by what we get !
we make a life !
by what we give
We make a
1. Citizenship should be our goal
2. Work is essential to citizenship
3. Employment is an important form of work
4. Self-directed support is for citizenship
5. It offers new options to enable work
6. But, we’re living in crazy times
7. We must hold our nerve and work together
1. The goal is citizenship
How should we live together, given all our
How do we avoid the stigma and prejudice
that threatens the lives of so many?
What kind of help should we offer one
Aristotle explains that a
community is not made out of
equals, but on the contrary
of people who are different
and unequal. The community
comes into being through
[Nich. Ethics 1133 a 14]
The name for a community of equals - people who
accept and welcome their differences - is a
community of citizens.
A citizen is someone who is different and equal uniquely themselves, and also one of us - treated
with respect ‘as an equal’.
It’s got nothing to do with passport-citizenship - it’s
how we stop people from becoming outcasts.
For people with disabilities our dark inheritance is
not citizenship nor community inclusion.
Our inheritance is eugenics, Nazi mass murder,
sterilisation, institutions, segregated services,
stigma and shame.
We are not standing on the shoulders of giants.
Sir Francis Galton: Eugenics = race improvement
A cousin of Darwin, Galton was treated as one of the
great minds of his time.
Not only did most of the men and women involved
in committing the euthanasia murders escape
justice, but the atrocities committed against
disabled people in Germany, Austria, Poland, the
former Soviet Union, and other regions during
the Nazi era have gone largely unrecognised and
uncompensated. Because of the neglect by
historians, as well as the political
powerlessness and economic deprivation of people
with disabilities, no memorial centre or museum
specifically for survivors with disabilities
exists anywhere in the world today.
We only have
only just begun
to learn how to
by decades of
We need a sense
of humility and
the ability to work
learn from each
other if we are
going to build a
This shows spending in one part of
England after the institutions were closed:
The journey away from the institution has been long
and closing down long-stay hospitals was only a
We have had to develop a range of different
innovations and theories in order to help guide us
away from our dark past.
We have still got a long way to go.
Citizenship is very
practical. We can
use the idea of
citizenship to think
about how to help
If we are not
people to be
are we actually
trying to do?
2. Work is essential to citizenship
Work of love - bringing up our children
Work of community - building a better world
Work of service - helping others for free
Work of employment - helping others for reward
We must respect all work
Work builds citizenship
1. We can express our gifts we can grow as a person
2. We can exercise some
3. We can earn some money
4. We can strengthen our
5. We can offer others the
chance to help
6. We can make a difference
- get stuck in
7. We can ﬁnd new friends
There are eight degrees of charity, one
higher than the other. The highest degree,
exceeded by none, is that of the person who
assists a poor Jew by providing him with a
gift or loan or by accepting him into a
business partnership or by helping him find
employment - in a word, by putting him
where he can dispense with other people's
aid. With reference to such aid, it is
said, “You shall strengthen him, be he a
stranger or a settler, he shall live with
you” [Lev. 25:35], which means strengthen
him in such manner that his falling into
want is prevented.
3. Employment is part of work
Employment is the when we work for another
person or for an organisation
But there’s also self-employment
Micro-employment and other options
Can offer an important degree of economic
Employment is good especially when:
1. It ﬁts who we are
2. It allows some freedom
3. It provides a good income
4. It ﬁts with our home life
5. It is supportive
6. If it is fruitful and adds real value
7. It helps us form friendships
Obviously quality employment matters.
The lame rides a horse!
the maimed drives the herd!
the deaf is brave in battle.!
A man is better!
blind than buried.!
A dead man is deft at nothing.
Havamal (The Sayings of the Vikings)
4. Self-directed support was
developed to enable citizenship
There are many different systems
The quality of implementation varies enormously
We know something about what better systems
Scotland is exploring these options today
Spending people’s money, on things
people wouldn’t buy for themselves
it is developing around the world
but it is still early days
Quality always goes up
Costs can go up, down or stay
Citizenship can increase a lot
It is not about increasing
It is not about markets and
It is about life, community and
1. Rights - Is my budget really mine - an entitlement?
2. Control - Is control as close to me as possible?
3. Clarity - Is it clear what I have?
4. Flexible - Can I use my budget as I think best?
5. Ease of use - Can I limit the bureaucracy?
6. Pro-community - Are we strengthening community?
7. Sustainable - Is the system affordable & innovative?
5. New opportunities emerge
longer just about supported employment competing
with day services
can be employers, employees, micro-businesses,
social entrepreneurs, family businesses
can start from their networks, family, friends, peers,
can engage directly, e.g. Project Search
can get real about employment, e.g. Personalised
communities can take back control from the system
15 and under
People seriously misusing drugs or alcohol
People with limiting long-term illness
People in poor health
Deaths in a year
‘Looked After Children’
People entitled to social care
Working age people on beneﬁts
Children SEN statements
People in homes in private ownership (incl. rental)
6. Policy madness
Wicked and unjust cuts
Crazy systems that don’t work
A Work Programme - that doesn’t get people work
Employment and Support Allowance for people who are not in
Job Seekers Allowance for the poorest
Universal Credit system which they don’t have the computers for
Atos instead of disabled people and family doctors
Work Related Activities Group (?) split from the Support Group (?)
Workfare - forced labour - which is bad for the labour market
Negative incentives - conditionality and punishment - sanctions for the
poorest in society
UK is the 3rd most unequal developed society
UK is the 2nd most centralised welfare state (after new Zealand)
7. Going forward
Time to think differently
Time to challenge incoherent policies
Time to act
Time to collaborate
This is in turn
leading to new
the need for
1. Close down the DWP - Integrate tax and beneﬁts
2. End Newspeak - The nonsense of ‘Job Seekers Allowances’ or
‘Employment and Support Allowances’ etc.
3. Focus on Basic Income - In the long-run it is the basic income
level that is the most important foundation of any decent system.
4. Justiﬁable Supplements - There may be an argument for
supplementing a basic income if people are always likely to be
disadvantaged by disability.
5. Welcome innovation - We already know a lot about what really
helps, not the Work Programme but…
6. Support the Local - We keep asking central government to solve
problems that can only be tackled at the local level.
1.Are you thinking of citizenship as the goal?
2.Does your support encourage work?
3.Can people ﬁnd employment?
4.Are you offering self-directed support?
5.Have you explored all your options?
6.Are you awake to the crazy times?
7.What are you going to do?
One's sense of honour is the
only thing that does not grow
old, and the last pleasure,
when one is worn out by age, is
not, as the poet said, making
money, but having the respect
of one's fellow men.