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Training Need Analysis


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Training Need Analysis

  1. 1. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... Lesson: 19 Training Need Analysis: Contents: o Training Need Assessment o Philosophy of Training o Need for employee training and development o Areas of training o Issues of employee training Training Need Assessment Training efforts must aim at meeting the requirements of the organizations (long – term) and the individual employees (short-term). This involves finding answers to questions such as: Whether training is needed? If yes, where it is needed? Which training is needed? Once we identify training gaps within the organisation, it becomes easy to design an appropriate training programme. Training needs can be identified through the following types of analysis (Thayer & McGhee Model): 1) Organisational analysis: It involves a study of the entire organization in terms of its objectives, its resources, the utilization of these resources, in order to achieve stated objectives and its interaction pattern with environment. The important elements that are closely examined in this connection are: Analysis of objectives: This is a study of short term and long-term objectives and the strategies followed at various levels to meet these objectives. Resource utilisation analysis: How the various organisational resources (human, physical and financial) are put to use is the main focus of this study. The contributions of various departments- are also examined by establishing efficiency indices for each unit. This is done to find out comparative labour costs, whether a unit is under manned or over manned. .
  2. 2. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... Environmental scanning: Here the economic, political, socio- cultural and technological environment of the organisation is examined. Organisational climate analysis: The climate of an organisation speaks about the attitudes of members towards work, company policies, supervisors, etc. Absenteeism, turnover ratios generally reflect the prevailing employee attitudes. 2) Task or role analysis: This is a detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations and conditions under which it has to be performed. The focus here is on the roles played by an individual and the training needed to perform such roles. The whole exercise is meant to find out how the various tasks h be performed and what kind of skills, knowledge, attitudes are needed to the job needs. Questionnaires, interviews, reports, tests, observation and methods are generally used to collect job related information from time-to-time. After collecting the information, an appropriate training program may be designed, paying attention to (i) performance standards required of employees, (ii) the tasks they have to discharge, (iii) the methods they will employ on the job and (iv) how they have learned such methods, etc. 3) Manpower analysis: Here the focus is on the individual-in a given job. There are three issues to be resolved through manpower analysis. First we try to find, whether performance is satisfactory and training is required. Second, whether the employee is capable of being trained and the specific areas in which training is needed. Finally, we need to state whether poor performances (who can improve with requisite training inputs) on the job need to be replaced by those who can do the job. Other options to training such as modifications in the job or processes should also be looked into. Personal observation, performance reviews, supervisory reports, diagnostic tests help in collecting the required information and select particular training options that try to improve the performance individual workers. Learning Principles: The Philosophy of Training Philosophy The purpose of training and development is to maintain and improve effectiveness and efficiency of individuals within the organization. This can only
  3. 3. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... have sustained effect if it influences the actions and practices of line managers so as to serve better both - the self-interest of employees (personal return both tangible and intangible) and the needs of the organization (profit return both short and long range). All training and development within the company is based on the firm credence that: • Employees have a need for growth and self-fulfilment, which can be compatible with the goals of the organization for the benefit of both • Learning is a self directed- activity: all employee development is self- development • Training to be effective must be function of line management Training is essential for job success. It can lead to higher production, fewer mistakes, greater job satisfaction and lower turnover. These benefits accrue to both the trainee and the organization, if managers understand the principles behind the training process. To this end, training efforts must invariably follow certain learning-oriented guidelines. Modelling Modelling is simply copying someone else’s behaviour. Passive class- room learning does not leave any room for modelling. If we want to change people, it would be a good idea to have videotapes of people showing the desired behaviour. The selected model should provide the right kind of behaviour to be copied by others. A great deal of human behaviour is learned by modelling others. Children learn by modelling; parents and older children, they are quite comfortable with the process by the time: hey grow up. As experts put it. "Managers tend to manage as they were managed!" Motivation For learning to take place, intention to learn is important. When the employee is motivated, he pays attention to what is being said, done and presented. Motivation to learn is influenced by the answers to questions such as: How important is my job to me? How important is the information? Will learning help me progress in the company? People learn more quickly when the material is important and relevant to them. Learning is usually quicker and long-lasting when the learner participates actively. Most people, for example, never forget how to ride a bicycle because they took an active part in the learning process. . Reinforcement
  4. 4. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... If behaviour is rewarded, it probably will be repeated. Positive reinforcement consists of rewarding desired behaviours. People avoid certain behaviours that invite criticism and punishment. A bank officer would want to do a postgraduate course in finance, if it earns him increments and makes him eligible for further promotions. Both the external rewards (investments, praise) and the internal rewards (a feeling of pride and achievement) associated with desired behaviours compel subjects to learn properly. To be effective, the trainer must reward desired behaviours only. If he rewards poor performance, the results may be disastrous: good performers may quit in frustration, accidents may go up, and productivity may suffer. The reinforcement principle is also based on the premise that punishment is less effective in learning than reward. Punishment is a pointer to undesirable behaviours. When administered, it causes pain to the employee. He mayor may not repeat the mistakes. The reactions may be mild or wild. Action taken to repeal a person from undesirable action is punishment. If administered properly, punishment may force the trainee to modify the undesired or incorrect behaviours. Feedback People learn best if reinforcement is given as soon as possible after training. Every employee wants to know what is expected of him and how well he is doing. If he is off the track, somebody must put him back on rails. The errors in such cases must be rectified immediately. The trainee after learning the right behaviour is motivated to do things in a 'right' way and earn the associated rewards. Positive feedback (showing the trainee the right way of doing things) is to be preferred to negative feedback (telling the trainee that he is not correct) when we want to change behaviour. Spaced Practice Learning takes place easily if the practice sessions are spread over a period of time. New employees learn better if the orientation programme is spread over a two or three day period, instead of covering it all in one day. For memorizing tasks, 'massed' practice is usually more effective. Imagine the way schools ask the kids to say the prayer loud. Can you memorize a long poem by learning only one line per day? You tend to forget the beginning of the poem when you reach the last stanza. For' acquiring' skills as stated by Mathis and Jackson, spaced practice is usually the best. This incremental approach to skill acquisition minimizes physical fatigue that deters learning. Whole Learning The concept of whole learning suggests that employees learn better if the
  5. 5. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... job information is explained as an entire logical process, so that they can see how the various actions fit together into the 'big picture'. A broad overview of what the trainee would be doing on the job should be given top priority, if learning has to take place quickly. Research studies have also indicated that it is more efficient to practice a whole task all at once rather than trying to master the various components of the task at different intervals. Food for thought: Is the concept of ‘whole learning’ related to holism? Active Practice 'Practice makes a man perfect' so said Bacon. To be a swimmer, you should plunge into water instead of simply reading about swimming or looking at films of worlds' best swimmers. Learning is enhanced when trainees are provided ample opportunities to repeat the task. For maximum benefit, practice sessions should be distributed over time. Applicability of Training Training should be as real as possible so that trainees can successfully transfer the new knowledge to their jobs. The training situations should be set up so that trainees can picture the types of situations they can come across on the job. Environment Finally, environment plays a major role in training. It is natural that workers, who are exposed to training in comfortable environments with adequate, well spaced rest periods are more likely to learn than employees whose training conditions are less than ideal. Generally speaking, learning is very fast at the beginning. Thereafter the pace of learning slows down as opportunities for improvement are reduced. Areas of Training The Areas of Training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories: Knowledge Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or services offered by the company. The aim is
  6. 6. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... to make the new employee fully aware of what goes inside and outside the company. Technical Skills The employee is taught a specific skill (e.g., operating a machine and handling computer) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully. Social Skills The employee is made to learn about himself and other, develop a right mental attitude, towards the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead. Techniques This involves the application of knowledge and skill to various on-the-job situations. In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees, training aims at clouding employee attitudes: When administered properly, a training programme. It will go a long way in obtaining employee loyalty, support and commitment to company activities. Need for Employee Training and Development Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees, e.g. a.) When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed b.) To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort c.) As part of an overall professional development program d.) As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization e.) To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system
  7. 7. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... f.) To train about a specific topic (see below) Issues in Employee Training 1. Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs. 2. Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. 3. Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. 4. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity 5. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. 6. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace. 7. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc. 8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment, hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc. 9. Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate behaviours. Article - 1 Link Staff Training With Improvement Goals By: Patrice L. Spath Brown-Spath & Associates Often the financial and operational tactics for meeting an organization’s strategic
  8. 8. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... improvement goals are carefully planned. And yet commonly overlooked are the competencies and skills of the people who are expected to meet these goals. The training needs associated with each improvement goal should be carefully evaluated and planned for to ensure that your workforce is well prepared. The quality of patient care is significant impacted by what employees know. The more knowledgeable an employee, the better job he or she can do. The distinction between organizational goals and staff learning is becoming blurred. To successfully implement strategic improvement goals the organization must help everyone keep learning about their ever-changing job responsibilities. Some healthcare organizations predetermine training needs based on accreditation standards, OSHA regulations, and other externally defined requirements. However there is no evaluation of whether the training will actually enhance the organization’s ability to achieve improvement goals. It is also common to ask employees what training they think they need. This may be important for individual staff development, but the employee’s view of what is personally important may not address the overall needs or objectives of the organization. Also, managers may provide an opinion about the training needs of their department but there is no confirmation with or reference to the organization’s improvement goals. The most enlightened healthcare organizations determine the strengths and weaknesses of staff in meeting improvement goals before defining and prioritising training needs. When goals are established it is important to determine what training may be necessary to achieve these goals. This analysis involves identifying the workforce competencies and skills that are necessary to support goal attainment. A competency is defined as behaviour or set of behaviours that describes required performance for a particular job. Skills are concrete attributes of individuals, such as skill in information technology or conflict management. For example, a healthcare organization may establish the goal of reducing the number of patient falls. To achieve this goal, employees will need specific competencies and skills. What are these competencies and skills? The answer should be derived from the judgment of supervisors and reinforced through discussions with employees. Then conduct a gap analysis – What competencies and skills are needed? What staff should have these competencies and skills? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the current workforce? For each of your organization’s performance improvement goals, ask the following questions: Would enhancing the competencies/skills of the current workforce help with goal attainment? Would a better-trained workforce make goal attainment more effective and efficient? What are the learning needs of those staff that will directly influence goal attainment? How will knowledge and skill gaps be addressed? Some healthcare organizations create a joint steering committee comprised of representatives from various levels and functions to facilitate the implementation of goal-directed training. This committee ensures that the training needs of staff are aligned
  9. 9. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... with the improvement goals of the organization. With input from management, the committee determines what training programs are needed to effect improvements and which employees should participate. The sequence of training implementation can also be established. Inter-departmental task forces may be formed to focus on specific staff competencies or skills that are deemed weak. With budgetary allowances for staff training and education shrinking, the need to link training requirements with the organization’s improvement goals is more important than ever before. Any educational program will stand or fall based on its effectiveness and alignment with the organization’s priorities. An organization’s improvement goals serve as the blueprint for transforming current performance into the desired future state. Employee training and development are essential to achieving these goals. The primary way that educational programs can gain needed support and recognition is by illustrating how they are intrinsically linked to the organization’s improvement priorities. Copyright 2002 by Brown-Spath & Associates Article - 2 Transitioning from ineffective and counter-productive conversations during stressful circumstances to engaged, mutually respectful and authentic interactions, even under the most trying conditions. Situation: A client organization with +5000 employees in dozens of locations throughout recognizes that the authenticity and effectiveness of interpersonal communication among key employees has diminished dramatically. Communication between various regional sales offices and manufacturing facilities has broken down, causing numerous production and operational delays. Executives have become protective of their individual "silos" and employees have begun to mirror this behaviour. Root Causes: a) Executives do not communicate effectively with each other during stressful circumstances, particularly when a) Stakes are high, b) there are opposing opinions and c) emotions are intense. b) Many employees have begun to "mirror" the communication habits of some executives.
  10. 10. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... c) Employees at various locations have little opportunity to communicate with each other during non-stressful or challenging circumstances. Almost all communication between various locations revolves around "fixing" a problem of some kind. d) A recent round of layoffs was deemed by many employees to be arbitrary and unfair, based upon corporate political "connections" rather than actual contributions. e) Some departmental budgets have been cut while others have grown, without substantive explanation. Solution: After several months of in-depth consultations with a broad range of individuals throughout the organization, a plan was developed to launch a long-term communication skills training program with a heavy emphasis on specific skill development and reinforcement. In November of 2001, this client began utilizing Frontline Learning's "REAL Communication" program to drive a significant evolution in the quality and effectiveness of one-on-one conversations throughout the business. Training Milestones: November 2001 - The Company’s President, CEO and top Executives complete an intensive 2-day communication skills regimen. During this session, executives complete several skills assessments to objectively determine their level of communication competency. Small group sessions and one-on-one interaction with a communication coach allowed each individual to focus on specific skills that were relevant to his or her situation. Key findings: This particular group of executives had a significant lack of trust and cohesion among their peers. Their relationships with ach other were STRICTLY business-driven and none expressed any particular admiration or affiliation with others on the executive team. December 2001 - Executive team begins to hold a 20-minute "learning conversation" (focused on developing communication skills) during each of their weekly meetings. These conversations were always the FIRST item on the President's agenda with his direct reports. The informal learning session was always reinforced with handouts, video examples and/or interactive exercises and homework.
  11. 11. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... In addition to furthering the development of communication skills among the executives, the objective of these sessions was to "model" a learning conversation that each attendee could repeat with his or her own direct reports. January 2002 - Cascaded learning occurs during regular business meetings throughout the organization. As executives held "learning conversations" with their own direct reports, the goal, in addition to furthering the development of communication skills within that specific business team, was to "model" a learning conversation that each attendee could repeat with his or her own direct reports, etc. As the learning "cascaded" down the organization, through a series of learning conversations, feedback was positive. In order to ensure that the information and skills were in fact being delivered, every informal learning session was always reinforced with handouts, video examples and/or interactive exercises and homework. April, 2002 - Audio Reinforcement Once a "critical mass" of employees within the organization had begun to develop new communication skills, then audio CD's were introduced to further reinforce the skills they had been learning. Each employee received one Audio CD every 2 weeks for a total of 8 CD's over the course of 2 months. July, 2002- Training conducted during a National Sales Meeting Utilizing company employees as the presenters, a half-day of communication skills training was delivered based upon specific development opportunities identified by the management team. September, 2002- Certification program introduced Employees were offered an opportunity to further their learning and become "certified" in the skills learned through the "REAL Communication" program. Source: Article – 1 Transitioning from product-focused sales presentations to customer- focused sales consultations Situation:
  12. 12. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... A client organization with +800 salespeople experiences flattening growth rates (from decades of double-digit annual growth to eight years of 5 to 7 percent inflation-adjusted growth). Root Causes: a) An increasingly commoditized product line. b) Smaller regional competitors with lower cost structures, better able to compete on price alone. c) An entire generation of salespeople who were very successful (+$160,000 average income) acting as product presenters, not consultants. And thus, not highly motivated to change. d) Sales MANAGER activities had evolved from day-to-day sales training and coaching to primarily administrative and organizational tasks. Solution: Based upon in-depth consultations with a broad range of individuals throughout the organization, a plan was developed that integrated a long- term consultative sales training initiative with a re-alignment of sales compensation, incentives, and recognition. In November of 1999, this client began utilizing Frontline Learning's sales training resources to drive a significant evolution in its sales force, transitioning from a presentation-focused selling methodology to true, in depth consultative selling. Training Milestones: November, 1999 - All Sales Representatives completed a comprehensive assessment of consultative selling skills During fall Regional Meetings, Managers administered an in-depth skills assessment, then forwarded results to the Training Department for analysis. Organizational, regional and individual “Skill Graphs” were developed. Key findings: Relationship-building skills and self-motivation were the greatest overall strengths, while most other skill categories showed noteworthy deficiencies. In particular, sales cycle management, prospecting, asking tactical/strategic questions and self-coaching were identified as significant development opportunities.
  13. 13. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... January 2000 - Regional Managers delivered targeted sales training at the National Sales Meeting Regional Sales Managers received significant training/coaching in preparation for delivery of 18 sessions targeted toward specific selling skills (prospecting, asking strategic questions, etc.) at the National Sales Meeting (each session was delivered 3 times by a team of 3 or 4 Regional Managers). Key findings: The train-the-trainer preparation revealed a significant development opportunity within the ranks of the Sales Management team. Because their role had evolved toward an administrative/management position rather than primarily a tactical sales coaching position, many did not possess even fundamental knowledge of consultative selling skills and techniques. April 2000 - Consultative Selling Skills: Custom Audio Reinforcement Programs/Facilitation & Coaching Guide developed Customized Audio Reinforcement Programs were developed for each of the 20 skill categories included in the initial skills assessment. Sales Reps made programs available for purchase at a very modest cost ($14.50 per program) subsidized by the organization. Regional Managers received a complete set of 20 Audio Reinforcement Programs along with a Facilitation & Coaching Guide to enhance their own day-to-day sales coaching ability. June 2000 - REAL Selling process integrated into Yearbook/Scholastic Sales Academy A fully integrated consultative selling approach (rather than distinct, separate skill sets) was developed for use at sales academies. The REAL Selling program fully systemizes many of the consultative “best practices” of high- performing Sales Representatives. Because it is a fully integrated, systemic approach to consultative selling, it requires a highly motivated learner, so the Sales Training Department moved forward on 2 tracks: REAL Selling for new Sales Representatives, and distinct/targeted skill development for veteran Sales Representatives. May, 2001- Retail Division Account Managers receive targeted Consultative Sales Training A half-day of consultative sales training was delivered based upon specific development opportunities identified by Retail Division management team.
  14. 14. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... November, 2001- REAL Coaching delivered to all Sales Managers A program to enhance the day-to-day sales coaching skills of Regional Managers was developed, fully integrating the specific competencies and skill sets delivered in the REAL Selling program. January, 2002 - REAL Selling Utilized by the Retail Division to train Account Managers and Sales Associates The formation of a new sales structure provided the management group with an opportunity use REAL Selling as both a consultative sales training and a team building resource, putting both Account Managers and Sales Associates on the “same page” with an integrated selling approach. February, 2002 - REAL Selling for Marketing Professionals This program was developed to help the Marketing organization: a) Develop greater awareness and understanding of the specific consultative selling skills being driven by the Sales Training Department, b) Utilize the “communication platform” created by these consultative selling skills for more effective new product roll outs, and c) Learn to USE consultative selling skills to more effectively influence Jostens Sales Reps. March, 2002 - Online Delivery/Reinforcement of Consultative Selling Skills A web-based sales training course was developed which included lessons focused on each of the 20 skill categories included in the initial skills assessment. This course is now available 7/24 to ALL of the organization's Salespeople and Managers. The course is also now required pre-work for Sales Academy Attendees. Benefits: In terms of consultative selling skills, there are still significant development opportunities within the organization's sales force, but there have also been equally significant results to date that have provided tangible benefits. For Example: Veteran salespeople are responding better to targeted training rather than to “one size fits all” programs
  15. 15. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... Many veteran Reps are able to satisfy their personal goals without further selling skill development and they are understandably proud of their current selling ability, which often means they are not highly motivated to learn (and USE) new skills or techniques. But the organization cannot achieve its objectives without continuous skill improvement. Our targeted approach has made new skill development more palatable to veteran salespeople, and new skill USAGE more measurable by Regional Managers. Sales Managers are developing new selling and coaching skills Many Regional Sales Managers report an increased ability to provide practical selling skills coaching for both new and experienced reps. Managers feel more confidant and competent, and are able to have deeper, richer conversations with reps focused of specific skills, habits and/or behaviors that will drive increased productivity. Regional Sales Managers are all “speaking the same language” as their salespeople, particularly those who have attended Sales Academy during the past 3 years. Again, the common understanding of a specific sales process and system has driven this. Our long-term development plan (vs. “quick fix” training events) is becoming a key competitive differentiator Any competitor can hold a 2-day sales training session. Or even a weeklong selling “boot camp.” But the skill development that has occurred across the client's sales organization over the past 3 years, with a continual focus on the same specific consultative selling “best practices,” delivered and reinforced in a variety of ways, is becoming a sustainable differentiator. Even if their competitors knew exactly what skill sets we were training to, this isn’t something that could be easily duplicated. Sales Academy “face-to-face” training time has been reduced while enhancing new rep effectiveness Over the past 3 years, as new programs and resources have been developed, the organization's sales academies have gone from 11 days down to 5 (Plus an additional 2 days of presentation skills training for a new salespeople in one division) while at the same time significantly enhancing the actual effectiveness of the program. New salespeople are experiencing “success” more quickly and bouncing back from “failure” more easily Based upon anecdotal evidence (feedback from veteran Regional Managers, Trainers and Salespeople) new salespeople are able to “hit the
  16. 16. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... ground running” using the REAL Selling process. They are able to ask better (more consultative) questions, get block agreements signed more easily, present more professionally and open new accounts more quickly. In addition, when new salespeople experience “failure” the REAL Selling process helps them gain an accurate understanding of WHY they didn’t make the sale and what they have to do in the future to be more successful in similar situations. This has made it easier to keep high-potential new salespeople “in the game” long enough to succeed long-term, reducing turnover rates. It has become more difficult for new salespeople and experienced veterans to “hide out” Because the skill sets are so clear and unambiguous, and because of the “common language” that has taken root within the sales organization, it is more difficult for salespeople to “tap dance” their way around a manager. Feedback from Regional Managers suggests that this is also true for veteran sales reps. Marketing and Sales are learning to speak the same language The Marketing organization is beginning to utilize the “communication platform” created by these consultative selling skills to enable more effective new product pilots and roll outs. “At-a-Glance” sheets and other communication vehicles are beginning to reflect (and drive) the consultative selling approach. Source:
  17. 17. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... Training need Analysis Training Need Assessment • Organisational Analysis • Taskor role Analysis • Manpower Analysis
  18. 18. For useful Documents like this and Lots of more Educational and Technological Stuff Visit... The Philosophy of Training “The purpose of training and development is to maintain and improve effectiveness and efficiency of individuals within the organization. This can only have sustained effect if it influences the actions and practices of line mangers so as to serve better both - the self – interest of employees.” Areas of Training • Knowledge • Technical Skills • Social Skills • Techniques