INSTITUTIONS AND AUDIENCES FILM INDUSTRY REVISION OF PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING
AIMS• To understand the focus for KEY TERMS the Audience and Audience Institutions section of your Institution June Exam Production Subsidiary• To understand the structure Distribution of a Cultural Circuit Marketing• To understand the different Exhibition sectors of the film industry Horizontal Integration Vertical Integration
CULTURAL CIRCUIT What they have produced Media Text TargetInstitution AudienceWho has produced Who it is produced the media text for.
HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION Often a single parent company will own multiple companies in the film industry. HORIZONTAL The parent company This is divided into two types of ownership: owns multiple companies at the same stage of the film industry. A smallerPRODUCTION PRODUCTION PRODUCTION company, owned by the parent is a subsidiary. VERTICALDISTRIBUTION The parent company For example Walt Disney also owns: For example Warner Bros owns: owns multiple companies across •Warner BrosFilms (Production) •Miramax Studios different stages of the film industry. EXHIBITION •Hollywood Pictures •Warner Bros (Distribution) •Used to own Warner Bros Cinemas •Pixar Animation What are the in the UK (Exhibition advantages for a parent company of each type of ownership?
THE EXAM Section B: Institutions and AudiencesCandidates should be ABLE to understand and discuss the processes of production, distribution,marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as the nature ofaudience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. In addition,candidates should be familiar with:•the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;•the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;•the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution,marketing and exchange;•the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences;•the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;•the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) byinternational or global institutions;•the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patternsand trends of audience behaviour.This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies basedupon one of the specified media areas.
Exam Translation ExampleThe issues raised by media How the ownership of the As case studies, useownership in contemporary production, distribution and Warner Bros and Warp andmedia practice exhibition companies compare the types of films affects the type of films that that they make and how are made. they make sure they reach their target audienceThe importance of cross Understand how all aspects Compare how Warp andmedia convergence and of the media (websites, Warner Bros films aresynergy in production, newspapers, tv etc) are marketed through other aspects of the media. Look atdistribution and marketing used to market a film and specific examples of TDK and show you understand how TIE, discuss horizontal and companies work together to vertical integration and produce and distribute compare the different types of films. marketing campaigns and how they target audiences.The technologies that have Show you are aware of how From your case studies look atbeen produced in recent years new technology has been used how filming in HD, Imax andat the levels of production, to improve the making, look at how SFX is added atdistribution, marketing and distributing, marketing and the editing stage. Analyse howexchange. exhibition on film. the Internet influences the way films are marketed. Look at digital distribution of films.
The significance of Show you understand how the You need to be able to explorehardware and content for increase and improvements how the affordability of newinstitutions and audiences made in technology are technology has impacted upon affecting the ways that films are the making, distribution and made and distributed today. exhibition of film in relation to Also, be able to assess how your case studies. You should technological improvements also discuss the emergence of have impacted the viewing blu-ray, piracy and the new experience, at home and in the wave of 3D as well as analysing cinema. new ways of distributing films that could have helped TIE such as digital distribution.The importance of Understand how new media Include information from bullettechnological convergence technologies can combine points 3 and 4 here as well butfor institutions and to produce, market, also give specific examples from your case study on howaudiences. distribute and exhibit a film new technologies can combine successfully to reach a target audience. TIE- Greenroom digital approached Britfilm.tv to launch a site take over to market the film to target audience. TDK – whysoserious and Ibelieveinharveydent.com ARG’s.
Exam Translation ExamplesThe issues raised in the Show how you know how Warner Bros is owned bytargeting of national and international and global Time/Warner a Medialocal audiences (specifically institutions target an conglomerate who makeBritish) by International or international and local films for an internationalglobal institutions. British audience and global audience. State how compare this to how British they manage to do this institutions target their using media language we audience. have learnt. Compare this to how Warp target a niche audience. Discuss relevant funding, costs, P and A and why they target different audiences.The ways in which your own Include reference to how This should be included asexperience of media your own experience of the element of all your answers.consumption illustrate wider media shows how You should show how you aware of the factors thatpatterns and trends in audiences may behave. influence the institutions andaudience behaviour. also, demonstrate your awareness of how audiences consume films has changed in recent years
Film Four• Trainspotting• Looking for Eric• This is England• Slumdog Millionaire
THE FILM PROCESS There are three distinct areas of the film industry.Each one of these could be viewed as a type of media institution.PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION EXHIBITIONWhat would you expect to happen at each stage?
• Production involves the creation of the media product and is the responsibility of the PRODUCTION COMPANY• This includes all pre-production, production & post-production processes.• Before that the writer/director/producer must Warp Films is the FILM company who find finance for a film – which may come from PRODUCED This is one or many production companies (a co- England. production) Channel 4 (film 4) co- financed the film It was also DISTRIBUTED by FILM FOUR on TV
•Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing:PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/homerelease and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the filmMARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation of anew release•A distributor may:-Be a part of the same parent company as the productioncompany-Have a long term arrangement with a production company andprovide financial assistance for many of their productions Optimum releasing-Provide financial assistance for a single film by a production distributed This iscompany England on DVD – they-Acquire a film after it has completed production also co-financed the production•A film will likely have different distributors for: IFC Films handled the U.S Theatrical release-Releases in different countries and Red Envelope-Cinema Release Entertainment-Home-Video Release distributed in U.S on DVD
• Exhibition is divided into two sections:- Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for a copy of the film FilmFour made its reputation with films- Home – the distributor is paid by the company who is selling such as Trainspotting the film for a copy in 1996, which made £23m at the box office• A film’s success is often decided on the amount of money it but cost only £2.4m makes during it’s cinema release. This is known as the Box and was the highest Office Takings grossing British film in 1996.• Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing valuable and However, it was far varied source for distributors to increase profits. more successful on DVD, spawning numerous versions and WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN WE THINK OF? special editions• Why might a film be more successful on DVD than in the cinema?
RESEARCH TASK - THE LIFE OF A FILM--STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH SHOULD BE IMDB.COM – USE COMPANY CREDITS SECTION1. USING BOTH THIS IS ENGLAND AND THE DARK KNIGHT:Provide a brief synopsis of your FILMS’ STORIESInclude some of your film’s marketing materials (trailers, posters, cast interviews etc.)2. PRODUCTIONWhat was your film’s production budget?Which Production Company (s) provided the finance? What other films have the company (s) produced?3. DISTRIBUTIONWho are your films theatrical distributors? How many countries has it been distributed in and what are they?Who are your films home distributors? How many countries has it been distributed in and what are they4. EXHIBITIONWhat was your film’s box office takings? Would you expect it to be shown in BROMLEY CINEMA? Why?What formats is your film available on for home exhibition?5. HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL INTEGRATIONIs your film’s production company a subsidiary of a larger company (Horizontally Integrated)?Are there any signs of horizontal integration between your film’s production company (s) and distributor(s)?
RECAPWhat do the following terms mean in relation to the film industry?• Production• Subsidiary• Distribution• Marketing• Exhibition• Horizontal Integration• Vertical Integration