Grammar book final

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Grammar book final

  1. 1. GRAMMAR BOOK By: Sabrina Bray
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS3. Presente -ar –er –ir 14. Imperfecto4. Stem Changers 14. Irregulares 15. Triggers5. Irregulars –go –zco –yo 15. Preterite Tense6. Saber vs conocer 15. Irreg- car/gar/zar7. Reflexives 16. Spock 17. Cucaracha8. „se‟ impersonal 18. Snake/snakey9. Dipthongs 16. Comparivives10. Verbs like…Uir/guir 17. Superlatives11. Verbs like…Cer/cir 18. Future12. Verbs like…Ger/gir 15. Irregulars 16. Triggerwords13. Hace +__+ que + present/presentente14. Imperfecto
  3. 3. Ar, Er, Ir Er- Ir- Ar-o amos o imos o imosas an es en es ena e e Caminar Comer VivirCamino Como Comemos Vivo VivimosCominas Comes Comen Vives VivenCominaCaminamos Come ViveCaminan
  4. 4. STEM CHANGERS AKA BOOT VERBS  The verbs change in the root  They do not change in the nosotros form or the vosotros  E  ie Pensar- Penso  O ue Pienso  U ue Yo nosotros Tú vosotros El/ella/utd Ellos/Ellas/Utds
  5. 5. IRREGULARS -GO -ZCO -YO  The “go” “zco” verbs are only in the irregulars in the yo form Yo – Tengo  “go” verbs- caer, decir, oir, puner, hacer, tener, traer, venir Yo – Hago  “zco” verbs (cer/cir)- conocer, producir, conducir Yo - Vengo Ser- Ir- Yo - ConozcoSoy Somos Voy Vamos Yo - ProduzcoEres Son Vas Van Yo - ConduzcoEs Va
  6. 6. SABER VS CONOCER  Both saber y conocer translate to the English verb to know  Both “yo” forms are irregular Conocer SaberConozco conocemos Sé sabemosConoces Conocen Sabes sabenConoce Sabe
  7. 7. REFLEXIVES Brenda se lava- se is reflexive Reflexives also can be added on the end of an infinitive.
  8. 8. „SE IMPERSONAL Pronoun ”se” is in front of verbs to make general statements. ¿cómo se dice man en español? In English it translates to either “you say” or “one says.”
  9. 9. DIPTHONGS W/ACCENTS Dipthongs are the strong or weak vowels in a word next to eachother. Strong vowel sounds are a,e,o. *two Weak vowel sounds are i,u,y. strong vowels puerto, ciudad, siete, hay. cannot be in the same syllable
  10. 10. VERBS LIKE…UIR/GUIRGuir Uir -Nosotros form is the only that-Yo form only changes from Gu to G doesn’t change.-Conseguir -Verbs that end in -uir (not guir) add y before o, e, and a endingsconsigo -atribuirconsiguesconsigue atribuyoconseguimos atribuyesconsiguen atribuye atribuimos atribuyen
  11. 11. VERBS LIKE…CER/CIR Verbs that end in a vowel + cer or cir add z before the c in the yoform only. Verbs that end in a consonant + cer or cir change the c to z in theyo form only. conducir = conduzco ejercer = ejerzo
  12. 12. VERBS LIKE…GER/GIR Verbs that end in ger and gir change the g to j in the yo form only.Example: coger = cojo
  13. 13. PRESENT/PRESENTE The yo form is the only irregularExamples: Hago, haces, hace, hacemos, hacen
  14. 14. IMPERFECTO  The imperfect tense is used to refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly.  Yo caminaba todo los días. Er/Ir-Ser- Ir- Ver- Ar- aba íaera iba veía ías abaseras ibas veías ía abaera iba veía íamos ábamoséramos íbamos veíamos ían abaneran iban veían
  15. 15. PRETERITE Past tense Known beginning and/or ending “snapshot” of time
  16. 16. PRETERIT TRIGGER WORDS Words or phrases that are used to be call for the use of a preterit verb. Examples: • Ayer • El otro dia • Ayer por la manana • El fin de semana passado • Entonces • Hace dos dias
  17. 17. PRETERIT IRREGULARS, -CAR, -GAR, -ZAE First grouping of irregular preterit verbs Only conjugated differently in the “yo” form Car-> que Tocar-> toque Gar-> ue Jugar-> jugue Zar-> ce Comenzar-> comence
  18. 18. SPOCK Hacer: • Hice • hiciste • hizo • hicimos • hicieron Ir/ser: • fui • fuiste • fue • fuimos Dar: • di • diste • dio • Dimos • dieron Ver: • vi • viste • vieron
  19. 19. CUCARACHA VERBS Andar anduve E Iste Estar estuve O Poder pude Imos Poner puse ieron Querer quise Saber supe Tener tuve Vivir vine
  20. 20. SNAKE/ SNAKEYLei LeimosLeisteLeyo Leyeron
  21. 21. COMPARITIVES Menos/mas que Tanto como… Tan como… Menor/mejor/peor…
  22. 22. SUPERLATIVES Two types of superlatives: • Absolute • Relative Examples: Juan es el chico más inteligente de la clase. John is the smartest boy in the class. Bill Gates es el hombre más rico de los U.S. Bill Gates is the richest man in the U.S.
  23. 23. THE FUTURE TENSE El futuro • é Vivir • ás Estar • á Comer • emos • án

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