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Simon Côté-Lapointe, candidat au doctorat
École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information de l’Université de Mo...
Presentation plan
2
1. Context and method
2. Five reflections about users
3. Five reflections about uses
4. Conclusion
Int...
3
Introduction
Context and method
Context
• Doctoral project
• Litterature review on uses and users of archives
Corpus ana...
About users
5
1. User needs About users
S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposi...
S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017 6
2. The ...
7
3. User studies
We study more the user’s expectations in relation to a
specific system or interface than the actual need...
8
4. Actual users / Potential users
We study more the needs of those who already use
archives (traditionnal users) than th...
9
5. User typologies
User typologies reflect a vision centered around the
archives rather than the characteristics of user...
About uses
• Global dissemination
• Facilitate handling et
reuse
• Expansion of uses
11
6. Digital chain of use About uses
The chain ...
12
7. Theoretical basis of use
There is a lack of theorical basis of archives uses
«Use» is vague concept. Synonyms : purp...
13
8. Typologies of uses
Typologies of uses reflect a vision centered around the
archives and the traditionnal types of us...
14
9. Study of uses
There’s a lack of study on uses of archives.
• « [...] less is known about what users do with records ...
15
10. Kinds and types of archives
We must take account of the kinds and types of archival
documents in the study of uses
...
16
What to do next ? Conclusion
S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Sym...
Questions ?
18
Bibliography
• Adams, M. (2007). Analyzing archives and finding facts: use and users of digital data records. Archival ...
19
• Feliciati, P. et Alfier, A. (2013). Archives on the web and users expectations: Towards a convergence with digital li...
20
• Roy, J. (2006-2007). Les usagers indirects des archives : d’un concept théorique à son application dans les études d’...
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Dix réflexions sur l’étude des utilisateurs et des usages des archives

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Five reflections about users and five reflections about uses : theory, typology and digital environment.

5 réflexions sur les usagers et 5 réflexions sur les usages qui portent entre autres sur les fondements théoriques, les typologies, les études d’usagers et l’influence du numérique.

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Dix réflexions sur l’étude des utilisateurs et des usages des archives

  1. 1. Simon Côté-Lapointe, candidat au doctorat École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information de l’Université de Montréal, EBSI Avec l'appui financier du Fonds de recherche du Québec – Société et culture (FRQSC) et de la la Fondation de BAnQ grâce à son Programme de soutien à la recherche Présentation dans le cadre du 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS Vendredi le 24 février 2017, Université de Montréal Dix réflexions sur l’étude des utilisateurs et des usages des archives / Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives
  2. 2. Presentation plan 2 1. Context and method 2. Five reflections about users 3. Five reflections about uses 4. Conclusion Introduction S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  3. 3. 3 Introduction Context and method Context • Doctoral project • Litterature review on uses and users of archives Corpus analyzed • Theoretical and empirical texts in archival science • Europe and Northern America • More than 40 texts summarized (english and french) S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  4. 4. About users
  5. 5. 5 1. User needs About users S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017 «Need» is a vague and little studied aspect in archival science • Synonyms : expectations, intention, reasons, intended use, requests, etc. • Different analysis levels of the phenomenon • No shared theoretical basis in user studies • Archival users and use have received considerably less attention than in LIS
  6. 6. S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017 6 2. The digital user About users The digital environment modify the mediation between archives, users and institutions « Archives are becoming more aware that the demographics of users, especially in online environment, is changing, no longer consisting primarily or exclusively of researchers, but increasingly containing non-researchers [...] who search, browse, or simply look around according to their personal or everyday-life information needs (Pugh, 2005; Huvila, 2008; Adams, 2007). […] researchers also are beginning to have non-traditional expectations of the archives, probably due to their overall experiences with online databases, digital libraries, etc. » (Vilar et Šauperl, 2015, p.553) Impact on theorical and empirical perspectives on users.
  7. 7. 7 3. User studies We study more the user’s expectations in relation to a specific system or interface than the actual needs Problematic because : • Different practices whitin the archival community • Different contents, kinds and types of archives • Different interfaces • Fast and constant evolution of digital dissemination means • Contextual and technological bias About users S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  8. 8. 8 4. Actual users / Potential users We study more the needs of those who already use archives (traditionnal users) than the needs of potential users About users S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  9. 9. 9 5. User typologies User typologies reflect a vision centered around the archives rather than the characteristics of users and their practical uses of archives Typologies • Traditionnal / non traditionnal users • Intern / extern users • Primary / secondary / passive users • Records / archives users • Direct / indirect users • Vocational / avocational (or lay users) • Experts / novice users About users S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  10. 10. About uses
  11. 11. • Global dissemination • Facilitate handling et reuse • Expansion of uses 11 6. Digital chain of use About uses The chain of use have change in the digital environment • More access • More visibility • More dissemination means • More digitized documents • More types of documents (audio, video, etc.) • Less mediation with institutions and archivists • Web 2.0 & 3.0 S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  12. 12. 12 7. Theoretical basis of use There is a lack of theorical basis of archives uses «Use» is vague concept. Synonyms : purpose, function, utilization, usage, action, activity, task, etc. About uses THEORIES & MODELS CHARACTERISTICS Théorie des trois âges (Schellenberg, 1956) Uses based on life cycle of documents and values of archives Market segmentation (Yeo, 2005) 2 axis : purpose of use / values sought Activity theory (Wilson, 2006) 3 levels for analysing usage : Activity, action, operations Exploitation of archives (Lemay & Klein, 2014) Fifth dimension of the records continuum. Highlight on conditions of use. 4 axis : activity, finality, materiality, temporality. S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  13. 13. 13 8. Typologies of uses Typologies of uses reflect a vision centered around the archives and the traditionnal types of users rather than the practical uses of archives About uses Typologies • Explicit or implicit uses • Direct or indirect uses • Uses based on user type • Primary or secondary uses / Uses based on archival value, function or purpose • Uses by disciplines or sectors • Uses by dissemination means S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  14. 14. 14 9. Study of uses There’s a lack of study on uses of archives. • « [...] less is known about what users do with records when they consult them. » (Yeo, 2005, p.42) • « Use is hardly discussed at all, while users have gained some attention since the 1980s. The literature provides a somewhat abstract view of use and users, not explicitly grounded in theoretical reasoning or empirical studies. » (Sundqvist, 2007, p.647) About uses S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  15. 15. 15 10. Kinds and types of archives We must take account of the kinds and types of archival documents in the study of uses • Multiple kinds and types of documents in archives leads to multiple uses • Lack of study about uses linked to medium and content types « More research is needed to determine whether new content is leading to new uses of archives. » (McCausland, 2011, p.316) About uses S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  16. 16. 16 What to do next ? Conclusion S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017 Propose a new model to study the uses of archives Avenues for further research : • Exploitation of archives • Sociologie des usages (sociology of uses) • Activity theory • Archival principles, values and functions of archives • Kinds and types of archives (medium and content)
  17. 17. Questions ?
  18. 18. 18 Bibliography • Adams, M. (2007). Analyzing archives and finding facts: use and users of digital data records. Archival Science, 7(1), 21-36. doi:10.1007/s10502-007-9056-4 • Bertrand, A. (2014). Valeurs, usages et usagers des archives. Dans Y. Lemay et A. Klein (dir.), Archives et création : nouvelles perspectives sur l'archivistique. Cahier 1 (p. 121-150) Montréal, QC : Papyrus. Repéré à https://papyrus.bib.umontreal.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1866/11324/lemay-y-klein-a-collaborateurs-archives-creation- cahier1.pdf. • Chevallier, P., Rioust, L. et Bouvier-Ajam, L. (2012). Consulting Manuscripts Online: A Qualitative Study of Three Potential User Categories. Digital Medievalist 8. Repéré à http://www.digitalmedievalist.org/journal/8/chevallier/ • Coeuré, S. et Duclert, V. (2011). V / Publics des Archives, usages des archives. Dans Les archives (p.79-91). Paris, France : La Découverte. • Cook, T. (2013). Evidence, memory, identity, and community: four shifting archival paradigms. Archival Science, 13(2), 95-120. doi: 10.1007/s10502-012-9180-7. • Costa, M. et Silva, M. J. (2011). Characterizing search behavior in web archives. Communication présentée au Temporal Web Analytics Workshop du 20th International World Wide Web Conference, Hyderabad, Inde. Repéré à http://ceur-ws.org/Vol- 707/TWAW2011.pdf • Duff, W. (2002). Understanding the information-seeking behaviour of archival researchers in a digital age: Paths, processes and preferences. Communication présentée DLM-Forum 2002, Barcelona, Espagne. Repéré à http://www.project- consult.net/files/DLM%20Conference%202002.pdf#page=333 • Duff, W. M. et Johnson, C. A. (2001). A virtual expression of need: An analysis of e-mail reference questions. American Archivist, 64(1), 43-60. Repéré à http://www.jstor.org/stable/40294158 • Dupeyrat, M. et Malherbe, C. (2014). Panorama des nouveaux usages des archives audiovisuelles. Dans E-Dossier de l’audiovisuel : L’Extension des usages de l’archive audiovisuelle (p.183-206). Repéré à http://www.ina-expert.com/e-dossiers-de-l- audiovisuel/panorama-des-nouveaux-usages-des-archives-audiovisuelles.html S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  19. 19. 19 • Feliciati, P. et Alfier, A. (2013). Archives on the web and users expectations: Towards a convergence with digital libraries. Review of the National Center for Digitization, (22), 81-92. Repéré à http://eudml.org/doc/26131 • Freund, L. et Toms, E. G. (2016). Interacting with archival finding aids. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67(4), 994-1008. doi:10.1002/asi.23436 • Heo, M. (2013). Assessing user needs of Web portals: A measurement model. Information Research, 18(2). Repéré à http://InformationR.net/ir/18-2/paper578.html • Huvila, I. (2008). Participatory archive: Towards decentralised curation, radical user orientation, and broader contextualisation of records management. Archival Science, 8(1), 15-36. doi:10.1007/s10502-008-9071-0. • Johnson, A. (2008). Users, use and context: Supporting interaction between users and digital archives. Dans L. Craven (dir.), What are archives (p.145-166). Burlington, VT: Ashgate. • Katuu, S. (2015). User studies and user education programmes in archival institutions. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 67(4), 442-457. doi:10.1108/AJIM-01-2015-0005 • Lemay, Y. et Klein, A. (2014). Les archives définitives: un début de parcours. Revisiter le cycle de vie et le Records continuum. Archivaria, 77, 73-102. • McCausland, S. (2011). A future without mediation? Online access, archivists, and the future of archival research. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 42(4), 309-319. doi:10.1080/00048623.2011.10722243 • Noël, G. (2001). La division des archives de la Ville de Quebec à l'écoute de ses clientèles. Archives, 33(1), 47-82. • Ongena, G., Van De Wijngaert, L. et Huizer, E. (2013). Acceptance of online audio-visual cultural heritage Archive Services: A Study of the General Public. Information Research, 18(2). • Proulx, S. (2015). La sociologie des usages, et après? Revue française des sciences de l’information et de la communication(6). Repéré à https://rfsic.revues.org/1230 • Pugh, M. J. (2005). Providing reference services for archives and manuscripts (Archival Fundamentals Series II). Chicago, IL: Society of American Archivists. • Ranjard, S. (2012). Usages et usagers de l’information : quelles pratiques hier et aujourd’hui? Paris, France : ADBS. S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  20. 20. 20 • Roy, J. (2006-2007). Les usagers indirects des archives : d’un concept théorique à son application dans les études d’usagers. Archives, 38(2), 119-142. • Schellenberg, T.R. (1956). Modern archives: Principles and techniques (Édition de 2003). Chicago, IL: The Society of American Archivists. Repéré à http://www.archivists.org/publications/epubs/ModernArchives-Schellenberg.pdf • Senturk, B. (2011). The concept of user satisfaction in archival institutions. Library Management, 33(1/2), 66-72. doi:10.1108/01435121211203329 • Stirling, P., Chevallier, P. et Illien, G. (2012). Web archives for researchers: Representations, expectations and potential uses. D- Lib Magazine, 18(3-4). Repéré à http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march12/stirling/03stirling.html • Sundqvist, A. (2007). The use of records – a literature review. Archives & Social Studies, 1(1), 623-653. Repéré à http://archivo.cartagena.es/files/36-184-DOC_FICHERO1/sundqvist_use.pdf • Turock, B. J. et Friedrich, G. W. (2009). Access in a Digital Age. Dans M. J. Bates & M. N. Maack (dir.), Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences, Third Edition (p.23-33). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. doi:10.1081/E-ELIS3-120043096 • Vilar, P. et Šauperl, A. (2015). Archives, quo vadis et cum quibus?: Archivists’ self-perceptions and perceptions of users of contemporary archives. International Journal of Information Management(35), 551–560. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.06.001 • Wilson, T. D. (2006). A re-examination of information seeking behaviour in the context of activity theory. Information Research, 11(4), 1. Repéré à http://www.informationr.net/ir/11-4/paper260.html • Yakel, E. et Torres, D. (2003). AI: archival intelligence and user expertise. The American Archivist, 66(1), 51-78. doi:10.17723/aarc.66.1.q022h85pn51n5800 • Yeo, G. (2005). Understanding users and use: A market segmentation approach. Journal of the Society of Archivists, 26(1), 25- 53. doi:10.1080/00039810500047425 S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017

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