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Leveraging sensing-based interaction
for supporting reflection at work:
the case of crisis training
Simone Mora
AP Photo/A...
Outline
• Problem domain
• Research questions
• Theoretical underpinning
• Research methodology
• Technology tools
• Contr...
Image REUTERS/Mainichi Shimbun
During 1992-2012 disasters have
affected 4.4 billion people and caused
USD 2 trillion in da...
Crisis Training approaches
Maximising learning
outcomes from experience-
based training events
4
Problem:
COST
REALISM
low...
Research questions
I. How sensing-based interfaces can be designed
to enable unobtrusive experience collection
during cris...
Reflective learning
WORK EXPERIENCE REFLECTIVE PROCESS OUTCOMES
+ New perspectives
+ Change in
behaviour
+ Readiness
+ Com...
Doctoral theses at NTNU, 2015:123
Simone Mora
Leveraging sensing-based
interaction for supporting
reflection at work: the ...
Sensing-based interaction and tangible user interfaces
8
Tangible interaction denote system that rely on
embodied interact...
Methodology overview
9
ENVIRONMENT KNOWLEDGE BASEDESIGN SCIENCE
Hardware and
software rapid
prototyping
Formative
evaluati...
Exploratory studies
10
• OBSERVATIONS
• SHADOWING
• VIDEO
• INTERVIEWS
METHODS:
Prototypes
11
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Exploratory field studies
Prototypes
F2F1
F6F5
G1 G2 G3 G4
W1 W4W2
D1 D2
W3
C1 C2
Re...
Evaluation studies
12
• QUESTIONNAIRES
• INTERVIEWS
• OBSERVATIONS
METHODS:
13
0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5"
To interact with W. I had to shift my sight
away from the rescue work
To interact with W. I had to sh...
Outline
• Problem domain
• Research questions
• Theoretical underpinning
• Research methodology
• Technology tools
• Contr...
WATCHiT
P2 P3 P6 P7
RQ1 RQ2
C2 C4C1
CAPTURE EXPERIENCE
15
16
17
TAG
HAPTIC
FEEDBACK
18
You're in: New York City, U.S.
CroMAR 8:24 AM
MoreMapAR NotesLayers
Face Time
Share
Timeline
"I'm trapped in my car
#panic...
20
PHYSICAL EXPLORATION
RADAR & MAPSMULTIPLE LAYERS
TIMELINE NAVIGATION
REFLECTION
OUTCOMES EDITOR
21
P4 P5 P7
RQ2 RQ3
C3 C4
Don’t Panic
C1
GENERATE EXP
22
23
NAVIGATE
CALM, MOVE OR RESTRAIN CITIZENS
MANAGE INFORMATION UNDER STRESS
24
Outline
• Problem domain
• Research questions
• Theoretical underpinning
• Research methodology
• Technology tools
• Contr...
Papers
26
P1: Mora, S., Boron, A., & Divitini, M. (2012). CroMAR: Mobile
Augmented Reality for Supporting Reflection on Cr...
27
C1
C2
C3
C4
P2
ISCRAM-
med
´14
P3
AMI
‘14
P4
SGDA
‘12
P6
IEEETLT
‘15
P7
AMI
‘10
P1
IJMHCI
‘12
P5
‘15
Instantiation of
C...
Contribution I
28
Implementation and evaluation of MIRROR Computer
Supported Reflective Learning (CSRL) theory
C2
C3 C4
P3...
Contribution II
29
Knowledge about designing experience-capturing tools for
crisis workers
1. Mobility of work and sensing...
Contribution III
30
Novel sensing-based interaction techniques to support
crisis training
CAPTURE EXPERIENCES RE-CREATE EX...
Contribution IV
31
Knowledge about implementing prototypes to be deployed
into the wild
C3P1
IJMHCI
‘12
C2
P2
ISCRAM-
med
...
32
C2
C3 C4
C1
The CSRL model can be instantiated into an
ecology of sensing-based interfaces for the
capture, re-creation...
Thanks!
The work here presented is co-funded by EU-ICT 7FP MIRROR project
(http://www.mirror-project.eu). Photos by ANPAS ...
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PhD Defence: Leveraging sensing-based interaction for supporting reflection at work: the case of crisis training

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PhD Defence: Leveraging sensing-based interaction for supporting reflection at work: the case of crisis training

  1. 1. Leveraging sensing-based interaction for supporting reflection at work: the case of crisis training Simone Mora AP Photo/Asahi Shimbun, Noboru Tomura
  2. 2. Outline • Problem domain • Research questions • Theoretical underpinning • Research methodology • Technology tools • Contributions • Conclusions and future work 2
  3. 3. Image REUTERS/Mainichi Shimbun During 1992-2012 disasters have affected 4.4 billion people and caused USD 2 trillion in damage worldwide Source: The UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction 3
  4. 4. Crisis Training approaches Maximising learning outcomes from experience- based training events 4 Problem: COST REALISM low highmoderateonerious Serious game Physical simulation Tabletop exercise Protocol training
  5. 5. Research questions I. How sensing-based interfaces can be designed to enable unobtrusive experience collection during crisis work? II. How sensing-based interfaces can be designed to trigger and support reflection activities? III. How sensing-based interfaces for supporting reflection can be rapidly prototyped? 5 What are the opportunities introduced by combining reflective learning theories with sensing-based interfaces for supporting crisis training? Crisis training Reflective learning Sensing-based interfaces
  6. 6. Reflective learning WORK EXPERIENCE REFLECTIVE PROCESS OUTCOMES + New perspectives + Change in behaviour + Readiness + Commitment Sharing of work experience + Reflection = New knowledge 6 [Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). Reflection: turning experience into learning.]
  7. 7. Doctoral theses at NTNU, 2015:123 Simone Mora Leveraging sensing-based interaction for supporting reflection at work: the case of crisis training NTNU NorwegianUniversityof ScienceandTechnology Thesisforthedegreeof PhilosophiaeDoctor FacultyofInformationTechnology, MathematicsandElectricalEngineering DepartmentofComputerandInformation Science Doctoralthesis This PhD work Computer supported reflective learning 7 new reflection cycle C hange O utcom e Fram e new reflection cycle Plan and do work Plan work Do work Monitor work Initiate reflection Set objective Involve others Plan session new reflection cycle Data Apply outcome Decide on change to work (e.g. what, who) Decide how to make the change Decide whether further reflection is needed Conduct reflection session Make related experiences available Reconstruct or envision work experience Understand meaning Articulate meaning Critique experience Reach a resolution Check applicability of reflection outcome ing of reflection new cycle) next stage e cycle ge at may be ed EU-IST/FP7 2010-2014 Empirical data Validation of theories Technology tools Reflection Theory Evaluation framework [Krogstie, B. R., Prilla, M., & Pammer, V. (2013). Understanding and Supporting Reflective Learning Processes in the Workplace: The CSRL Model.]
  8. 8. Sensing-based interaction and tangible user interfaces 8 Tangible interaction denote system that rely on embodied interaction, physical representation of data and embeddedness in the real space (Hornecker and Buur 2006) CSCW new reflection cycle C hange O utcom e Fram e new reflection cycle Plan and do work Plan work Do work Monitor work Initiate reflection Set objective Involve others Plan session new reflection cycle Data Apply outcome Decide on change to work (e.g. what, who) Decide how to make the change Decide whether further reflection is needed Conduct reflection session Make related experiences available Reconstruct or envision work experience Understand meaning Articulate meaning Critique experience Reach a resolution Check applicability of reflection outcome Triggering of reflection (new cycle) Input to next stage in the cycle Stage Activities that may be involved Legend: Generate experiences Capture experiences Re-create experiences DATA WORK REFLECTION LEARNING INTUITIVE PLAYFUL EMBODIED EMBEDDED
  9. 9. Methodology overview 9 ENVIRONMENT KNOWLEDGE BASEDESIGN SCIENCE Hardware and software rapid prototyping Formative evaluation Computer Supported Reflective Learning Crisis Training Sensing-based interaction Relevance cycle Rigor cycle Exploratory field studies Evaluation field studies Design cycle [Hevner, Alan R (2007). “A three cycle view of design science research”.]
  10. 10. Exploratory studies 10 • OBSERVATIONS • SHADOWING • VIDEO • INTERVIEWS METHODS:
  11. 11. Prototypes 11 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Exploratory field studies Prototypes F2F1 F6F5 G1 G2 G3 G4 W1 W4W2 D1 D2 W3 C1 C2 Research abroad Papers CITY MIT P7 P1 P4 P6 P5 P2 P4 Field evaluations F3 F4 Formative Evaluations RELEVANCE CYCLE DESIGN CYCLE RIGOR CYCLE W4W3 W2W1 C2C1 D2D1
  12. 12. Evaluation studies 12 • QUESTIONNAIRES • INTERVIEWS • OBSERVATIONS METHODS:
  13. 13. 13 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" To interact with W. I had to shift my sight away from the rescue work To interact with W. I had to shift my hands away from the rescue work To interact with W. I had to shift my attention away from the rescue work I believe that after some usages I will interact with W. without shifting attention W. empowered me to capture data without interupting the rescue work W. Interfered with the rescue work Novices" Experts" Version 1.0 guidance throughout the reflection process (CAs, M=4.13, SD=0.42). The acceptance rate is higher in the population of participants with more than 5 years of experience (M=4.26, SD=0.41), than among novices (M=3.96, SD=0.37). A higher acceptance rate is found among experts across all the app-specific questions asked (see table X), the performed (two- tailed) t-test shows that the difference is statistically significant (p=0.036). Table X. Means and standard deviations for app specific questions ID Question All (N=35)*two users didn’t report yrs of experience M (SD) At least 5 years of experience (N=18) Less than 5 years of experience (N=15) CA2 WATCHiT helped me to reflect on experiences 4.06 (0.59) 4.28 (0.46) 3.73 (0.59) CA6 WATCHiT helped me to reconstruct a work experience 4.29 (0.52) 4.39 (0.50) 4.13 (0.52) CA7 WATCHiT helped me by capturing my reflection outcomes 4.15 (0.56) 4.18 (0.53) 4.07 (0.59) CA12 WATCHiT helped me by providing accurate information about my work 4.03 (0.51) 4.22 (0.55) 3.80 (0.41) CA40 WATCHiT provided relevant content for reflection 4.29 (0.52) 4.44 (0.62) 4.07 (0.27) CA41 WATCHiT guided me through the reflection process 3.91 (0.61) 4.00 (0.59) 3.80 (0.68) In both experiments we have added in the pre-questionnaire the short reflection scale (CRs). Results show that participants have a positive inclination towards reflection both on an individual level (M=4.38, SD=0.30) and as a team (M=4.22, SD=0.38). As the evaluations Evaluation studies
  14. 14. Outline • Problem domain • Research questions • Theoretical underpinning • Research methodology • Technology tools • Contributions • Conclusions and future work 14
  15. 15. WATCHiT P2 P3 P6 P7 RQ1 RQ2 C2 C4C1 CAPTURE EXPERIENCE 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17 TAG HAPTIC FEEDBACK
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. You're in: New York City, U.S. CroMAR 8:24 AM MoreMapAR NotesLayers Face Time Share Timeline "I'm trapped in my car #panic!" @marco via twitter Next tweet containing #panic (1 of 10+) 0.7 Km 5" later MMS from +3934667xxx Tags: car, obstacle Noise level 95 dB CCTV Video "Agent Dokes in sector 5 needs an ambulance" Yesterday (Oct, 27th) 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 24:00 CroMAR 19 P1 P2 P6 P7 RQ2 RQ3 C3 C4C1 RE-CREATE EXP
  20. 20. 20 PHYSICAL EXPLORATION RADAR & MAPSMULTIPLE LAYERS TIMELINE NAVIGATION REFLECTION OUTCOMES EDITOR
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. P4 P5 P7 RQ2 RQ3 C3 C4 Don’t Panic C1 GENERATE EXP 22
  23. 23. 23 NAVIGATE CALM, MOVE OR RESTRAIN CITIZENS MANAGE INFORMATION UNDER STRESS
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. Outline • Problem domain • Research questions • Theoretical underpinning • Research methodology • Technology tools • Contributions • Conclusions and future work 25
  26. 26. Papers 26 P1: Mora, S., Boron, A., & Divitini, M. (2012). CroMAR: Mobile Augmented Reality for Supporting Reflection on Crowd Management. International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction. P2: Mora, S., & Divitini, M. (2014). Supporting Debriefing with Sensor Data: A Reflective Approach to Crisis Training. In Proceedings of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries, ISCRAM-MED. P3: Mora, S., & Divitini, M. (2014). WATCHiT: a modular and wearable tool for data collection in crisis management and training. In Proceedings of the European Conference in Ambient Intelligence, AMI. P4: Di Loreto, I., Mora, S., & Divitini, M. (2012). Don’t Panic: Enhancing Soft Skills for Civil Protection Workers. In Proceedings of International Conference on Serious Games Development Applications, SGDA. P5: Mora, S., Di Loreto, I., & Divitini, M. The interactive-token approach to board games. Ready for submission. P6: Müller, L., Divitini, M., Mora, S., Rivera-Pelayo, V., & Stork, W. (2014). Context Becomes Content: Sensor Data for Computer Supported Reflective Learning. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies. P7: Mora, S., & Farshchian, B. A. (2010). A Unified Architecture for Supporting Direct Tag-Based and Indirect Network-Based Resource Discovery. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Ambient Intelligence, AMI.
  27. 27. 27 C1 C2 C3 C4 P2 ISCRAM- med ´14 P3 AMI ‘14 P4 SGDA ‘12 P6 IEEETLT ‘15 P7 AMI ‘10 P1 IJMHCI ‘12 P5 ‘15 Instantiation of CSRL model Design of tools for experience-capture Novel sensing-based interaction techniques Challenges in building prototypes Conference Journal Submitted Contribution Theory Technology TEL ISCRAM TEI
  28. 28. Contribution I 28 Implementation and evaluation of MIRROR Computer Supported Reflective Learning (CSRL) theory C2 C3 C4 P3 AMI ‘14 P7 AMI ‘10 P1 IJMHCI ‘12 P5 ‘15 C1 P2 ISCRAM- med ´14 P4 SGDA ‘12 P6 IEEETLT ‘15
  29. 29. Contribution II 29 Knowledge about designing experience-capturing tools for crisis workers 1. Mobility of work and sensing 2. Different crises, different relevant data 3. Different types of data 4. Sensor data and user-submitted data 5. Different use, different sharing 6. Intuitive, hands-free interaction 7. Automate and discrete capturing C1 P4 SGDA ‘12 P6 IEEETLT ‘15 C3 C4 P7 AMI ‘10 P1 IJMHCI ‘12 P5 ‘15 C2 P3 AMI ‘14 P2 ISCRAM- med ´14
  30. 30. Contribution III 30 Novel sensing-based interaction techniques to support crisis training CAPTURE EXPERIENCES RE-CREATE EXPERIENCES GENERATE EXPERIENCES C2 P2 ISCRAM- med ´14 C1 P4 SGDA ‘12 P6 IEEETLT ‘15 C4 P7 AMI ‘10 C3P1 IJMHCI ‘12 P5 ‘15 P3 AMI ‘14
  31. 31. Contribution IV 31 Knowledge about implementing prototypes to be deployed into the wild C3P1 IJMHCI ‘12 C2 P2 ISCRAM- med ´14 C1 P4 SGDA ‘12 P6 IEEETLT ‘15 C4 P7 AMI ‘10 P5 ‘15 P3 AMI ‘14
  32. 32. 32 C2 C3 C4 C1 The CSRL model can be instantiated into an ecology of sensing-based interfaces for the capture, re-creation and generation of crisis work experiences Future work will further map with technology the activities described in the model Conclusions and future work Theory in the field of tangible, embodied and embedded computer can drive the design of user interfaces for supporting reflection in crisis training Future work will generalise findings to other application domains Building sensing-based interfaces require a wide skill set. Further technology to be tested during (simulated) crisis work has to be build for high resilience Future work will develop tools to ease the development of sensing-based systems Unpredictably of relevance for the data and highly varying crisis scenarios make hard to design experience-capturing tools. A design space is provided in a set of design choices Future work will explore further implementation of the design space
  33. 33. Thanks! The work here presented is co-funded by EU-ICT 7FP MIRROR project (http://www.mirror-project.eu). Photos by ANPAS Piemonte and Simone Mora.

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