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Il Web Del Futuro Visioni E Idee Sul Web Semantico

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"The Web was designed as an information space, with the goal that it should be useful not only for human-human communication, but also that machines would be able to participate and help".

Tim Berners-Lee, ideatore del Web, ci spiega che il WWW non è solo comunicazione tra umani e che, per molte operazioni, le macchine possono venirci in aiuto e lavorare al posto nostro. Questo è possibile con il Web Semantico: una rete di metadati comprensibili alle macchine ed elaborabili in modo automatico utilizzando la logica. Non solo facendoci risparmiare e guadagnare tempo, ma aprendo anche infinite possibilità e sviluppi in questo " Oceano Blu " - per citare Kim W. Chan e Mauborgne Renée - in quanto è un mondo molto legato alla Ricerca e lascia molto spazio agli infiniti sviluppi. Durante il seminario, dopo una breve introduzione al concetto di Web Semantico, vedremo le sue applicazioni, le possibilità e quanto sia facile e conveniente entrare nel Web del futuro - oltre il Web 2.0 - svelando i segreti di Resource Description Framework (RDF), Gleaning Resource Description from Dialects of Languages (GRDDL), Friend Of A Friend (FOAF), Description Of A Project (DOAP), Semantically Interlinked Online Communities (SIOC), Dublin Core (DC), Microformats e molto altro.

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Il Web Del Futuro Visioni E Idee Sul Web Semantico

  1. 1. Il Web del Futuro: Visioni e Idee sul Web Semantico di Simone Onofri quot;The Web was designed as an information space, with the goal that it should be useful not only for human-human communication, but also that machines would be able to participate and help” Tim Berners-Lee http://simone.onofri.net/
  2. 2. Tutto cominciò con un sogno…
  3. 3. Sommario • Introduzione al Seminario • Tutto cominciò con un sogno… • Cos’è IWA/HWG e le sue attività • Introduzione al Web Semantico • Il Web Attuale • Il Web Semantico • Alcune tecnologie del Web Semantico • Il Mercato del Web Semantico • Staus dell’adozione del Web Semantico • Impariamo dal Passato: evoluzione del Web • Ambienti di Sviluppo • Visioni e Idee • Dobbiamo essere creativi • Vocabolari interessanti (…)
  4. 4. Cos’è IWA/HWG IWA/HWG è un’Associazione professionale no profit riconosciuta leader mondiale nella fornitura dei principi e delle certificazioni di formazione per i professionisti della Rete Internet; è presente in 100 paesi, con 130 sedi ufficiali in rappresentanza di più di 165.000 associati. La sua missione •Fornire programmi formativi di qualità •Fornire agli associati supporto e collaborazione a livello regionale, nazionale e internazionale, non cé un marchio di affiliazione riconosciuto a livello mondiale •Promuovere i principi universali di etica e di pratica professionale per tutti i professionisti della Rete Internet •Fornire supporto per la definizione e lo studio di normative nei Paesi in cui è presente
  5. 5. Attività di IWA Partecipazioni e Attività Network: http://www.iwa.it - http://www.webaccessibile.org -http://www.itlists.org Contatti: http://www.iwa.it - http://educational.iwa.it - http://edizioni.iwa.it comunicazione@iwa.it
  6. 6. Introduzione al Web Semantico “Il Web fu disegnato come uno spazio di informazioni, con l'obiettivo di essere utile non solo per la comunicazione uomo-uomo, ma affinché anche che le macchine potessero avere la possibilità di partecipare e dare il loro contributo. Uno dei maggiori ostacoli è stato il fatto che la maggior parte dell'informazione sul Web è disegnata per essere fruita dall'uomo, ed anche se essa fosse derivata da un database con un significato ben definito (almeno per alcuni termini) per le sue colonne, la struttura dei dati non è riconoscibile per un robot che naviga il Web.” Tim Berners-Lee, Semantic Web Roadmap (1998)
  7. 7. Il Web Attuale •E’ una rete composta da nodi e collegamenti •Una pagina esprime significato con •Testo in Linguaggio Naturale •Contenuti multimediali •Collegamenti verso altre pagine •Gli umani tramite il pensiero riescono sia leggere che a comprenderne testi, immagini, audio, video associandoli •Le macchine, invece, riescono solo a leggere, senza comprendere il significato (le macchine non pensano)
  8. 8. Il Web Semantico •In Teoria •Estende il Web Attuale •Una rete di dati che descrivono dati (metadati) •In Pratica •Utilizzo della Logica dei Predicati del Primo Ordine •Triple di dati “soggetto”, “predicato”, “oggetto” •Ontologie e Vocabolari spiegano i significati •Possibilità di “ragionare” sui dati da parte delle macchine
  9. 9. Piccolo Esempio •RDF/XML <?xml version=quot;1.0quot;?> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#quot; xmlns:dc=quot;http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/quot;> <rdf:Description rdf:about=quot;http://www.webb.it/event/eventview/5911quot;> <dc:title>Il Web del futuro: Visioni e Idee sul Web Semantico</dc:title> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> •Turtle <http://www.webb.it/event/eventview/5911> <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title> quot;Il Web del futuro: Visioni e Idee sul Web Semantico”. •Grafo
  10. 10. Alcune Tecnologie del Web Semantico •Il Modello RDF (Resource Description Framework) •RDFS (RDF Schema) •OWL (Ontology Web Language) •GRDDL (Gleaning Resource Description from Dialects of Languages) •RDFa (RDF annotation)
  11. 11. Il Mercato del Web Semantico “Il mio cruccio è fare cose che so benissimo che il computer potrebbe fare per me. Se una pagina Web con il tuo calendario personale dice che sarai a New York il prossimo Martedì, e la pagina con i tuoi impegni lavorativi dice che sarai a Londra per tutta la settimana, perché il computer non è capace di avvisarti di questo conflitto? E perché non ti chiede se cancellare il tuo volo per Londra e comprare il biglietto per New York?” Dan Connolly, The XML Revolution (1998)
  12. 12. Status dell’adozione del Web Semantico Inspired from Ivan Herman, W3C
  13. 13. Impariamo dal passato: evoluzione del Web Il Web Semantico è stato concepito in un ambito di Ricerca. • Ma vediamo come si è evoluto il Web il Web “attuale”: • 1. Il Web è nato al CERN… 2. …prima stato adottato dai Fisici dell’Alta Energia… 3. …poi dal resto dell’ambito accademico 4. …poi dalle piccole aziende e start-up 5. …poi dalle grandi aziende 6. …poi si è diffuso in tutto il Mondo Il Web Semantico è in questo momento tra il punto 4 e 5 • Courtesy of Ivan Herman, W3C
  14. 14. Ambienti di Sviluppo •Multilinguaggio •Lisp •Euler •Wilbur •Redland RDF •PHP •Java •ARC •Corese •RAP RDF-API •Jena •Perl •Python •CARA •RDFlib •RDFstore •C# e .NET •Prolog •SemWeb •RDFlib •Javascript •Ruby •Dojo Data •ActiveRDF •Jibbering Fonte: http://esw.w3.org/topic/SemanticWebTools
  15. 15. Visioni e Idee “Il Web Semantico non è solo mettere i dati sul web. E’ creare collegamenti che persone e macchine possano esplorare. Quando hai una serie di dati collegati, allora ne puoi trovare molti altri, sempre correlati” Tim Berners-Lee, Linked Data (2006)
  16. 16. Dobbiamo esser Creativi… •Possiamo definire la creatività come quot;trovare nessi nuovi fra cose note” (Vilfredo Pareto) •Se il Web Semantico è composto da nodi e collegamenti… •Cosa possiamo collegare?
  17. 17. Friend Of A Friend (FOAF) •E’ un vocabolario per descrivere le persone e i collegamenti tra le stesse •Descrive i loro interessi •Collega le persone ai loro account, siti e comunità alle quali partecipano •Si possono descrivere i Gruppi di perosne •Con il vocabolario complementare FoafCorp è possibile descrivere anche le società
  18. 18. Altri vocabolari interessanti •Progetti con: •Description Of A Project (DOAP) •Eventi e Calendari con: •RDF-Cal (RDF Calendar) •Contatti con: •vCard-RDF (Virtual Card in RDF) •Dati Generici con: •DCMI (Dublin Core Metadata Initiative)
  19. 19. Semantically Interlinked Online Community (SIOC) Fonte: http://sioc-project.org
  20. 20. SIOC + FOAF + SKOS Fonte: http://sioc-project.org/
  21. 21. Social Semantic Cloud Of Tags (SCOT) Fonte: http://scot-project.org
  22. 22. Una volta realizzato questo duplice sogno, il Web sarà un luogo in cui l’improvvisazione dell’essere umano e il ragionamento delle macchine saranno una miscela ideale e potente
  23. 23. Grazie Il Web del Futuro: Visioni e Idee sul Web Semantico GRAZIE Simone Onofri simone@onofri.net http://simone.onofri.net/
  24. 24. Ci vediamo a… •Il 08/11/2007 al comPA di Bologna con IWA: “Strumenti e risorse attuali presenti sul web utili per la PA” http://educational.iwa-italy.org/ •Il 28/10/2007 Festival della Creatività con “Teoria e Pratica di Pensiero Creativo: SCAMPER e altre tecniche” http://www.quifree.it/ •Sempre On-line nella Semantic Web Italian Community (SWIC) http://simone.onofri.net/#swic

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