • Total Solution from Seoul: Public and Private • Concluding Remarks
  3. 3. 3 Why Cities? – Poverty & Climate • Cities are the engine of growth to eradicate poverty and key to sustainable world to solve climate change. • Cities cover only 2 percent of land area of the world. However, they hold 50 percent of population and are responsible for up to 70 percent of greenhouse-gas emissions [and production]. (UN- HABITAT, 2011, Cities and Climate Change: Global Report on Human Settlements ) • "Cities are responsible for the majority of our harmful greenhouse gases. But they are also places where the greatest efficiencies can be made. This makes it imperative that we understand the form and content of urbanization so that we can reduce our footprint," said Joan Clos Executive Director of UN-HABITAT.
  4. 4. 4 Seoul Today
  5. 5. 5 Seoul, approx. 50 years ago
  6. 6. 6 Perspective from Outside 1961 Unemployment is estimated at as high as 25 percent of the labor force. Gross national product in 1960 was less than $2 billion and per capita income well under $100. Electric generating capacity is only one-sixth that of for example, Mexico and annual output is less than 70 kilowatt hours per capita. The only other source of energy is coal, there being no oil or natural gas. Mineral resources are deficient in several other vital categories. As much as three-fourths of the forest area is either denuded or covered with scrub growth. Exports have averaged a scant $20,000,000 annually as opposed to a volume of imports (exclusive of military items) amounting to $200,000,000 per year. Thus it can easily be seen that there is no possibility of an economic miracle being wrought in South Korea. Unemployment Rate 25%, Per Capita GNP well under U$ 100 Electric Generation Shortage No Oil, Gas, Mineral Resources Exports U$ 20M per year Imports U$ 200M per year Source: Foreign Affairs (October 1961)
  7. 7. 7May 20, 2014 A miracle that did happen  average GNP growth of 7.6% for 6 decades since 1950  Per-capita GDP $69 (1953) -> $20,000(2010)  transformed from a beneficiary to a prominent world player
  8. 8. 8 What are needed for Growth? • Y = f ( K, L, I | N ) • K(Capital): Finance, Capital Goods, Land, Buildings, Infrastructure, etc. • L(Labor): Labor, Expertise, Creativity, Entrepreneurship, Attitude, etc. • I(Institution): Organization, Regulation, Social Capital, Market, Equality, etc. • N(Natural Endowment): Natural Resources, Geographical Proximity, Climate, etc. • Black: can be borrowed • Red: should be built locally • Orange: can be borrowed in early phase, later should be built locally • Blue: little things to be done 8
  9. 9. 9 Where to Start? Cities & Infrastructure Resources Idea/Vision Will Action Resources are Limited, Idea is Unlimited 資源有限 創意無限 - Taejun Park (Slogan of POSCO) circa 1968 - Where to start? Building a STAGE where ideas can dance. Cities and Infrastructure
  10. 10. 10 Why Infrastructure? Path to Success Case of Gyeongbu Expressway • Started in February 1968, the construction of the four-lane highway with a total length of 428km was finished after 29 months in July 7, 1970. • The construction cost estimated 650 billion won at its highest. • The actual cost was 42.9 billion won (95.6% of fund was raised within Korea), making it the cheapest and also the quickest in the history of highway construction at that time. • The cost was equivalent to 23.6 % of the Korea’s annual budget.. • Expressway construction itself created more than 100,000 jobs. • Outcome: Transportation time & cost reduction (13.5T won worth). -> Business Boom (Supply-driven) • Issues: Opposition
  11. 11. 11 London mid-1800’s Seoul 1960’s Urbanizing Cities 2010’s Cities and Infrastructure begin with Urban and Regional Planning
  12. 12. 12 Seoul Urbanization Planning Set an order in Land Use; then Build Together Benefit Together
  13. 13. 13 Explosive Growth of Seoul • 270,000 people per year (22,000 people per month) for 3 decades, 1960-1990
  14. 14. 14 School Shanty houses Shanty houses with common toilets by Cheonggyechoen Shanty houses down to Han River (Flood) Shanty houses climbing up to mountains
  15. 15. 15 Two ways to go 15 Explosion of Pop. Low- or hyper-density Large land consumption and/or Inefficiency High-density Small land consumption Market (individual freedom) Planning + Market Personal vs. Social Interest Tension btw landlords vs. tenants Tension btw selected vs. non-selected Sprawl and/or Chaotic Over-crowd Not sustainable Controlled Development Uncontrolled Expansion Compact Transit-Oriented Eco-Friendly Figures from UN-HABITAT (2013) Figure from UN(2011)
  16. 16. 16 Which one is green? 16 (a) (b)
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Seoul: Growth and Susainability
  19. 19. 19 Walkable City • Spatial Framework (Land Use, Density, Location, Public Space) does matter 19 Source: UN-HABITAT (2013)
  20. 20. 20 What Urban Planning does? Activity Building District Neighborhood (Transit, Water) (Energy, Waste, etc.) Infrastructure Urban Plan (Spatial Framework; Land Use in order) Nature 20 seen unseen ground underground What we can see is the tip of an iceberg What we cannot see is crucial for sustainability private public 남산 중턱 주택 한강변 호텔 Few People, Low Density Old Days Much freedom of individuals in land use and location is acceptable.
  21. 21. 21 What Urban Planning does? Activity Building Neighborhood District (Transit, Water, etc.) (Energy, Waste, Internet, etc.) Infrastructure Urban Planning (Spatial Framework; Land Use in order) Nature 21 seen unseen ground underground What we can see is the tip of an iceberg What we cannot see is crucial for sustainability of community private public 남산 중턱 주택 한강변 호텔 Many People, High DensityFew People, Low Density TodayOld Days We need an interface between individual right of freedom and sustainable development of city community – planning.
  22. 22. 22 Sustainable Spatial Framework: Seoul Metro Area Master Plan 1965 22출처: 권영덕 (2013) Visioning the future: Time, space, people scope were not limited by then situation as was the future growth
  23. 23. 23 1965 Seoul Metro Area Master Plan: Sustainable Development Guide to Compact, Transit-oriented, Eco-Friendly Seoul 23 1960 1975 1990 Greenbelt Old Center Pop: 2.4M Density: 91 인/ha Area: 268 km2 Priority: Spatial Framework, Public Space, Water Pop: 6.9M Density: 110 인/ha Area: 600 km2 Priority: Urban Land, Urban Rail, Sewage Pop: 10.6M Density: 175 인/ha (Net Density 265 인/ha) Area: 600 km2 (developed Land 400 km2) Priority: Compact, Smart, Urban Transit, e-Gov (Density, Location) Environment Protection by Proper Development (Roads, Schools, Parks, etc.)
  24. 24. 24 Public Transportation Plan switched to align with the master plan 24 Before After
  25. 25. 25 Implementation - Land Readjustment: Build Together, Benefit Together 25 1,300 W/㎡ 36.8% 63.2% 6,200 W 9,750 W/㎡
  26. 26. 26 Sooyu Land Readjustment 26 Road is not only surface for cars but also artery (public space for public services) for citizens, community, and businesses. Water, Sewage Energy , Gas, Electricity, Communication, Heat, Cooling, Subway, etc. Resiliency: emergency access, space for escape
  27. 27. 27 Sooyu Land Readjustment: Land Use Change 94.3% 66.9% 3.0%2.4% 6.3% 21.1% 0.9% 1.8% 3.3%
  28. 28. 28 Extension of Boundary Date Area(㎢) 1946. 10. 18 136.00 1949. 08. 13 288.35 1963. 01. 01 613.04 1973. 07. 01 627.06 1988. 01. 01 605.40* *the area did not shrink, but was merely readjusted by survey  Seoul doubled its administrative area in 1963 to resolve the urban problems, including southern area of Han river (In Korean, Gang means river and Nam means south) Gangnam was a New Town outside of Seoul 28 Gangnam
  29. 29. 29 ▲ 강남 1974년 Gangnam Development • Envisioning vs. Forecasting • 30 years of development from an idea to completion Source: Lee (2006 ▲ 강남 1988년▲ 강남 1957년
  30. 30. 30사진출처: 서울역사박물관, 2011, 강남 40년 영동에서 강남으로 ▲ AID아파트 미국 국제개발처(AID)자금을 들여와 논현동과 삼성동에 아파트를 지어 분양함 ▲1971. 12. 28 공무원아파트 준공(자료 : 국가기록원) Gangnam Development Phasing Issues
  31. 31. 31 Vision, Framework and Process 1976년 19951987년 출처:서울연구원 (2009) Government Planning and Private Development 출처:서울시 (2013) 1972년 19881980년
  32. 32. 32 Land Readjustment Projects 140㎢ (40% of Urban Area in Seoul) developed through Land Readjustment Sum By Gov’t By Association By Housing Corp No of Sites Area(㎢) No of Sites Area(㎢) No of Sites Area(㎢) No of Sites Area(㎢) Sum 58 140 51 131.2 4 5.8 3 3 Before 1960 1960s 1970s 1950. 1. Extension 1963. 8. Extension
  33. 33. 3333 1st Phase Total Area 50 K㎡ Pop 1.2 M Housing 292,000 (Condo 281,000) New Towns with Infra In the late 1980s, as the situation of housing shortages became worse and the existing available land for large-scale urban development was nearly exhausted, the population began to spillover beyond the green belt. Faced with limitations in land supply for urban development, the central government began to build several new towns in the Seoul Metropolitan Region including Bundang in Sungnam, Ilsan in Goyang, Pyeongchon in Anyang, Sanbon in Gunpo, and Jungdong in Bucheon.
  34. 34. 34 Urban Regeneration through Public Space (Cheonggyecheon) Transformation 1960’s 1980’s 2000’s
  35. 35. 35 Transformed to an Integrated Public Transportation 1970’s 2000’s
  36. 36. 36 Sewage Gas Purification Electricity Urban Environment Transforming to Circular Metabolism - Nanji Dry Pallet 1980’s 2000’s
  37. 37. 37 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  38. 38. 38 Smart and Sustainable Urbanization Economic Growth, Social Inclusiveness, and Environmental Health Urban Land Transp- ortation Water Energy Communi- cation
  39. 39. 39 Smart and Sustainable Urbanization • With rapid growth of cities; proper urbanization planning (spatial framework) is required • “Urban planning is not about images but is a way to make a difference; it is a framework that helps cities transform a vision into reality using space as a key resource for development and engaging stakeholders along the way.” (UN-HABITAT, 2013) • Urban planning is an important tool for cities to achieve sustainable development. • Leadership is crucial. OutcomeImplementation Production OutputConsensus Leadership Plan Result Planning
  40. 40. 40 Subway #3,4 Opened (1985) 63-building & Olympic Road constructed (1987) World Cup (2002) Cheonggyecheon Covering (1960) Sewoon Mixed-Use BLDG (1968) Subway #1 opened(1974) Seoul Olympics (1988) Cheonggyecheon Restoration for Urban Regeneration (2005) Cheonggyecheon Elevated Rd.(1976) Namsan Apt Demolition (1994) 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Sampoong Department Store Collapse (1995) Sungsoo Bridge Collapse(1994) • Yeoido Development Plan • Green Belt Designation • Urban Planning Law • Land Readjustment Law • Housing Construction Promotion Act • Act on the Utilization and Management of the National Territory • Housing Site Development Promotion Act • Capital Region Master Plan Act • Mapo Apt • Sooyu Land Readjustment Project • Yukchon Land Readjustment Project • Seoul Metro Area Master Plan • Yungdong (Gangnam) Development Complete Mapo Apt.(1962) • Youngdong (Gangnam) Land Readjustment Project Uncontrolled Expansion ←|→ Controlled Development 1.6M 2.4M 79U$ 3.8M 5.4M 254U$ 6.9M 8.4M 1,645U$ 9.6M 10.6M 6,147U$ 11.0M 10,841U$ 20,045U$
  41. 41. 41 Lessons from Seoul and Korea • Today’s Rapid Urbanization in the world should be different from the past and west. • Growth with Compact City (e.g., Higher Density), Urban Infrastructure (e.g., Public Transportation), and Healthy Environment (e.g. Natural Area Preservation). • Timing and Speed are most critical. (e.g., Population of Seoul increased by 270,000 per year from 1960-1990) • Government Leadership is crucial.
  42. 42. 42 Integrated Total Solution of both Public and Private • Seoul is the only city which has recently overcome the extreme poverty and learned hands-on experiences in Sustainable Growth through transforming from one of poor cities to one of the high quality cities. • Seoul is ready to share its experiences with all the cities who want growth and sustainability. Gov’t Private Cities & Infrastructure in Urbanizing WorldPlanning Institution Engineering Construction
  43. 43. 43 Envisioning – Will – Action Myounggu Kang, Ph.D. Director-General, International Urban Development Collaboration, Seoul Metropolitan Government Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Seoul mk@uos.ac.kr kang1116@seoul.go.kr Seoul is ready to collaborate with your cities.

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