View looking down into an open manhole showing two converging sanitary sewer lines. The larger line enters from the right and changes direction within the manhole to exit from the top of the photo. A smaller line enters from the bottom of the photo under the access steps. The concrete floor of the manhole has channels to minimize accumulation of solids.
Pipes in sanitation
Pipes in sanitation
What are pipes...???
• A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder,
usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section,
used mainly to convey substances which
can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries,
powders, masses of small solids.
What do we mean by sanitation
• Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting
health through prevention of human contact
with the hazards of wastes as well as the
treatment and proper disposal
of sewage or wastewater.
• The word 'sanitation' also refers to the
maintenance of hygienic conditions, through
services such as garbage collection and
• A sanitary sewer (also
called a foul sewer) is an
system specifically for
transporting sewage fro
m houses and commercial
buildings through pipes
to treatment or disposal.
areas also carryindustrial
wastewater. The system of
sewers is called sewerage.
• Piping is a system of pipes used to convey
fluid(liquids and gases) from one location to
• Industrial process piping can be manufactured from
wood , fiberglass, glass, steel, aluminium, plastic,
copper and concrete. The in-line components known
as fittings, and other device typically sense and
control the pressures.
• Flow-rate and temprature of the transmitted fluid
as-usually includes in the field of piping design.
History of piping...
• Earlier wooden pipes were constructed out of logs
that had a large hole bored lengthwise through the
• Later, wooden pipes were constructed with staves
and hoops similar to wooden barrel construction.
• Stave pipes have the advantage that they are easily
transported as a compact pile of parts on a wagon
and then assembled as a hollow structure at the job
• Wooden pipes were especially popular in mountain
regions where transport of heavy iron or concrete
pipes would have been difficult.
• Wooden pipes were easier to maintain than metal,
because the wood did not expand or contract with
temprature changes as much as metal and so
consequently expansion joints and bends are not
• The thickness of wood afforded some insulating
properties to the pipes which helped prevent
freezing as compared to metal pipes.
• Wood used for water pipes does not rot easily.
• Redwood pipes stayed smooth and clean
indefinitely while iron pipe by comparison would
rapidly begin to scale and corrode and could
eventually plug itself up with corossion.
What is plumbing??....
• Plumbing is a piping system with which most
people are familiar , as it constitutes the form of
fluid transportation that is used to provide
potable water and fuels to their homes and
businesses. Plumbing pipes also remove waste in
the form of sewage, and allow venting in the
form of sewage gases to the outdoors.
• fire sprinkler system also use in piping, and may
transport non potable or potable water , or other
fire suppression fluids.
Galvanized Steel Pipe . Use galvanized steel
pipe above and below ground. This pipe comes
in different lengths, and cutting may be
necessary to allow threading.
Rigid Copper Tubing . Copper tubing
comes in 10- and 20-foot lengths and is
used only above ground. Types K, L, and
M have the same outside diameter to
accept fittings. The inside diameters for K,
L, and M are different.
Flexible Copper Tubing . Flexible copper
tubing comes in coils of 60 or 100 feet.
Types of K and L can be used above and
below ground. Both types have the
advantage of bending with the use of a
bending tool for installation.
Rigid Plastic Pipe . Plastic pipe comes in
10- and 20-foot lengths and is used above
and below ground. Type PVC is used for
cold water supply lines. Type CPVC is used
for cold and hot water lines and is
temperature-rated up to 180 degrees.
Flexible Plastic Pipe . This comes in coils
of 100 feet and is used above ground only.
Type PB is used for cold and hot water
lines and is temperature-rated from 180 to
200 degrees. Type PE is used only for cold