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From Gullwing to Flat Top 
Simon McGuinness, MRIAI
Societal Needs 
 Minimum 80% carbon emissions reduction by 2050 
 40% of all emissions related to buildings 
 90% of al...
DIT Experience in Retrofit 
 4 years of level 9 (Masters) in Retrofit Technology 
 Retrofit Residential, Commercial & In...
Overall Findings 
insurmountable 
 We can do nZEB, there are no technical barriers 
 It is economic, it will pay for its...
2012 student project work 
Postgraduate Certificate in Digital Analysis and Energy Retrofit
2011 Gullwing project brief 
 Achieve a BER of A3 
 Achieve compliance 
with Part L, 2011 (new 
build) 
 Condensation r...
Digital Analysis of Existing Building 
 The apartments are: 
 Un-heatable (Part L) 
 Un-healthy (Parts L&F) 
 Un-visit...
Simplify thermal envelope 
33% improvement in 
energy performance 
coefficient 
with no additional 
insulation 
Source: Te...
Gullwing 2012 (Team A)
Gullwing 2012 (Team A)
Gullwing 2012 (Team B)
Team B
2013 student project work 
Postgraduate Certificate in Digital Analysis and Energy Retrofit
Flat-Top Block
DCC Proposal 2010
DCC Proposal 2010 
WARNING! 
Based on linear thermal 
bridge default of 0.15
Insulate without LTB assessment? 
 Default y-factors allowable 
are 0.15 and 0.08 
depending on construction 
quality 
 ...
Is DCC Proposal “Cost Optimal”? 
 The apartments are: 
 Un-heatable (Part L) 
 Un-healthy (Parts L&F) 
 Un-visitable (...
Flat-Top Block - project brief 
 Building Regs as if new build 
 DoE space standards 
 60-100 year lifecycle 
 BER of ...
Flat-Top Block 
Results 95% Confidence Interval Uncertainty 
Air flow at 50 Pa, V50 
[m3/h] 1085 1060 1105 +/-2.0% 
Air ch...
Outline 
Energy Use Space Heating 
nZEB
Digital energy analysis 
 BIM model Embodied Carbon 
 Therm Surface Temperature, Psi- values 
 BuildDesk Condensation r...
Digital energy analysis 
 BIM model Embodied Carbon 
 Therm Surface Temperature, Psi- values 
 BuildDesk Condensation r...
DIT Proposal -“Cost Optimal”? 
Solved 
? 
 The buildings are: 
 Un-heatable (Part L) 
 Un-healthy (Parts L&F) 
 Un-vis...
Flat-Top 2013 (David Ledwith)
Flat-Top 2013 (David Ledwith)
Flat-Top 2013
The Passive House Designer
The Technologist
DEAP focus on renewables adds costs 
€14,000 
Heat Pump – 
Cost Optional 
over 50 years? 
€4,500 
PV - 
Cost Optional 
ove...
nZEB Retrofit Project Outcomes 
 BER of A2/A3 
 100% compliance as new build (Parts B, M, K & L) 
 Zero Surface Condens...
Co-Benefits 
Social Economic 
 Fuel poverty 
 Employment 
 Skills 
 Health 
 Carbon saving/trading 
 Self-funding 
...
Why not? 
Co-benefits need to be measured and added to the Retrofit 
budget. This can only be done by committing to fund a...
Follow me on twitter: @PassiveLogical 
Simon McGuinness MRIAI, Dip.Arch., B.Arch.Sc., CEPHD
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"Do it once, Do it right" - presentation to The Fuel Poverty Conference, Croke Park, Dublin, 6 October 2014

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Implications of nZEB Retrofit on Fuel Poverty. Technical obstacles, governance issues. Need for a holistic approach to assessing cost optimality, need for thermal bridge calculation, sustainability measurement and a jaundiced view of the renewables requirement contained in the Irish national Dwelling Energy Assessment Procedure (DEAP) for retrofit. Many RES decisions are not sustained under lifecycle cost assessment.

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"Do it once, Do it right" - presentation to The Fuel Poverty Conference, Croke Park, Dublin, 6 October 2014

  1. 1. From Gullwing to Flat Top Simon McGuinness, MRIAI
  2. 2. Societal Needs  Minimum 80% carbon emissions reduction by 2050  40% of all emissions related to buildings  90% of all buildings standing will still be standing in 2050  90% of them need to be upgraded to a BER of A2 (nZEB)  Biggest construction project in human history  Who has the knowledge and skills to achieve this? – We do.
  3. 3. DIT Experience in Retrofit  4 years of level 9 (Masters) in Retrofit Technology  Retrofit Residential, Commercial & Institutional to nZEB  60 graduates in the marketplace  116 post-graduate professionals researching retrofit  Hosted 3 national nZEB conferences  Biggest database of nZEB research in Ireland  Shortlisted for SEAI research awards 2014
  4. 4. Overall Findings insurmountable  We can do nZEB, there are no technical barriers  It is economic, it will pay for itself in time  It will work, nZEB can reduce emissions by at least 85%  It could eliminate fuel poverty permanently  We have no shortage of skills (at present)  Obstacle: Govt commitment to fund exemplars obstacle
  5. 5. 2012 student project work Postgraduate Certificate in Digital Analysis and Energy Retrofit
  6. 6. 2011 Gullwing project brief  Achieve a BER of A3  Achieve compliance with Part L, 2011 (new build)  Condensation risk  Surface temperatures  Calculated thermal bridges
  7. 7. Digital Analysis of Existing Building  The apartments are:  Un-heatable (Part L)  Un-healthy (Parts L&F)  Un-visitable (Part M)  Un-comfortable  Non-compliant (Part B)  Too small (DECLG standards)
  8. 8. Simplify thermal envelope 33% improvement in energy performance coefficient with no additional insulation Source: Team D - DT774 Simplifie d thermal envelop e geometr y
  9. 9. Gullwing 2012 (Team A)
  10. 10. Gullwing 2012 (Team A)
  11. 11. Gullwing 2012 (Team B)
  12. 12. Team B
  13. 13. 2013 student project work Postgraduate Certificate in Digital Analysis and Energy Retrofit
  14. 14. Flat-Top Block
  15. 15. DCC Proposal 2010
  16. 16. DCC Proposal 2010 WARNING! Based on linear thermal bridge default of 0.15
  17. 17. Insulate without LTB assessment?  Default y-factors allowable are 0.15 and 0.08 depending on construction quality  Calculated y-factors in the Gullwing / Flat-Top blocks ranged 0.32 to 0.36  DEAP defaults are misleading!
  18. 18. Is DCC Proposal “Cost Optimal”?  The apartments are:  Un-heatable (Part L)  Un-healthy (Parts L&F)  Un-visitable (Part M)  Un-comfortable  Non-compliant (Part B) Solved ? Partly No No No No No  Too small (DoE standards)
  19. 19. Flat-Top Block - project brief  Building Regs as if new build  DoE space standards  60-100 year lifecycle  BER of A2  Calculated y-factor  Hygrothermal analysis  Surface temperature  Condensation risk
  20. 20. Flat-Top Block Results 95% Confidence Interval Uncertainty Air flow at 50 Pa, V50 [m3/h] 1085 1060 1105 +/-2.0% Air changes at 50 Pa, n50 [/h] 6.601 1.320 11.90 +/-80.0% Permeability at 50 Pa, q50 [m3/h.m2] 5.255 1.050 9.461 +/-80.0% Specific leakage at 50 Pa, w50 [m3/h.m2] 29.259 5.844 52.674 +/-80.0%
  21. 21. Outline Energy Use Space Heating nZEB
  22. 22. Digital energy analysis  BIM model Embodied Carbon  Therm Surface Temperature, Psi- values  BuildDesk Condensation risk, U-values  DEAP Energy balance, carbon emissions
  23. 23. Digital energy analysis  BIM model Embodied Carbon  Therm Surface Temperature, Psi- values  BuildDesk Condensation risk, U-values  DEAP Energy balance, carbon emissions … I am competent … … reasonable skill care and diligence … I certify that … the design … is in compliance … with Building Regulations
  24. 24. DIT Proposal -“Cost Optimal”? Solved ?  The buildings are:  Un-heatable (Part L)  Un-healthy (Parts L&F)  Un-visitable (Part M)  Un-comfortable  Non-compliant (Part B)  Too small (DECLG) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Green Public Procurement
  25. 25. Flat-Top 2013 (David Ledwith)
  26. 26. Flat-Top 2013 (David Ledwith)
  27. 27. Flat-Top 2013
  28. 28. The Passive House Designer
  29. 29. The Technologist
  30. 30. DEAP focus on renewables adds costs €14,000 Heat Pump – Cost Optional over 50 years? €4,500 PV - Cost Optional over 10 years? €14 Saving = €18,500
  31. 31. nZEB Retrofit Project Outcomes  BER of A2/A3  100% compliance as new build (Parts B, M, K & L)  Zero Surface Condensation  90% fuel cost reduction (€1,486 to €156)  100% Replicable
  32. 32. Co-Benefits Social Economic  Fuel poverty  Employment  Skills  Health  Carbon saving/trading  Self-funding  Sustainable  Fuel imports
  33. 33. Why not? Co-benefits need to be measured and added to the Retrofit budget. This can only be done by committing to fund a series of nZEB retrofit exAenmdp ala Mrsi.nister for Climate Change. Social Economic  Fuel poverty  Employment  Skills  Health  Carbon saving/trading  Self-funding  Sustainable  Fuel imports
  34. 34. Follow me on twitter: @PassiveLogical Simon McGuinness MRIAI, Dip.Arch., B.Arch.Sc., CEPHD

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