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The Many Lands of South America


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A detailed look at the different landscapes across South America

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The Many Lands of South America

  1. 1. Reported by: Genevieve C. Serilo BSEd 2D The Many Lands of South America
  2. 2. •Today, the larger countries of this region are diversifying their economies and attempting to meet the demands of rapidly growing populations. South America is a continent in change.
  3. 3. Three Sub Regions of South America
  4. 4. •Andes Mountains System •Middle-Latitude South •Brazil
  5. 5. 1. The Andes Mountains System
  6. 6. o They rise from the waters of the Caribbean in eastern Venezuela and curve southward along the continent’s west coast for 4,000 miles.
  7. 7. Four Human Settlements found in Andes Mts.
  8. 8. o Hot and humid coastal lowlands o Warm piedmonts o Cool uplands o Alpine pastures predominate o Lower levels of oxygen and lower atmospheric pressure
  9. 9. The Northern Andean Nations of Venezuela, Columbia and Ecuador
  10. 10. Venezuela o Caracas, the capital is located at an elevation of 3,000 ft. above sea level. o The birthplace of Bolivar, it is one of the continent’s leading centers of education.
  11. 11. Oil: Venezuela’s Wealth o With proven oil reserves of 60 billion barrels, Venezuela has the largest reserves of any country outside the Middle East, with the possible exception of Russia and Indonesia. o It is also the second- largest supplier of oil to the United States, next to Saudi Arabia.
  12. 12. The Vast Tar deposits along the Orinoco River
  13. 13. A Multi-purpose Dam is being constructed at Guárico River
  14. 14. Today, less than 5 percent of Venezuela’s labor force is engaged in industry and its population in the 1990s is growing rapidly.
  15. 15. Because the country’s standard of living depends more on oil than on its productive capacity, Venezuela is facing low economic growth, lower standards of living, high levels of inflation and unemployment.
  16. 16. Natural Wonders of Venezuela o The Angel Falls is Venezuela’s cream of the crop; it is the world’s tallest waterfalls standing at 979 meters, roughly a kilometer in height.
  17. 17. Orinoco Delta o Located in the eastern side of Venezuela, the Orinoco Delta is a fan-shaped landscape perfect for picnics and lunch-outs.
  18. 18. La Gran Sabana o Located in the Brazilian- Venezuelan border, this picturesque wonder is the home to some of Venezuela’s endemic species.
  19. 19. Mochima National Park o This land area is so vast that it covers 94,930 hectares and it stretches itself to Venezuela’s northern shores.
  20. 20. Puerto La Cruz o Puerto La Cruz is Venezuela’s prime beach complex, and is located in the eastern part of Venezuela, just the neighbor of the beaches of Mochima National Park.
  21. 21. Columbia o Bogotá, the capital, with a population of 6 million people, is located at an elevation of 8, 500 ft. in the easternmost mountain range. o Cotton, sugarcane, cocoa, cattle and coffee became the country’s most important economic products.
  22. 22. •The forested slopes of the Pacific coast •The grasslands east of the Andes (the Llanos Orientales) Two Major Regions of Columbia:
  23. 23. Coca, from which cocaine is derived, has emerged as a high-value crop replacing food-producing agriculture.
  24. 24. In 1993, however oil began to flow from a large field located about 100 miles east of Bogotá, providing the country with its largest economic bonanza ever.
  25. 25. Natural Wonders of Columbia o Also known as The Virgin Nature, Gorgona is an island about 50 km off the coast of the Colombian Pacific that speaks of biodiversity. o As an oceanic island sizing up to 24 km2, 85% of it is covered by thick tropical jungle, which is home to babilla alligators, reptiles and marine turtles.
  26. 26. La Tatacoa Desert o Covering an area of 330 km2, the La Tatacoa is located near the municipality of Villavieja, which is known to be Colombia’s paleontological capital. o La Tatacoa serves as an astronomical rise in which 88 constellations can be observed.
  27. 27. Sumapaz Moor o A 154 – hectare marsh land rich in diverse fauna and flora species, the Sumapaz Moor is located in Bogota, and is widely accepted as the world’s largest moor.
  28. 28. Flamingos Natural Park o Since 1977, it has been a sanctuary to a huge American flamingo population, which is easily the main tourist attraction, althoug h many other varieties can also be seen.
  29. 29. Amacayacu: The Hammock River o Covering a 293,500 – hectare area, the Amacayacu is truly a place of adventure and exploration. Its flora and fauna is richly luxurious, and about 486 bird species have been recorded to inhabit the place. Notably, it is also home to the world’s smallest primate, the lion marmoset (Leontopithecus rosalia).
  30. 30. Choco Forest o Found in Choco, Colombia, it is considered as one of the natural wonders of the world. o It is considered by many experts as the richest lowland when it comes to flora and fauna.
  31. 31. Ecuador o In the Andean highlands, where most of Ecuador’s 10.3 million people live, the population is predominantly native Indian. o There is a subsistence cultivation of corn, barley, wheat and potatoes.
  32. 32. On the eastern slopes of the mountains, the vast tropical forests of the Amazon River begins, are the homelands of the Jivaro Indian tribes.
  33. 33. Natural Wonders of Ecuador o One of the most famous islands in the world for all naturalists, Galapagos Islands and its diversely radiated finches and turtles gave way to Charles Darwin’s crucial insights on the theory of evolution and natural selection.
  34. 34. Galapagos Rift o Galapagos Rift, Equador is a volcanic hotspot located in the East Pacific Ocean that resulted in the formation of the Galapagos Islands and Malpelso, Carnegie, C ocos all which are aseismic ridge systems lying on two tectonic plates.
  35. 35. El Oriente’s Rainforest o El Oriente will give you a peek into the abundance of the Amazon Rainforest, the largest rainforest ecosystem in the world, featuring its lowland tropical broad leaf rainforest that is also part of the Amazon Basin.
  36. 36. Cuicocha Lakeo Cuicocha Lake is actually a crater lake located at the foot of the already extinct Cotacahi Volcano. o The place has become a trekking and hiking area for nature lovers because of the deep blue water of the lake and the extraordinary terrain.
  37. 37. Isla de la Plata o Isla de la Plata has been nicknamed “Silver Island.” o Either way, the tour into this tiny, peaceful island will give you a change to sight numerous humpback whales, dolphins and a variety of birds.
  38. 38. Cotopaxi National Park o The experience won’t be complete without a glimpse into Cotopaxi National Park which boasts one of the tallest and still active volcanoes on earth, the Cotopaxi Volcano. o Surrounding this majestic landmass are beautiful lakes and mountain scenery with glaciers that sparkle in the sun.
  39. 39. Ecuador’s Chimborazo Volcano, with an altitude of over 20, 000 ft., is part of the Ring of Fire.
  40. 40. The Mountain Republics of Peru and Bolivia
  41. 41. Peru o Roughly one- third of Peru’s population, its richest agricultural land, and most of the country’s manufacturing, fi shing, and petroleum production, is found along the coast.
  42. 42. • 1. Around Lake Titicaca, where the moderating climatic influence of the lake makes corn cultivation possible at high elevations; Three areas of dense settlement are found in the highlands:
  43. 43. Lake Titicaca, world’s highest navigable lake.
  44. 44. 2. Near Cuzco, the old capital of the Inca Empire
  45. 45. 3. At the mining complex of Cerro de Pasco, inland from Lima
  46. 46. Natural Wonders of Peru o Alpamayo Mountain is a candidate for one of the Seven Natural Wonders of South America. o Although lower than some of the surrounding peaks, it does reach a height of 19,511 feet (5,947 m).
  47. 47. Gocta Cataracts o Most of the waterfalls in the world only have a single drop, but Gocta Cataracts is different, it has two drops which reach 771 meters in height, making it the third tallest free- leaping waterfall in the word.
  48. 48. El Misti o Standing at 19,000 feet above sea level, El Misti is a stratovolcano located in the southern part of Peru.
  49. 49. Lake Titicaca o Lake Titicaca is divided in to two sides where the eastern side of the lake belongs to Bolivia while the western side is for Peru.
  50. 50. Manu National Parko This park is home to more than 20,000 species of flowers and faunal species that would make you feel that you are in an African safari.
  51. 51. Amazon Rainforest o The colorful birds are perfect for your kids to enjoy watching. Truly, the Amazon Rainforest is the affirmation of Peru’s innate wonders.
  52. 52. Peru’s Colca Canyon is more than twice as deep as the Grand Canyon.
  53. 53. Bolivia o The people of Bolivia, two-thirds of whom speak indigenous languages, are divided by race, language and local economy.
  54. 54. Elsewhere, settlement is limited by climate and terrain, and primary settlement nodes are determined by location of Bolivia’s mining economy (tin and other metals), which provides 80% of the country’s export.
  55. 55. La Paz is the highest capital at more than 12, 000 ft. in elevation.
  56. 56. Natural Wonders of Bolivia o It is the largest salt flat on Earth which was formerly part of Lake Minchin, a prehistoric lake.
  57. 57. Lake Titicaca o Located in the borders of Peru and Bolivia, Lake Titicaca has the highest- point elevation among the lakes in the world.
  58. 58. Los Espejillos o Despite being a landlocked country, Bolivia possesses a number of sparkling waterfalls. One of these is found in Los Espejillos, in the western part of Sta. Cruz.
  59. 59. Illampu o Despite being only the 4th highest in terms of altitude, Illampu is considered as one of the most challenging climb in Bolivia.
  60. 60. Beni o Much of Bolivia’s diverse wildlife and vegetation is reflected in the department of Beni, part of the tropical lowlands of Bolivia.
  61. 61. Yungaso The Yungas acts like a transitional zone between the eastern forests and the Andes. It exhibits neotropic Eco zones in that not only is it humid and rainy, but also warm.
  62. 62. Elongated Chile
  63. 63. The Andes Ranges converge in the south to form a narrow mountain spine that sweeps 2, 500 miles toward the South Pole. This outlines the long, narrow Pacific Republic of Chile.
  64. 64. Northern Chile o In Northern Chile, the Atacama Desert extends 600 miles along the coast. o Rich nitrate deposits and copper ore mines are the vital contributions of the Chilean north to the national economy.
  65. 65. Southern Chile o The Southern extreme of Chile, from the Bío-Bío River to the tip of Tierra del Fuego, is also thinly populated. o It is a region with a cool, damp environment of forests and fjords.
  66. 66. Today, forestry on the Pacific coast, sheep raising in high mountain valleys and petroleum discoveries in Terra del Fuego have integrated this region into the national economy.
  67. 67. Punta Arenas, Chile, is the southernmost city in the world.
  68. 68. Central Valley: the “heartland” of Chile o Between the Northern Deserts and the Southern Forests lies the Central Valley, where some 65% of the nation’s 13.5 million people live. o Central Valley is the most favored agricultural region of Chile.
  69. 69. Natural Wonders found in Chile o The Bío-bío River is Chile’s second longest river with a length of 380 kilometers. o River rafting is one of the most exciting activities in the river and you will be pumped with adrenal hormones as you paddle it hard to conquer the river’s rapids.
  70. 70. Ranco Lake o Located in the province of Ranco in Chile, Ranco lake is the fourth largest lake in Chile and is a popular destination for family outings and friendly getaways.
  71. 71. Vina del Mar o The name itself affirms nature’s touch, the Vineyard by the Sea. o Vina del Mar is a beach complex located in Chile’s central coast which faces the Pacific Ocean.
  72. 72. Los Lagos Region o Los Lagos Region is a home to different natural wonders including the waterfall that can be found in the Chaicas River.
  73. 73. Osorno Volcano o Osorno Volcano is an active volcano in Chile;famous for its very distinct white top covered with ice. It somehow resembles the famous volcano in Japan, Mt. Fuji.
  74. 74. 2. The Middle- Latitude South
  75. 75. The three temperate countries of Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay are part of a middle- latitude prairie that stretches from the foothills of the Andes Mountains eastward to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.
  76. 76. Argentina in Development
  77. 77. • In Argentina, early colonization of native Indians, strong European immigration, and the economic development of the fertile grasslands of the pampas have created a unique land and people reminiscent of the American development of the Great Plains.
  78. 78. After 1880s, Native Indians were driven from the pampas, and cattle ranches were founded to feed the expanding populations of industrial Europe.
  79. 79. The pampas are now the core of Argentina. Two-thirds of Argentina’s population of 33.5 million people live on this grassland, which produces 80 percent of the nation’s exports.
  80. 80. Buenos Aires, with a population near 12 million, is a primate city which is much larger than any other city in the country.
  81. 81. • The scrub forests of the Chaco in the north, • The Andean foothills in the west, and • Windswept Patagonia to the South - Now contribute to the national economy. The three less-developed regions of Argentina:
  82. 82. The Chaco is now a pioneer region where logging and cattle-raising are supplemented by cotton, sugar and tobacco.
  83. 83. In the foothills of the Argentine Andes, sugar, grapes and other fruit crops are grown.
  84. 84. On the barren tablelands of Patagonia, which stretch 1,000 miles south from the pampas to the tip of the continent, population growth has been limited by political enmity between Chile and Argentina and by environmental constraints.
  85. 85. The “Train of the Clouds” crosses the viaduct of Polvorilla in northern Argentina. South American railways are among the highest in the world.
  86. 86. Natural Wonders of Argentina o It is a complex system of waterfalls. There are some noting that Iguassu Falls is made up of 275 separate falls, however the locals say there are 75 separate falls. o Iguazu Falls is one of the Seven Wonders of South America.
  87. 87. Rio Correntoso and Lacar Lake o Rio Correntoso and Lacar Lake are two water related facets of nature located in Patagonia, Argentina and is a home to different kinds of flora and fauna.
  88. 88. Mar del Plata Beacheso Mar del Plata is the best place for those who want to spend quality time with the waves of the Atlantic Ocean. o Sunrise in the Mar del Plata beach area is also very tranquil; it makes you feel that the heavenly bodies are getting close to nature.
  89. 89. Bariloche o Bariloche is a mountain province located in the western part of central Argentina. o The place is perfect for taking a variety of landscape photographs with lakes, mountains, glacier ice, forests and more.
  90. 90. Patagoniao In areas where temperature is not freezing, Patago nia has several lakes and streams for you to ford.
  91. 91. The La Plata Countries of Paraguay and Uruguay
  92. 92. • Uruguay, with its mild climate, low-rolling terrain, and rich grasslands, is a buffer zone between the two large and powerful nations of Brazil and Argentina. • Originally settled by the Portuguese, then taken over by Spain, Uruguay revolted against both countries and eventually became independent in 1825. Uruguay
  93. 93. The introduction of sheep and immigration from Spain and Italy are keys to Uruguay’s modern development.
  94. 94. Its economy is deeply engaged in animal husbandry. In fact, sheep and cattle outnumber people by ten to one in Uruguay, and about 70 percent of the territory of the country is in pasture.
  95. 95. The Uruguayans, half of whom live in the primate city of Montevideo(population of 1.6 million), have the highest literacy rate, the lowest rate of natural increase, the best diet and one of the highest standards of living of any South American country.
  96. 96. Natural Wonders of Uruguay o A popular resort town in the south-eastern side of Uruguay, Punta del Este is high- class holiday relaxation experience with a variety of beaches and shorelines to discover.
  97. 97. Lunarejo Valley o Its ravines and prairies have become home hundreds of bird species (with only about 150 identified), amphibians and reptiles. This biological richness has made the valley a valuable area not only as a sightseeing site but also as a habitat for many organisms.
  98. 98. Vulture Gorgeo Containing the largest canyon in the country that has an outgrowth of a subtropical forest at the foot of the gorge, Vulture Gorge, or Quebrada de los Cuervos to the natives, resembles a figure of a throat and is close to Treinta-y-Tres.
  99. 99. Esteros de Farrapos National Park o Alongside Esteros de Farrapos are 24 other islands enclosed in the protective measures. o There are also over 200 bird species identified in that park with a number of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies.
  100. 100. Rocha o A mix of spectacular landscapes and waterscapes as well as a wide diversity of flora and fauna is the features you would find upon arriving in this department.
  101. 101. Rocha o A hidden gem inside Rocha is Cabo Palonio where you can find sea lions lazing about in the sand dunes. There’s just so many things to discover in Rocha which makes it an unlimited experience.
  102. 102. • The eastern third of Paraguay, with its rich soils, luxuriant grasslands, and gentle terrain, was settled by the Spanish. • The western two-thirds of the country, the wilderness scrub forest known as the Chaco, was brought into the Spanish domain by the Roman Catholic missionaries. Paraguay
  103. 103. Currently, the only productive agricultural zone in Paraguay is located near the capital city of Asunción where cotton, tobacco, and market gardening are important.
  104. 104. Throughout the remainder of Paraguay, extensive cattle ranches and slash-and- burn agriculture of cotton, corn, manioc and beans are found.
  105. 105. Asunción
  106. 106. Natural Wonders of Paraguay o Being a UNESCO World Natural Heritage site, the Iguassu Falls carries a stunning and wonderful beauty with the waters running down such a wide cliff that is twice the width of Niagara Falls.
  107. 107. Gran Chacoo Found on the lowland region of Rio de la Plata basin, this sparsely populated plain gives an excellent home to over 5000 species of which almost 500 of them are relatives of the cultivated species but is wild.
  108. 108. Mbatoví Eco- Reserve o Endangered species are also found here such as the Chachi fern. The waters in the reserve is unpolluted that is why species in the area has been flourishing. Birds, reptiles and mammals are also abundant in Mbatoví eco-reserve.
  109. 109. 3. Brazil
  110. 110. Discovered by accident in 1500 by the Portuguese explorer Pedro Cabral, Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and the largest in Latin America.
  111. 111. • The old Northeast on the country’s Atlantic “shoulder”; • The East, focused on the throbbing industrial heartland of São Paulo and the traditional capital, Rio de Janeiro; • The South; • The wilderness of the Central West, brought into the modern age by the construction of the new capital of Brasília; and • Amazônia, the world’s largest drainage basin and rainforest, a region now threatened by increasing human activity. Five Basic Regions found in Brazil:
  112. 112. The Northeast
  113. 113. The old Northeast, surrounding the shoulder of Brazil, is the culture hearth of Portuguese America.
  114. 114. •The warm, rainy coasts of the Northeast are well suited to sugarcane cultivation, and the Northeast still produces one-third of Brazil’s agricultural harvest. •In some places, the fertile red soils of the coastal lowlands have been producing cane and cacao for 400 years. Recently, cotton has been introduced in the drier coastal areas and in the fringes of the upland interior.
  115. 115. The bulk of the Northeast’s population of 44 million lives east of a line drawn across the shoulder from the northerly city of Fortaleza (population of 2 million)
  116. 116. To the southerly city of Salvador (population of 2.3 million).
  117. 117. Recife, long the most important settlement in this region, has a population of 2.5 million today.
  118. 118. The culture of Brazil was largely formed in the backcountry of the Northeast, in what Brazilians call their sertao.
  119. 119. The sertao is a barren land covered by dry land grasses and thorny scrub.
  120. 120. The coast and the sertao are quite different.
  121. 121. •The cyclic nature of drought, worsened by deforestation in the sertao, makes this region overpopulated.
  122. 122. •In the coastal lowlands, the persistence of rigid social barriers, absentee landlords, and exhaustion of the soil have encouraged migration out of the Northeast to the more dynamic regions of contemporary Brazil.
  123. 123. •More than 3.5 million Brazilians have emigrated from the Northeast in the last generation to escape one of the most poverty- stricken areas in the hemisphere.
  124. 124. The East
  125. 125. Eastern Brazil makes up one-tenth of the land area of Brazil, but has nearly one-half of the country’s population.
  126. 126. Four of every ten Brazilians live in densely settled countryside around the nation’s two largest cities,
  127. 127. São Paulo (population of 19 million)
  128. 128. Rio de Janeiro (population of 12 million)
  129. 129. In 1910, the discovery of rich mineral deposits north of Rio de Janeiro led to a flood of international investment in the region.
  130. 130. The world’s largest reserves of iron ore are found in Brazil, which is both the top exporter and producer of iron ore in the world.
  131. 131. •A basic problem for Brazil has been energy sources.
  132. 132. The Brazilian South
  133. 133. •The Brazilian South, which supports one-sixth of the country’s population, experienced a different pattern of colonization than elsewhere in Brazil.
  134. 134. •The first to penetrate the interior of the South were the Germans, who grew corn, rye, and potatoes, and raised pigs.
  135. 135. •Italian immigrants later extended the frontier, clearing the forests and planting vineyards deeper in the interior.
  136. 136. •As high-technology farming envelopes the Brazilian South, people with small farms are being driven out, and the South is beginning to bear the mark of a fundamental Brazilian problem – landlessness.
  137. 137. The Itaipú Hydroelectric Dam
  138. 138. The Central West
  139. 139. •The “first front” of the Brazilian frontier in the middle 1960s extended into the Central West, which surface geography is largely composed of exposed rock.
  140. 140. Vegetation tends to be a mix of savanna and scrub woodland known as the Campo Cerrado.
  141. 141. Despite these conditions, farming expanded throughout the region, but the main stray of the Central West soon became livestock raising.
  142. 142. Symbol of the Brazilian desire (and need) to conquer the wilderness, Brasília was founded in 1959 as a planned, forward capital.
  143. 143. Brasília
  144. 144. Amazônia
  145. 145. The vast Amazonian interior has been hailed as one of the world’s last frontiers.
  146. 146. •The region’s tropical environment stubbornly resisted all but the most determined efforts at permanent European settlement until recently.
  147. 147. Belém (population of 1.2 million), gateway to the Amazon, is the focus for the development of the Eastern Amazon.
  148. 148. Iron ore and hydropower are under development in the state of Pará.
  149. 149. Inland, the 3,900 mile-long river passes by Manaus, capital of Brazil’s largest state, Amazonas.
  150. 150. The continuously hot, humid climate and infertile soils of the tropical rain forests that cover the Amazon basin kept it almost unoccupied by Europeans until modern times.
  151. 151. The construction of a Trans-Amazonian Highway Network linking the major regions of the Amazon.
  152. 152. •Amazônia is Brazil’s hope for the future. Mining and selling the minerals of Amazônia are seen as a way to pay off the country’s soaring debts.
  153. 153. Natural Wonders of Brazil
  154. 154. Iguassu Falls o These waterfalls are found in the province of Misiones that splits the Iguazu River into two parts, the upper and lower Iguazu. o Iguassu Falls is one of the Seven Wonders of South America.
  155. 155. Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park o Almost 200 kilometers north of Brasilia, this park covers 231,000 square miles of vast floras and faunas, along with the different vegetation it possess.
  156. 156. Fernando de Noronhao Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago consisting of 21 islands, about 350 kilometers off the Brazilian coast. o Fernando de Noronha is also a UNESCO World Heritage site, and visitation of the archipelago is limited to few visits.
  157. 157. Atlantic Forest o Animals are abundant in this forest including about 200 endemic bird species and harbors 5% of the vertebrates on the planet. The Atlantic Forest is also home to about 8% of the plants in the world, with some 450 species of trees recorded.
  158. 158. Flooded Forest o The Flooded Forest is 300,000 square kilometers, comprising 6% of the total ecosystem of the Amazon basin.
  159. 159. Sugar Loaf Mountain o The peak is the only example of the monolithic morros made of granite and quartz that mount directly in a straight form from the edge of the water from the mouth of Guanabara Bay.
  160. 160. The Guianas (Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana)
  161. 161. French Guiana o It is an overseas region of France. o Its 83,534 km2 (32,253 sq mi) have a very low population density of less than 3 km2 (1.2 sq mi).
  162. 162. Half of its 236,250 people in 2011 live in the metropolitan area of Cayenne, its capital.
  163. 163. A large part of the department's economy derives from the presence of the Guiana Space Centre, now the European Space Agency's primary launch site near the equator.
  164. 164. In 2008, the GDP of French Guiana at market exchange rates was US$4.72 billion (€3.21 billion)ranking as the largest economy in the Guianas, and the 11th largest in South America.
  165. 165. French Guiana is consists of two main geographical regions: a coastal strip where the majority of the people live, and dense, near- inaccessible rainforest which gradually rises to the modest peaks of the Tumac-Humac mountains along the Brazilian frontier.
  166. 166. Tumac-Humac Mountains
  167. 167. French Guiana's highest peak is Bellevue de l'Inini in Maripasoula (851 m (2,792 ft)
  168. 168. Other mountains include Mont Machalou (782 m (2,566 ft)
  169. 169. Mont St Marcel (635 m (2,083 ft)
  170. 170. Mont Favard (200 m (660 ft)
  171. 171. Montagne du Mahury (156 m (512 ft)
  172. 172. The three Îles du Salut (Salvation Islands)
  173. 173. Devil's Island
  174. 174. Prison Block
  175. 175. Îles du Connétable Bird Sanctuary
  176. 176. Île Royale
  177. 177. The Petit-Saut dam hydroelectric dam in the north of French Guiana forms an artificial lake and provides hydroelectricity.
  178. 178. Waki River
  179. 179. The Guiana Amazonian Park, one of the nine national parks of France.
  180. 180. Suriname (formerly Dutch Guiana)
  181. 181. Suriname o At just under 165,000 km2 (64,000 sq mi), Suriname is the smallest sovereign state in South America.
  182. 182. Suriname has a population of approximately 560,000, most of whom live on the country's north coast, where the capital Paramaribo is located.
  183. 183. The economy is dominated by the mining industry, with exports of alumina, gold, and oil accounting for about 85% of exports and 25% of government revenues, making the economy highly vulnerable to mineral price volatility.
  184. 184. Highest point: Juliana Top - 1,230 meters (4,040 ft)
  185. 185. Guiana Shield
  186. 186. Bakhuys Mountains
  187. 187. Mt. Tafelberg at 1,026 metres (3,366 ft)
  188. 188. Mount Kasikasima at 718 metres (2,356 ft)
  189. 189. Voltzberg at 240 metres (790 ft)
  190. 190. Coppename River Watershed
  191. 191. The Central Suriname Nature Reserve is a UNESCO World Heritage Site cited for its unspoiled forests biodiversity.
  192. 192. Wia Wia Natural Reserve
  193. 193. The country has one large reservoir, the Brokopondo Reservoir.
  194. 194. Brownsberg Natural Reserve
  195. 195. Guyana (formerly British Guiana)
  196. 196. Guyana o Guyana is a developing nation on the north coast of South America. o The vast majority of Guyanese nationals live along the coast, leaving the interior largely unpopulated and undeveloped.
  197. 197. Around one-third of the population (230,000) live in the capital, Georgetown.
  198. 198. In 2011, the GDP of Guyana at market exchange rates, at PPP, was $5.783 billion (total) and $7,465 (per capita)
  199. 199. The country can be divided into five natural regions:
  200. 200. • A narrow and fertile marshy plain along the Atlantic coast (low coastal plain) where most of the population lives; • A white sand belt more inland (hilly sand and clay region), containing most of Guyana's mineral deposits; • The dense rain forests (Forested Highland Region) in the southern part of the country; • The desert savannah in the southern west; • And the smallest interior lowlands (interior savannah) consisting mostly of mountains that gradually rise to the Brazilian border.
  201. 201. Mount Ayanganna (2,042 metres / 6,699 feet)
  202. 202. Monte Caburaí (1,465 metres / 4,806 feet)
  203. 203. Mount Roraima (2,810 metres / 9,219 feet – the highest mountain in Guyana) on the Brazil-Guyana-Venezuela tripoint border, part of the Pakaraima range.
  204. 204. Pakaraima Range
  205. 205. Guyana's table-top mountains (tepuis)
  206. 206. Rupununi Savanna and Kanuku Mts.
  207. 207. Kanuku Mountains
  208. 208. Kaieteur Falls
  209. 209. Essequibo River at 1,010 kilometres (628 mi) long.
  210. 210. The Courantyne River at 724 kilometres (450 mi).
  211. 211. The Berbice River at 595 kilometres (370 mi).
  212. 212. The Demerara River at 346 kilometres (215 mi)
  213. 213. Shell Beach o The 145 km (90 mi) wide Shell Beach lies along the northwest coast, which is also a major breeding area for sea turtles (mainly Leatherbacks) and other wildlife.
  214. 214. Kaieteur National Park
  215. 215. Historic Georgetown