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Dix réflexions sur l’étude des utilisateurs et des usages des archives

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Five reflections about users and five reflections about uses : theory, typology and digital environment.

5 réflexions sur les usagers et 5 réflexions sur les usages qui portent entre autres sur les fondements théoriques, les typologies, les études d’usagers et l’influence du numérique.

Five reflections about users and five reflections about uses : theory, typology and digital environment.

5 réflexions sur les usagers et 5 réflexions sur les usages qui portent entre autres sur les fondements théoriques, les typologies, les études d’usagers et l’influence du numérique.

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Dix réflexions sur l’étude des utilisateurs et des usages des archives

  1. 1. Simon Côté-Lapointe, candidat au doctorat École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information de l’Université de Montréal, EBSI Avec l'appui financier du Fonds de recherche du Québec – Société et culture (FRQSC) et de la la Fondation de BAnQ grâce à son Programme de soutien à la recherche Présentation dans le cadre du 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS Vendredi le 24 février 2017, Université de Montréal Dix réflexions sur l’étude des utilisateurs et des usages des archives / Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives
  2. 2. Presentation plan 2 1. Context and method 2. Five reflections about users 3. Five reflections about uses 4. Conclusion Introduction S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  3. 3. 3 Introduction Context and method Context • Doctoral project • Litterature review on uses and users of archives Corpus analyzed • Theoretical and empirical texts in archival science • Europe and Northern America • More than 40 texts summarized (english and french) S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  4. 4. About users
  5. 5. 5 1. User needs About users S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017 «Need» is a vague and little studied aspect in archival science • Synonyms : expectations, intention, reasons, intended use, requests, etc. • Different analysis levels of the phenomenon • No shared theoretical basis in user studies • Archival users and use have received considerably less attention than in LIS
  6. 6. S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017 6 2. The digital user About users The digital environment modify the mediation between archives, users and institutions « Archives are becoming more aware that the demographics of users, especially in online environment, is changing, no longer consisting primarily or exclusively of researchers, but increasingly containing non-researchers [...] who search, browse, or simply look around according to their personal or everyday-life information needs (Pugh, 2005; Huvila, 2008; Adams, 2007). […] researchers also are beginning to have non-traditional expectations of the archives, probably due to their overall experiences with online databases, digital libraries, etc. » (Vilar et Šauperl, 2015, p.553) Impact on theorical and empirical perspectives on users.
  7. 7. 7 3. User studies We study more the user’s expectations in relation to a specific system or interface than the actual needs Problematic because : • Different practices whitin the archival community • Different contents, kinds and types of archives • Different interfaces • Fast and constant evolution of digital dissemination means • Contextual and technological bias About users S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  8. 8. 8 4. Actual users / Potential users We study more the needs of those who already use archives (traditionnal users) than the needs of potential users About users S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  9. 9. 9 5. User typologies User typologies reflect a vision centered around the archives rather than the characteristics of users and their practical uses of archives Typologies • Traditionnal / non traditionnal users • Intern / extern users • Primary / secondary / passive users • Records / archives users • Direct / indirect users • Vocational / avocational (or lay users) • Experts / novice users About users S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  10. 10. About uses
  11. 11. • Global dissemination • Facilitate handling et reuse • Expansion of uses 11 6. Digital chain of use About uses The chain of use have change in the digital environment • More access • More visibility • More dissemination means • More digitized documents • More types of documents (audio, video, etc.) • Less mediation with institutions and archivists • Web 2.0 & 3.0 S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  12. 12. 12 7. Theoretical basis of use There is a lack of theorical basis of archives uses «Use» is vague concept. Synonyms : purpose, function, utilization, usage, action, activity, task, etc. About uses THEORIES & MODELS CHARACTERISTICS Théorie des trois âges (Schellenberg, 1956) Uses based on life cycle of documents and values of archives Market segmentation (Yeo, 2005) 2 axis : purpose of use / values sought Activity theory (Wilson, 2006) 3 levels for analysing usage : Activity, action, operations Exploitation of archives (Lemay & Klein, 2014) Fifth dimension of the records continuum. Highlight on conditions of use. 4 axis : activity, finality, materiality, temporality. S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  13. 13. 13 8. Typologies of uses Typologies of uses reflect a vision centered around the archives and the traditionnal types of users rather than the practical uses of archives About uses Typologies • Explicit or implicit uses • Direct or indirect uses • Uses based on user type • Primary or secondary uses / Uses based on archival value, function or purpose • Uses by disciplines or sectors • Uses by dissemination means S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  14. 14. 14 9. Study of uses There’s a lack of study on uses of archives. • « [...] less is known about what users do with records when they consult them. » (Yeo, 2005, p.42) • « Use is hardly discussed at all, while users have gained some attention since the 1980s. The literature provides a somewhat abstract view of use and users, not explicitly grounded in theoretical reasoning or empirical studies. » (Sundqvist, 2007, p.647) About uses S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  15. 15. 15 10. Kinds and types of archives We must take account of the kinds and types of archival documents in the study of uses • Multiple kinds and types of documents in archives leads to multiple uses • Lack of study about uses linked to medium and content types « More research is needed to determine whether new content is leading to new uses of archives. » (McCausland, 2011, p.316) About uses S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  16. 16. 16 What to do next ? Conclusion S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017 Propose a new model to study the uses of archives Avenues for further research : • Exploitation of archives • Sociologie des usages (sociology of uses) • Activity theory • Archival principles, values and functions of archives • Kinds and types of archives (medium and content)
  17. 17. Questions ?
  18. 18. 18 Bibliography • Adams, M. (2007). Analyzing archives and finding facts: use and users of digital data records. Archival Science, 7(1), 21-36. doi:10.1007/s10502-007-9056-4 • Bertrand, A. (2014). Valeurs, usages et usagers des archives. Dans Y. Lemay et A. Klein (dir.), Archives et création : nouvelles perspectives sur l'archivistique. Cahier 1 (p. 121-150) Montréal, QC : Papyrus. Repéré à https://papyrus.bib.umontreal.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1866/11324/lemay-y-klein-a-collaborateurs-archives-creation- cahier1.pdf. • Chevallier, P., Rioust, L. et Bouvier-Ajam, L. (2012). Consulting Manuscripts Online: A Qualitative Study of Three Potential User Categories. Digital Medievalist 8. Repéré à http://www.digitalmedievalist.org/journal/8/chevallier/ • Coeuré, S. et Duclert, V. (2011). V / Publics des Archives, usages des archives. Dans Les archives (p.79-91). Paris, France : La Découverte. • Cook, T. (2013). Evidence, memory, identity, and community: four shifting archival paradigms. Archival Science, 13(2), 95-120. doi: 10.1007/s10502-012-9180-7. • Costa, M. et Silva, M. J. (2011). Characterizing search behavior in web archives. Communication présentée au Temporal Web Analytics Workshop du 20th International World Wide Web Conference, Hyderabad, Inde. Repéré à http://ceur-ws.org/Vol- 707/TWAW2011.pdf • Duff, W. (2002). Understanding the information-seeking behaviour of archival researchers in a digital age: Paths, processes and preferences. Communication présentée DLM-Forum 2002, Barcelona, Espagne. Repéré à http://www.project- consult.net/files/DLM%20Conference%202002.pdf#page=333 • Duff, W. M. et Johnson, C. A. (2001). A virtual expression of need: An analysis of e-mail reference questions. American Archivist, 64(1), 43-60. Repéré à http://www.jstor.org/stable/40294158 • Dupeyrat, M. et Malherbe, C. (2014). Panorama des nouveaux usages des archives audiovisuelles. Dans E-Dossier de l’audiovisuel : L’Extension des usages de l’archive audiovisuelle (p.183-206). Repéré à http://www.ina-expert.com/e-dossiers-de-l- audiovisuel/panorama-des-nouveaux-usages-des-archives-audiovisuelles.html S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  19. 19. 19 • Feliciati, P. et Alfier, A. (2013). Archives on the web and users expectations: Towards a convergence with digital libraries. Review of the National Center for Digitization, (22), 81-92. Repéré à http://eudml.org/doc/26131 • Freund, L. et Toms, E. G. (2016). Interacting with archival finding aids. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67(4), 994-1008. doi:10.1002/asi.23436 • Heo, M. (2013). Assessing user needs of Web portals: A measurement model. Information Research, 18(2). Repéré à http://InformationR.net/ir/18-2/paper578.html • Huvila, I. (2008). Participatory archive: Towards decentralised curation, radical user orientation, and broader contextualisation of records management. Archival Science, 8(1), 15-36. doi:10.1007/s10502-008-9071-0. • Johnson, A. (2008). Users, use and context: Supporting interaction between users and digital archives. Dans L. Craven (dir.), What are archives (p.145-166). Burlington, VT: Ashgate. • Katuu, S. (2015). User studies and user education programmes in archival institutions. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 67(4), 442-457. doi:10.1108/AJIM-01-2015-0005 • Lemay, Y. et Klein, A. (2014). Les archives définitives: un début de parcours. Revisiter le cycle de vie et le Records continuum. Archivaria, 77, 73-102. • McCausland, S. (2011). A future without mediation? Online access, archivists, and the future of archival research. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 42(4), 309-319. doi:10.1080/00048623.2011.10722243 • Noël, G. (2001). La division des archives de la Ville de Quebec à l'écoute de ses clientèles. Archives, 33(1), 47-82. • Ongena, G., Van De Wijngaert, L. et Huizer, E. (2013). Acceptance of online audio-visual cultural heritage Archive Services: A Study of the General Public. Information Research, 18(2). • Proulx, S. (2015). La sociologie des usages, et après? Revue française des sciences de l’information et de la communication(6). Repéré à https://rfsic.revues.org/1230 • Pugh, M. J. (2005). Providing reference services for archives and manuscripts (Archival Fundamentals Series II). Chicago, IL: Society of American Archivists. • Ranjard, S. (2012). Usages et usagers de l’information : quelles pratiques hier et aujourd’hui? Paris, France : ADBS. S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017
  20. 20. 20 • Roy, J. (2006-2007). Les usagers indirects des archives : d’un concept théorique à son application dans les études d’usagers. Archives, 38(2), 119-142. • Schellenberg, T.R. (1956). Modern archives: Principles and techniques (Édition de 2003). Chicago, IL: The Society of American Archivists. Repéré à http://www.archivists.org/publications/epubs/ModernArchives-Schellenberg.pdf • Senturk, B. (2011). The concept of user satisfaction in archival institutions. Library Management, 33(1/2), 66-72. doi:10.1108/01435121211203329 • Stirling, P., Chevallier, P. et Illien, G. (2012). Web archives for researchers: Representations, expectations and potential uses. D- Lib Magazine, 18(3-4). Repéré à http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march12/stirling/03stirling.html • Sundqvist, A. (2007). The use of records – a literature review. Archives & Social Studies, 1(1), 623-653. Repéré à http://archivo.cartagena.es/files/36-184-DOC_FICHERO1/sundqvist_use.pdf • Turock, B. J. et Friedrich, G. W. (2009). Access in a Digital Age. Dans M. J. Bates & M. N. Maack (dir.), Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences, Third Edition (p.23-33). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. doi:10.1081/E-ELIS3-120043096 • Vilar, P. et Šauperl, A. (2015). Archives, quo vadis et cum quibus?: Archivists’ self-perceptions and perceptions of users of contemporary archives. International Journal of Information Management(35), 551–560. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.06.001 • Wilson, T. D. (2006). A re-examination of information seeking behaviour in the context of activity theory. Information Research, 11(4), 1. Repéré à http://www.informationr.net/ir/11-4/paper260.html • Yakel, E. et Torres, D. (2003). AI: archival intelligence and user expertise. The American Archivist, 66(1), 51-78. doi:10.17723/aarc.66.1.q022h85pn51n5800 • Yeo, G. (2005). Understanding users and use: A market segmentation approach. Journal of the Society of Archivists, 26(1), 25- 53. doi:10.1080/00039810500047425 S. Côté-Lapointe – Ten reflections about the study of users and uses of archives – 10e Symposium EBSI-SIS – 2017

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