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A presentation on an essential topic of Oraganisational behaviour , Attitude, its formation, components , benefits of positive attitude and measurements. This presentation can be illustrated using relavent situtation with respect to the topics and points in the slides.

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  1. 1. ATTITUDE
  2. 2. Definition:“An attitude is mental state of readiness , learned and organized through experience , exerting a specific influence on person’s
  3. 3. Components Of Attitudes: An affective component. A cognitive element. A behavioral component.
  4. 4. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE: Direct experience with the object. Classical conditioning and Attitudes. Operant conditioning and Attitude acquisition. Vicarious learning. Family and Peer Groups. Neighbourhood. Economic Status and Occupations. Mass Communications.
  5. 5. Direct experience with the Object. Attitudes formed through direct behavioural experience with an attitude object have been found to better predict later behaviour than attitudes formed through indirect experience.
  6. 6. Classical conditioning and Attitude. Experiment indicate that affect can influenceattitudes even in the absence of product beliefs and also suggest that affect plays asimportant or more important a role experiments, using established conditioning procedures, assessed the impact of affect on attitude formation.
  7. 7. Operant conditioning and Attitude acquisition.Attitudes are acquired ratherthan inborn , complexattitudes are probablyformed through operantconditioning, as anindividual is reinforced forholding and voicing certainattitudes.
  8. 8. Vicarious learning.Vicarious learning is alsoknown as observationallearning. It is a process inwhich an individualobserves anotherindividuals behaviour andits aftermath. If the outcomeis positive, the individual islikely to imitate thatbehaviour. This form oflearning encouragesawareness of surroundingsand teaches the individualthe basics of socialinteraction.
  9. 9. Family and Peer Group. Peer pressure refers to the influence exerted by a peer group in encouraging a person to change his or her attitude or behaviour in order to conform to group norms.
  10. 10. Neighbourhood. The neighborhood we live in has a certain structure in terms of it having cultural facilities, religious groupings, and possibly ethnic differences. Further, we accept these moves and conform, or we deny them and possibly rebel. The conformity or rebellion in some respects is the attitudes we hold.
  11. 11. Economic Status and Occupations. Our economic and occupational positions also contributes to attitudes formation. They determine, in part, our attitudes towards unions and management and our belief that certain laws are “good” or “bad” . Our socio- economic background influences our present and future attitudes.
  12. 12. Mass Communication. All varieties of mass communications – television , radio , newspapers , and magazines- feed their audiences large quantities of information. The presentation of news or information is constructed so as to cater to the attitude of the audience.
  13. 13. Benefits of Positive Attitude. Increase productivity. Fosters teamwork. Solves problems. Improves quality. Makes for congenial atmosphere. Breeds loyalty. Increase profits. Fosters better relationship with the employers, employees and customers. Reduces stress. Makes for a pleasing personality.
  14. 14. Functions of Attitude.Adjustment Ego Defensive ATTITUDEKnowledge Value Expression
  15. 15. Changing Attitude. Escalation of commitment. Cognitive dissonance. Insufficient information.
  16. 16. Ways of changing of Attitude.Changing attitude Changing attitude of self. of employees.
  17. 17. Changing attitude of self. Be aware of one’s attitude. Think for self. Realize that there are few , if any, benefits from harboring negative attitude. Keep an open mind. Built a positive self esteem. Stay away from negative influence.
  18. 18. Changing Attitude of Employees Give feedback. Accentuated positive conditions. Positive role model. Providing new information. Use of fear. Influence of friends or press. The co-opting approach Others.
  19. 19. Attitude measurement. Rating scales. Critical Incidents. Interviews. Action Tendencies Likert scale.
  20. 20. Response to Job Dissatisfaction. Active exit voice Destructive Constructive neglect loyalty Passive