Näıve Physics: the common sense knowledge people have about the physical world. Body Awareness and Skills: the awareness people have of their own physical bodies and their skills of controlling and coordinating their bodies. Environment Awareness and Skills: the sense of surroundings people have for their environment and their skills of manip- ulating and navigating their environment. Social Awareness and Skills: the awareness people have that other people share their environment, their skills of interact- ing with each other verbally or non verbally, and their ability to work together to accomplish a common goal.
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Tangible User Interface Showcase
Physical and embodied user interfaces Simone Mora firstname.lastname@example.org IDI, Sept. 17th, 2012
Agenda• Definition of physical user interface• Brief History• Frameworks• Research Showcase• Conclusions
What is a physical user interface? “An interface that rely on embodied interaction,tangible manipulation, physical representation of data and embeddedness in real space” (Hornecker&Buur, 2006)
What is a physical user interface? “An interface containing at least one interactiontechnique not dependent on classical 2D widgets such as menu and icons” (Van Dam, 1997)
History• The emergence of physical interfaces is closely related to the adoption of ubiquitous computing technologies• Instead of creating “Virtual Words” or building on the WIMP (Windows, Icons, Mouses, Pointers) paradigm, computation should enrich the real world with information from the digital domain
Frameworks• GUIs are really flexible since they can represent a variety of information by decoupling representation from control• The key idea of physical computing is to give physical form to digital information. However that makes the tangible part more specific and less flexible.• So, the challenge is: how can you mix both?
MCRit (Ishii et al.) MVC Model MCRit Model (Graphical UIs) (Tangible UIs)Ullmer, B., Ishii, H. & Jacob, R.J.K., 2005. Token+constraint systems for tangible interaction with digital information.Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI).
MCRit (Ishii et al.) GUICityScape sw. TUI Project Urp
Reality Based Interaction (Jacob et al.)• Descriptive framework• Many new interaction styles are designed to take advantage of users’ skills and experience of interacting with the real non-digital world• Interaction with information becomes from a segregated activity that takes places at a desk to a fluid free form activity that takes place into the real world
Reality Based Interaction (Jacob et al.) • Jacob et al. identified four themes of interaction with the real world that can be leveraged by physical interfaces:Jacob, R. et al., 2008. Reality-based interaction: a framework for post-WIMP interfaces. Proceeding of the twenty-sixth annual SIGCHI conference onHuman factors in computing systems, pp.201–210.
Main Themes (technology) • Tangibles (graspables) • Tabletops & Interactive surfaces • Augmented Reality • Whole-body interaction • Ambient interfacesIllustrations adapted from: Shaer, O. 2009. Tangible User Interfaces: Past, Present, and Future Directions, 2009 and http://dub.washington.edu/pubs
Application Domains• Learning and Training*• Social Communication*• Problem Solving and Planning*• Tangible Programming*• Entertainment, Play, and Edutainment*• Information Visualization*• Music and Performance* * Collaborative
Project: Sifteo CubesCategory: TangiblesDomain: Learning, PlayAuthors: Sifteo Inc., 2009 (former MIT Media Lab project)
Project: ChronotapeCategory: TangiblesDomain: Social InteractionAuthors: University of BristolKey Publication: Bennett et al. ChronoTape: tangible timelines for family history. In TEI 12: Proceedings of the SixthInternational Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction.
Project: Lambent shopping trolleyCategory: TangiblesDomain: Information VisualizationAuthors: Open University, 2012Key Pubblication: Kalnikaite, V. et al., 2011. How to nudge in Situ: designing lambent devices to deliver salientinformation in supermarkets. In UbiComp 11: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on Ubiquitouscomputing.
Project: ReactableCategory: Tabletops and Interactive surfacesDomain: Music and PerformanceAuthors: Reactable Inc - 2006
Project: URBCategory: Tabletops and Interactive surfacesDomain: Problem Solving and PlanningAuthors: MIT Media Lab, 1999Key publication: Underkoffler, J. & Ishii, H., 1999. Urp: a luminous-tangible workbench for urban planning and design.In CHI 99: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems.
Project: The Sixth SenseCategory: Whole-Body InteractionDomain: Social Communication, Information VisualizationAuthors: MIT Media Lab, 2009Key Publication: P. Mistry, P. Maes. SixthSense – A Wearable Gestural Interface. In the Proceedings of SIGGRAPH Asia
Project: WATCHiTCategory: Whole-body InteractionDomain: Training, Problem SolvingAuthors: IDI-NTNU, 2012Key publication: Daniel Cernea et al., Tangible and Wearable User Interfaces for Supporting Collaboration amongEmergency Workers. In proc. to the 18th CRIWG Conference on collaboration and technology.
Project: CroMARCategory: Augmented RealityDomain: TrainingAuthors: IDI-NTNU, 2011Key Publication: Mora, S., Boron, A. & Divitini, M.CroMAR: Mobile Augmented Reality for SupportingReflection on Crowd Management, IGI Global.
Project: Human PacManCategory: Augmented RealityDomain: Play, EnternatinmentAuthors: Mixed Reality Lab Singapore, 2004Key publication: Adrian David Cheok et al.; Human pacman: a wide area socio-physical interactiveentertainment system in mixed reality. In CHI 04 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems
ambientROOM, MIT Media Lab, 1997 Ishii and Ullmer. Tangible bits: towards seamless interfaces between people, bits and atoms.Project: AmbientROOMCategory: Ambient InterfacesDomain: Information VisualizationAuthors: MIT Media Lab, 1998Key publication: Ishii, H. et al., 1998. ambientROOM: integrating ambient media with architectural space. In CHI 98conference summary on Human factors in computing systems. New York, NY, USA: ACM, pp. 173–174.
Project: Collaborative Mood AwarenessCategory: Ambient InterfacesDomain: Information VisualizationAuthors: IDI-NTNU, 2011Key publication: Mora, S. et al.. Supporting Mood Awareness in Collaborative Settings. Proceedings of the 7thInternational Conference on Collaborative Computing (CollaborateCom)
Physical Interfaces - Pros• May increase usability• May increase enjoyment• Allows for (user-side) multitasking• Allows for interaction in the periphery• Support face-to-face social interaction (Hornecker&Buur, 2006)• Can leverage users’ knowledge and skills of interaction with the everyday, non-digital, work (Jacob et al., 2008)
Physical Interfaces - Pros• (Almost) unexplored area of research, you can be a pioneer!
Physical Interfaces - Challenges• Requires not only designing the digital (software) but also the physical (hardware) and the interrelations between the two (affordances)• Physical interaction is socially and culturally situated (Hornecker, 2011)