• Discussions of the people’s sexual and reproductive health needs have been largely sidetracked because of the too much attention given on the population itself.
According to Reproductive Health is“a state of complete physical, mentaland social well-being and...notmerely the absence of disease orinfirmity, in all matters relating to thereproductive system and itsfunctions and processes.
Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able tohave a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have thecapability to reproduce and thefreedom to decide if, when and how often to do so.
Implicit in this last condition are the right of men andwomen to be informed [about] and to have access tosafe, effective, affordable andacceptable methods of family planning of their choice,
as well as other methods of birth control which are notagainst the law, and the right of access to appropriate health- care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.”
Male Reproductive Health• Prostate and testicular cancers are among the leading causes for males.• Other serious concerns for males include erectile dysfunction, impotence, and premature ejaculation.
• Erectile dysfunction (ED) is when a man has trouble getting or keeping an erection. ED becomes more common as you get older. But male sexual dysfunction is not a natural part of aging.
• Impotence is a common problem among men characterized by theconsistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse or the inability to achieve ejaculation, or both.
• It’s almost impossible to get an accurate definition of premature ejaculation: what some couples consider a satisfactory length of intercourse would be very inadequate for others.
• At the 2006 Congress of the European Society for Sexual Medicine, an American research paper reported: the average lasting time of men with PE was 1.8 minutesnormal men lasted an average of 7.3 minutes.
• But there were males who claimed to have premature ejaculation, yet who could last up to 25 minutes. This clearly shows people have wildly differing ideas about what is normal!
Female Reproductive Health• Common causes of mortality rate among females includes postpartum hemorrhage, eclampsia, and sepsis.• Breast cancer remains to be the leading cause of cancer deaths in the country for Filipino women, followed by cervical cancer and ovarian cancer.
• Postpartum hemorrhage is excessive bleeding following the birth of a baby. About 4 percent of women havepostpartum hemorrhage and itis more likely with a cesareanbirth. Hemorrhage may occurbefore or after the placenta is
• The average amount of blood loss after the birth of a single baby in vaginal delivery is about 500 ml (or about a half of a quart). The average amount of blood loss for a cesarean birth is approximately 1,000 ml (or one quart).
Eclampsia • Eclampsia, a life-threatening complication of pregnancy, is acondition that causes a pregnant woman, usually previously diagnosed with preeclampsia(high blood pressure and proteinin the urine), to develop seizures or coma.
• Sepsis is an illness in which the body has a severe response to bacteria or other germs.• This response may be called systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).
• Reproductive health problems remain the leading cause of ill health and death for women of childbearing age worldwide.
According to the WHO: • Each year, 358, 000 women die due to complications related to pregnancy and childbirth; 99% of these deaths occur within the most disadvantaged population groupsliving in the poorest countries of the world.
National Health Situation of Filipino WomenPhilippine Maternal Mortality Rate(MMR) remains high at 162 deaths forevery 100,000 live births. The NationalStatistics Office fears that the slowdecline in MMR may cause thePhilippines to miss its MDG target ofbringing down the MMR to 53 by theyear 2015. (Family Planning Survey2006).
Maternal deaths account for 14% ofdeaths among women. According tothe Commission on Population, ten (10) women die every 24 hoursfrom pregnancy or childbirth-related complications (Popcom 2000).
29 infants of every 1,000 live births die before reaching one year of age; 40 young children diebefore reaching five yearsof age. (NSO, NDHS 2003)
Close birth spacing andhigh-risk pregnancies have been shown to be closely related to childhood mortality. (NSO, NDHS 2003)
The Filipino womans desired number of children is 2.5.However, the actual fertility rate is3.5 children or a difference of one child. This difference is due mainly to the lack of informationon and access to family planning services. (NSO, NDHS 2003)
Infertility• A 1986 WHO study found out that 10 to 15 percent of couples were unable to produce a child.• In the Philippines, the 1998 National Demographic Health Survey showed that two percent of women were infertile.
Abortion and Post-abortion Complications• Of the 3.1 million pregnancies in the country every year, 15 percent end in induced abortions and another 15 percent result in spontaneous abortion.
• In a study conducted by the Guttmacher Institute and the UP Population Institute, 72percent of Filipino women who have had an abortion cited financial difficulty as the main reason for terminating their pregnancy.
Sexually Transmitted Infections• HIV prevalence in the country remains low, with a cumulative case of 3, 061 as of the end of 2007.
• However, for the last two years, new cases have breached the 300-mark. Atthe National Dissemination Forum 2008Philippine Country Progress Report, Dr. Eric Tayag presented the first HIV and AIDS Registry Annual Report and based on the data generated by theRegistry, 342 new cases were recorded in 2007, 28 of which are AIDS cases.
• Other common STIs include non-gonoccocaltype, trichomoniasis, andgonorrhea (10.1 percent)