Peru Nations Report: Part 1 Irving Simpson 19 May 2100 History 141
<ul><li>The geography of Peru is divided up into three basic regions: the Amazon Basin, the coastal region, and the Andean mountain ranges </li></ul><ul><li>Each region has its own unique climate and supports a unique flora and fauna unlike any of the other areas </li></ul><ul><li>Peru is on the Pacific coast of South America entirely south of the equator </li></ul><ul><li>The climate of Peru is very diverse and includes a large variety of climates and microclimates, including 28 of the 32 world climates </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon Basin lies in the east of Peru and makes up about 60% of Peru’s territory </li></ul><ul><li>The region has many rivers including the Amazon River and is covered with tropical rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Weather is warm and humid year-round and rainfall ranges from about 80 to 150 inches per year </li></ul><ul><li>The coast of Peru is located between sea level and 1,650 feet and is where more than 50% of the country’s population is located, including Lima, the capital </li></ul>Geography of Peru Manú National Park, a biosphere reserve in the Peruvian rainforest.
Geography of Peru <ul><li>The west of Peru along the Pacific coast is in the rain shadow of the Andes and features deserts, beautiful beaches and fertile valleys </li></ul><ul><li>The Humboldt Current has a considerable cooling influence on the climate of Peru and is also partially responsible for the aridity in coastal areas of Peru </li></ul><ul><li>The Humboldt Current and coastal upwelling allow for one of the world’s most productive marine ecosystems supporting an important fishing industry in Peru </li></ul><ul><li>The Andes Mountains reach over 20,000 feet above sea level and are so vast that it can be divided into several sub-regions each with a different microclimate supporting a diverse array of flora and fauna </li></ul><ul><li>Rain varies widely from 8 to 60 inches per year in the mountains and the seasons are divided into a dry winter and wet summer </li></ul><ul><li>Nevado Huascarán is the highest peak in Peru at 22,205 feet above sea level </li></ul><ul><li>As an extreme, Peru also has a point over 100 feet below sea level, Bayovar Depression </li></ul>Alpamayo, a mountain peak in the Huascarán National Park
People of Peru <ul><li>Peru is a country of 29.5 million inhabitants, 75.9% live in urban areas and 24.1% in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>The major city is Lima on the coast with over 8 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Peru is a multiethnic country and is home to people of many different historic and cultural backgrounds, where citizenship defines the country of origin but not the ethnicity of a person </li></ul><ul><li>Because the Peruvian census does not collect data about ethnicity, estimates are necessary to determine the ethnic makeup of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Amerindians: 45%, Mestizos: 37%, European: 15%, Afro-Peruvians: 2%, Asians and others: 1% </li></ul><ul><li>The Andes are the homeland of many indigenous populations in Peru, especially the southern Andes; many also live in the coastal regions due to the massive economic migration to the cities from remote Andean regions over the past four decades </li></ul><ul><li>Most whites are coastal urban dwellers, most commonly of Spanish decent, but also of Italian, British, French, German, Irish, and Croatian heritage </li></ul>
<ul><li>Peruvians of European origin have traditionally been more dominant in the political, commercial, and diplomatic sectors of Peruvian society </li></ul><ul><li>Many people from European heritage have mixed with Amerindians to create a new demographic group called mestizos </li></ul><ul><li>There is advantage to being white In many parts of Latin America where it is socially desirable and associated with high socio-economic status </li></ul><ul><li>Whiteness is more often connected to socio-economic status than to specific phenotypic traits </li></ul><ul><li>The common wisdon is that "Money Whitens" </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike in the U.S. where even a little African blood would make one black and subject to segregation, Latin America promoted miscegenation through the idea that even a small amount of European blood could confer significant upwards social mobility </li></ul><ul><li>A strict caste system was in place from colonial times and primarily based on race. </li></ul><ul><li>It became possible to dilute mestizo blood to the point where one might be considered white </li></ul><ul><li>Buying one’s way into the white, criollo, class was possible and popular </li></ul>People of Peru The Peruvian Miss World in 2004
Culture of Peru <ul><li>Tourism is Peru’s third largest industry with cultural tourism as the largest sector and the ruin of Machu Picchu as the most prominent and popular destination </li></ul><ul><li>Machu Picchu is thought to be the imperial estate of Incan emperor Pachacuti that was built in the 1400’s and then abandoned after the Spanish conquest; it was never discovered by the Spanish conquistadors and therefore, was never defiled </li></ul><ul><li>Machu Picchu, called "The Lost City of the Incas", was unknown to the outside world before being brought to light in 1911 by the American historian Hiram Bingham </li></ul><ul><li>Since its discovery, the number of tourists visiting Machu Picchu has continued to grow, rising to 400,000 visitors in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Machu Picchu is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is under consideration for the List of World Heritage Sites in Danger </li></ul><ul><li>As Peru's most visited tourist attraction and major revenue generator, Machu Picchu is under constant economic and commercial pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Bingham recovered treasures and artifacts from Machu Picchu and removed them to Yale University for further study, supposedly for only 18 months </li></ul><ul><li>Over the years, Yale has argued that Peru was not able to properly care for the Incan relics and retained the pieces in Yale’s museums and collections </li></ul><ul><li>Yale has recently (21 November 2010) agreed in principle to the return of the controversial artifacts to their original home in Peru </li></ul>Incan citadel of Machu Picchu
Culture of Peru <ul><li>Peru's unique variety of climates and landscapes has helped to make the Peruvian menus some of the most diverse in the world </li></ul><ul><li>The geographic areas of Peru, the coastal, mountainous/highland, and tropical, are so different that each has different cooking styles and local ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>More culinary variety comes from the diversity of ethnic influences, from the indigenous, Spanish, Asian, and African people and their distinct cooking styles and dishes </li></ul><ul><li>The rich Pacific Ocean offers an abundance of fish and seafood </li></ul><ul><li>Ceviche is a mixture of fish, shrimp, scallops, or squid marinated in lime juice and peppers and is considered a Peruvian national specialty </li></ul><ul><li>The diet of the Andes resembles the food of the ancient Incas </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes, corn, rice, and various meats (beef, pork, chicken, and guinea pig) are common in the highland cuisine </li></ul><ul><li>Peru is the ancestral home of the potato that has been a staple food for thousands of years; over 2000 species of potatoes are native to Peru and the Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Meats and fresh fruits and vegetables are the basis of the tropical Peruvian diet </li></ul><ul><li>Experts agree, Peru may have the best food in the world </li></ul>A beautiful plate of potato, corn, salad, and ceviche
History of Peru <ul><li>The Peruvian War of Independence was a component and extention of the Peninsular War </li></ul><ul><li>The Peruvian War began in 1809 and ended with a proclamation of independence, July 28, 1821 </li></ul><ul><li>During the Peninsular War (1807–1814) the Spanish Empire lost its central authority and many regions established autonomous juntas </li></ul><ul><li>Peru was a stronghold of royalist support and fought against in the surrounding provinces against the uprisings </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of royalist inclinations in Peru, juntas did arise in reaction to the approaching patriot armies from Buenos Aires </li></ul><ul><li>Peru became the second to the last refuge of the Spanish Monarchy in South America (after Upper Peru) but eventually succumbed to patriot armies after the successful campaigns of José de San Martín (1820–1823) and Simón Bolívar (1823–1825). </li></ul><ul><li>José de San Martín captured the caiptal, Lima in 1821, proclaimed independence for Peru, and ascended to power as the first President of Peru </li></ul><ul><li>The final defeat of Spanish royalist resistance came almost four years later at the Battle of Ayacucho (9 December 1824), the decisive battle that ended the Peruvian War of Independence and also the battle that wrapped up the Spanish American Wars of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>After the war of independence, conflicts between various interest groups of Criollo society and individual caudillos made the political organization of the country very difficult </li></ul>San Martín proclaims the independency of Peru . Oil painting by Juan Lepiani.
<ul><li>The Shining Path movement was founded by Abimael Guzmán whose teachings created the basis for its militant Maoist doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>At first, Shining Path was largely limited to academic circles in Peruvian universities </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 1970’s, the movement developed a guerrilla army and by 1980 had launched its war against the government of Peru by violently disrupting democratic elections </li></ul><ul><li>Shining Path went on to control vast rural territories in central and southern Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Early on, Shining Path's campaign attempted to demoralize and undermine the government in order to facilitate a violent coup and government takeover </li></ul><ul><li>At first, Guzmán tried to rally citizens to the cause by attacking corrupt officials and unpopular leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Soon strict social control and brutal treatment were leading to popular resentment </li></ul><ul><li>The same peasants Shining Path claimed to support turned against the group and started fighting back and supporting government military opposition </li></ul><ul><li>The guerillas retaliated by torturing and killing the peasants; the Lucanamarca massacre in 1983 resulted in the torture and murder of 69 peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Guzmán was captured and imprisoned in 1992, causing the movement to deflate </li></ul><ul><li>The Shining Path insurrection wasre-established by the early 2000’s, perhaps in alliance with narco-traffickers </li></ul><ul><li>A new leader, calling himself Comrade Artemio, emerged in 2004 and threatened continued violence unless the government made concessions by releasing Shining Path leaders </li></ul><ul><li>The violence continues with killings as recent as April 2010 </li></ul>History of Peru Screenshot of Comrade Artemio, leader of Shining Path