1. Vermiculture - the culture of
2. Vermicomposting - the use of worms
for composting organic materials.
3. Vermicompost - the product of
vermicomposting containing worm
castings, bedding materials as well as
organic matter in various stages of
4. Vermiculturist - the Worm Man or a
person who farms, breeds and cares
for WORMS. eg A professional WORM
farmer is called Vermiculturist.
Understanding the Terminology
• It defines the thrilling potential for waste
reduction, fertilizer production, as well as an
collection of possible uses for the future.
Vermiculture enhances the growth of plants
that provide food along with producing
prosperous and financially rewarding fertilizer.
The “vermi” or earthworms are important in
enriching the soil with organic matter which
comes from biodegradable materials such as
dead plants and animals which the
• Vermicomposting is defined as the practice of
using concentrations of earthworms to
convert organic materials into usable
vermicomposting or worm castings. These
systems focus on the waste material and
managing it so that it can be successfully and
efficiently processed in a worm system
Facts About Earthworms
• The earthworm is one of
nature's pinnacle "soil
scientists." Earthworms are
liberated, cost effective
farm relief. The worms are
accountable for a variety of
elements including turning
common soil into superior
quality. Worms facilitate
the amount of air and
water that travels into soil.
They break down organic
matter and when they eat,
they leave behind castings
that are an exceptionally
valuable type of fertilizer
Benefits of Earthworms
• a) Increased channels. The worms create tunnels
through the soil and break down the root mat.
They also open up channels for oxygen and
rainfall to penetrate.
• b) Increased moisture. This results in the worm-
populated soil becoming wet faster and deeper
and consequently the soil that has been in
contact with worms holds the moisture longer.
• c) Increased plant-growth. The tunnels created by
worms , which is rich in nitrates, and plant roots
take advantage of the tunnels as easy-growth
channels and pathways. Higher available nutrient
content. As a result of the combined action of the
worms and their bacteria.
Working on Vermiculture
The pit is systematically filled with four layers of waste.
• First layer -- (Bottom of the pit) is filled up to 2 inches with
coconut fibre and rice husk .
• Second layer is 2 inches thick, consisting of sawdust, chopped
rice/wheat straw. diminish the bed by sprinkling water.
• Third layer is the earthworm food, this includes an admixture
of cow-dung, green plants, vegetable odds and ends, discarded
parts of fruits, droppings of horses, sheep or scrap of
• This feed should be spread till a height of 6 to 8 inches
• Release about 100 earthworms on the top without hurting them. These
earthworms will start penetrating to the bottom.
• Once all these earthworms disappear, cover the surface with jute bags and keep
them wet by sprinkling water in a sensible way.
• The jute bags may be turned upside down thrice in the first week, twice in the
second week and only once in the third and following weeks, without causing any
disruption to the top.
• Water and heat inside the tank assist the organic matter to decay - reproduce the
number of earthworms - both these take place simultaneously.
• In case no heat is felt by hands, understand that the manure is almost ready for use.
• From one tank, 50 kg. of manure is produced
• Spread a paper on the ground and empty the
contents of the tank slowly in sunlight.
• Let this heap remain in daylight for about half to
one hour. This will induce the earthworms to
penetrate deep and reach the bottom.
• Now the upper layers of organic manure can be
• Later the earthworms at the bottom may be
separated from one another and deposited in the
What is Compost ??
Compost is simply decomposed
organic matters: plants and animals.
It is considered a gardener’s gold for
being nutrient rich.
It consists of decomposed and
partially decomposed matter that’s
dark and powdery.
It is an excellent source of
Benefits of Compost
• Protects Plants from Drought :-
Compost has the ability to hold more
moisture. Humus, the end result of
composting, is so absorbent that it
can almost hold water twice its weight.
Improves soil Aeration
Without air, soil tends to become alkaline.
Also, it loses the organic matter and nitrogen
essential to productivity. Beneficial soil
organisms will fail to thrive due to lack of
• Stops Erosion:- Compost can prevent
erosion by improving soil structure.
Soil containing a lot of humus holds
together better because water
permeates the soil.
• Slowly Releases Nutrients:- Compost
acts as a kind of nutrients storehouse
releasing nutrients gradually
throughout the plant’s growing
• Prevents Disease:- Compost has
seemingly miraculous powers to
prevent and control plant disease
better than any chemical fungicide.
• Recycle Waste:- Composting is the
only waste disposal conserving
nutrients from the waste eventually
returned to the soil