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  1. 1. Travel Geography UNIT 1: TRAVEL GEOGRAPHY AND ITS ROLE IN TOURISM Objectives: • Define and identify the divisions of geography • Understand the importance of travel geography • Discuss the relationship between tourists and tourism system • Identify and explore the major geographical and geological featuresAn Overview of GeographyThe science of geography is likely the oldest of all sciences. Geography is the answer to thequestion that the earliest humans asked, "Whats over there?" Exploration and the discovery of newplaces, new cultures, and new ideas have always been basic components of geography.Thus, geography is often called the "mother of all sciences" as studying other people and otherplaces led to other scientific fields such as biology, anthropology, geology, mathematics,astronomy, chemistry, among others. (See other Definitions of Geography)Definitions of GeographyMany famous geographers and non-geographers have attempted to define the discipline in a fewshort words. The concept of geography has also changed throughout the ages, making a definitionfor such a dynamic and all-encompassing subject difficult."To provide accurate, orderly, and rational description and interpretation of the variable character ofthe earth surface." - Richard Hartshorne, 1959"Geography is fundamentally the regional or chorological science of the surface of the earth." -Robert E. Dickinson, 1969"Geography is the study of the patterns and processes of human (built) and environmental (natural)landscapes, where landscapes comprise real (objective) and perceived (subjective) space." - GreggWassmansdorf, 1995Divisions of GeographyToday, geography is commonly divided into two major branches - 1) cultural geography (alsocalled human geography) and 2) physical geography.The Basics of Cultural GeographyCultural geography is the branch of geography dealing with human culture and its impact on theearth. Cultural geographers study languages, religion, foods, building styles, urban areas,agriculture, transportation systems, politics, economies, population and demographics, and more.Cultural geography is the study of the many cultural aspects found throughout the world and howthey relate to the spaces and places where they originate and then travel as people continually moveacross various areas. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Travel GeographySome of the main cultural phenomena studied in cultural geography include language, religion,different economic and governmental structures, art, music, and other cultural aspects that explainhow and/or why people function as they do in the areas in which they live. Globalization is alsobecoming increasingly important to this field as it is allowing these specific aspects of culture toeasily travel across the globe.Cultural landscapes are also important because they link culture to the physical environments inwhich people live. This is vital because it can either limit or nurture the development of variousaspects of culture. For instance, people living in a rural area are often more culturally tied to thenatural environment around them than those living in a large metropolitan area.Today, cultural geography is still practiced and more specialized fields within it such as feministgeography, childrens geography, tourism studies, urban geography, the geography of sexuality andspace, and political geography have developed to further aid in the study of cultural practices andhuman activities as they relate spatially to the world.The Basics of Physical GeographyPhysical geography is the branch of geography dealing with the natural features of the earth, thehome of humans.Physical geography looks at the water, air, animals, and land of the planet earth (i.e. everything thatis part of the four spheres - the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere.) Physicalgeography is closely related to geographys sister science - geology - but physical geographyfocuses more on the landscapes at the surface of the earth and not what is inside our planet.Physical geography encompasses the geographic tradition known as the Earth Sciences Tradition.Physical geographers look at the landscapes, surface processes, and climate of the earth - all of theactivity found in the four spheres (the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere) of ourplanet.Physical geography consists of many diverse elements. These include: the study of the earthsinteraction with the sun, seasons, the composition of the atmosphere, atmospheric pressure andwind, storms and climatic disturbances, climate zones, microclimates, hydrologic cycle, soils, riversand streams, flora and fauna, weathering, erosion, natural hazards, deserts, glaciers and ice sheets,coastal terrain, ecosystems, and so very much more.Knowing about the physical geography of the planet is important for every serious student of theplanet because the natural processes of the earth (which is what the study of physical geographyencompasses) affect the distribution of resources, the conditions of human settlement, and haveresulted in a plethora of varied impacts to human populations throughout the millennia. Since theearth is the only home to humans, by studying our planet, we humans and residents of the planetearth can be better informed to help take care of our only home.Other key areas of geography include regional geography (which involves the in-depth study andknowledge of a particular region and its cultural as well as its physical characteristics) andgeographic technologies like GIS (geographic information systems) and GPS (global positioningsystem). ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Travel GeographyTravel GeographyTourism Geography is the study of travel and tourism, as an industry and as a social and culturalactivity. Tourism geography covers a wide range of interests including the environmental impact oftourism, the geographies of tourism and leisure economies, answering tourism industry andmanagement concerns and the sociology of tourism and locations of tourism.Tourism geography is that branch of science which deals with the study of travel and its impact onplaces.Importance of Travel GeographyGeography is fundamental to the study of tourism, because tourism is geographical in nature.Tourism occurs in places, it involves movement and activities between places and it is an activity inwhich both place characteristics and personal self-identities are formed, through the relationshipsthat are created among places, landscapes and people. Physical geography provides the essentialbackground, against which tourism places are created and environmental impacts and concerns aremajor issues, that must be considered in managing the development of tourism places.The approaches to study will differ according to the varying concerns. Much tourism managementliterature remains quantitative in methodology and considers tourism as consisting of the places oftourist origin (or tourist generating areas), tourist destinations (or places of tourism supply) and therelationship (connections) between origin and destination places, which includes transportationroutes, business relationships and traveler motivations. Recent developments in Human geographyhave resulted in approaches such as those from cultural geography, which take more theoreticallydiverse approaches to tourism, including a sociology of tourism, which extends beyond tourism asan isolated, exceptional activity and considering how travel fits into the everyday lives and howtourism is not only a consumptive of places, but also produces the sense of place at a destination.Tourist and TourismWhat is Tourism?There is no single definition of tourism that is universally accepted. WTO, Madrid, Spain, is aspecialized agency of the United Nations. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism as “Activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for notmore than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exerciseof an activity remunerated from within the place visited.”Branches of tourism:  Inbound international tourism: visits to a country by nonresidents of that country.  Outbound international tourism: visits by the residents of a country to other countries.  Domestic tourism: visits by residents within their own country.  Internal tourism: domestic + inbound international (Visits by residents and non-residents within a country.)  National tourism: domestic + outbound international (Visits by the residents of a country within their own country and to other countries.) E.g.. China: Inbound-domestic-outbound ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Travel GeographyHow about tourism industry?Many businesses and other types of tourism organizations offer complementary rather thancompeting products and services. An airline, hotel, restaurant, travel agency, and attractiondo not compete with each other. They complement each other and combine to offer visitorsa satisfying vacation or business trip.  The input and output can not be clearly identified.  Besides there is no single industry code for tourism under the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)  Macroeconomists point out that the recognition of tourism as an industry can lead to double counting because standard industry classifications fully account for all elements of the economy without finding it necessary or appropriate to recognize tourism.  Unlike other industries that are defined by the products and services they produce (the supply side), the tourism industry is defined from a demand side perspective.  A tourism industry supplies products and services to tourists.  The Tourism Industry is defined as individuals, businesses & organizations that are working to provide product & services (including information) to tourists.  They include those that work in transportation, lodging, entertainment and food & beverage.Tourist SystemVisitor 1. Tourist 2. ExcursionistA visitor is defined as any person traveling to a place other than that of his/her usual environmentfor less than twelve months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activityremunerated from within the place visited.Tourist: temporary visitor staying at least 24 hours in the country visited and the purpose of whosejourney can be classified under one of the following headings. • leisure (creation, holiday, health, study, religion, and sports) • business, family, mission, meeting.Excursionist: temporary visitor staying less than 24 hours in the country visited (including travelerson cruises) - Also called Day Tourist or Day Excursionist.Classification of Travelers 1. Tourists in international technical definitions. 2. Excursionists in international technical definitions. 3. Travelers whose trips are shorter than those that qualify for travel and tourism; e.g., under 50 miles (80 km) from home. 4. Students traveling between home and school only -- other travel of students is within scope of travel and tourism. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Travel Geography5. All persons moving to a new place of residence including all one-way travelers, such as emigrants, immigrants, refugees, domestic migrants, and nomads. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Travel GeographyRelationship among tourism, tourism industry, and touristTourism process developed by Chau (1977). He described the tourist as the demand, the travelindustry as the supply, and attractions as the tourist product and summarized the interrelate processas the subject, means, and objective of tourism.Gunn in his book, tourism planning (1979), referred to a “tourism fundamental system” involvingfive components: tourist, transportation, attractions, services-facilities, and information-direction.Leiper (1979) involved five basic elements in his system: tourists, generating regions, transit routes,destination regions, and a tourist industry operating within physical, cultural, social, economic,political, and technological environments.The reasons for using a systems approach for study of tourism:  To emphasize the interdependency in tourism; the tourism system is like a spider’s web – touch one part are felt throughout the system. For a student beginning to study tourism, it is important to get “the bigger picture” right away. The tourism system model framework provides a more comprehensive view of tourism: it captures “the big picture”.  The second reason is because of the open system nature of tourism. Tourism system is dynamic and constantly changing. New concepts are always arriving in tourism, such as ecotourism, TSA.  The third reason is the complexity and variety in all aspect of tourism. For example, there are thousands of specialized tours and packages available for travelers today.Major Geographical and Geological FeaturesGoing by the physical map of the world, the total land area on the surface of the world is around148,647,000 square kilometers. The highest elevation point in the world is the Mount Everest peak(8,850 meter) of the Himalayan Range and the lowest point is the Dead Sea (-411 meters). In aphysical world map, the following topographical features can be seen.Mountains: Mountains are one of the most prominent of the earths landforms. A mountain is alarge landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area and usually in the form ofa peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill.Some of the worlds greatest mountain ranges include the Rockies and the Appalachians in NorthAmerica, the Andes in South America, the Atlas Mountains and Drakensberge Mountain Range inAfrica, the Alps, the Carpathian Mountains in Europe, the Himalayas, the Urals, the Caucasus, theElburz, Altay, Kunlun and the Zagros mountain ranges in Asia, and the Great Dividing Range inAustralia. Some of the most prominent highlands that one can locate in world maps are GuianaHighlands and the Brazilian Highlands in South America, the Ethiopian Highlands in Africa, andthe Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats in India.Mountain characteristics:Tall mountains reach into the colder layers of the atmosphere. They are consequently subject toglaciation, and erosion through frost action. Such processes produce the peak shape. Somemountains have glacial lakes, created by melting glaciers; for example, there are an estimated 3,000 ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Travel Geographyglacial lakes in Bhutan. Mountains can be eroded and weathered, altering their characteristics overtime.Mountains are generally colder than their surrounding lowlands due to the way that the sun heatsthe surface of the Earth. Practically all the heat at the surface of the Earth comes from the sun, in theform of solar energy. The suns radiation is absorbed by land and sea, whence the heat is transferredinto the air.Mountains are generally less preferable for human habitation than lowlands; the weather is oftenharsher, and there is little level ground suitable for agriculture. The decreasing atmospheric pressuremeans that less oxygen is available for breathing, and there is less protection against solar radiation(UV).Many mountains and mountain ranges throughout the world have been left in their natural state, andare today primarily used for recreation, while others are used for logging, mining, grazing, or seelittle use. Some mountains offer spectacular views from their summits, while others are denselywooded. Summit accessibility is affected by height, steepness, latitude, terrain, weather. Roads, skilifts, or aerial tramways allow access. Hiking, backpacking, mountaineering, rock climbing, iceclimbing, downhill skiing, and snowboarding are recreational activities enjoyed on mountains.Mountains that support heavy recreational use (especially downhill skiing) are often the locations ofmountain resorts.Mountains are made up of earth and rock materials. The outermost layer of the Earth or the Earthscrust is composed of seven primary plates. When two plates move or collide with each other, vastland areas are uplifted, forming mountains.Plateaus: Plateaus are also prominent landforms and are generally flat land areas, but with analtitude. Plateaus are normally bounded by an escarpment on all sides and some are also surroundedby mountains. Some of the most famous plateaus of the world as depicted in the physical map of theworld are the Mexican Plateau, Tibetan Plateau, Central Siberian Plateau, and the KimberleyPlateau in Australia.Plateaus characteristics:Plateau, extensive area of flat upland usually bounded by an escarpment on all sides but sometimesenclosed by mountains. The essential criteria for plateaus are low relative relief and some altitude.Plateaus are extensive, and together with enclosed basins they cover about 45 percent of the Earth’sland surface. Although plateaus stand at higher elevation than surrounding terrain, they differ frommountain ranges in that they are remarkably flat.Plains: Plain lands form another important physical landform on the earths surface. Physical Mapof World represents the different Plains and river valleys on the earths surface including the GreatPlains and the Coastal Plain of North America, the Northern European Plains, the West SiberianPlain, the Indus Valley, the Gangetic Plain and the Brahmaputra Valley in India, the North ChinaPlain, and the Nullarbor Plain in Australia.Plain characteristics:Plains have three main characteristics - they are found on land, they have rolling areas, and they arelow in elevation. They are areas of low relief. Plains do not have hills or mountains. An example ofa plain is the Great Plains of the Central United States of America.Deserts: A desert is a vast land area that is extremely dry with little or no vegetation. Somedefinitions of a desert also include areas that are too cold to support any vegetation such as frigid or ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Travel Geographypolar areas. The World Physical Map shows the location of some of the worlds largest desertsincluding the Sahara, Kalahari and Namib deserts in Africa, the Arabian Desert, the Thar Desert,the Gobi Desert and the Takla Makan Desert in Asia, the Sonoran Desert in North America, theAtacama Desert in South America, and the Simpson Desert and the Great Sandy Desert inAustralia.:Desert characteristicsSand covers only about 20 percent of the Earths deserts. Most of the sand is in sand sheets and sandseas--vast regions of undulating dunes resembling ocean waves "frozen" in an instant of time.Nearly 50 percent of desert surfaces are plains where eolian deflation--removal of fine-grainedmaterial by the wind--has exposed loose gravels consisting predominantly of pebbles but withoccasional cobbles.The remaining surfaces of arid lands are composed of exposed bedrock outcrops, desert soils, andfluvial deposits including alluvial fans, playas, desert lakes, and oases. Bedrock outcrops commonlyoccur as small mountains surrounded by extensive erosional plains. Oases are vegetated areasmoistened by springs, wells, or by irrigation. Many are artificial. Oases are often the only places indeserts that support crops and permanent habitation.Underground channels carry water from nearby mountains into the Turpan Depression of China. Ifthe channels were not covered, the water would evaporate quickly when it reached the hot, drydesert land.Oceans and Seas: The Physical Map of the World shows the earths oceans and the adjacent seas,gulfs and bays. Some of them include the Pacific Ocean encompassing the Bering Sea, the Sea ofOkhotsk, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, the Atlantic Oceanencompassing the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Baffin Bay, theBaltic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Black Sea, and the Indian Ocean encompassing the RedSea, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Andaman Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the Gulf of Aden, theGulf of Oman, and the Great Australian Bight.Ocean and Seas characteristics:Around most continents are shallow seas that cover gently sloping areas called continental shelves.These reach depths of about 650 feet (200 m). The continental shelves end at the steeper continentalslopes, which lead down to the deepest parts of the ocean.Beyond the continental slope is the abyss. The abyss contains plains, long mountains ranges calledocean ridges, isolated mountains called seamounts, and ocean trenches which are the deepest partsof the oceans. In the centers of some ocean ridges are long rift valleys, where Earthquakes andvolcanic eruptions are common. Some volcanoes that rise from the ridges appear above the surfaceas islands.The sedimentary rocks that exist on the ocean bottom are much younger than any similar rocksfound on the continents. The cores of mud and rock brought back by deep-sea drilling ships varygreatly in age, but no deposits from the ocean floor seem to be more than about 200 million yearsold. This makes oceanic crust very young compared with the continents, which contain rocks up toabout 4 billion years old.Rivers: The main accessible sources of fresh water on the earths surface are the rivers and thelakes. Some of the most important rivers of the world including the Mississippi and the Missouri inNorth America, the Amazon and the Orinoco in South America, the Nile, the Niger, the Congo and ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Travel Geographythe Zambezi in Africa, the Danube, the Dniester, the Dnieper and the Volga in Europe, theEuphrates, the Indus, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Hwang Ho, the Yangtse Kiang, the Amurand the Mekong in Asia, and the Murray and Darling rivers in Australia.Rivers characteristics:A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, oranother river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely beforereaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, includingstream, creek, brook, rivulet, tributary and rill. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Waterwithin a river is generally collected from precipitation through a drainage basin from surface runoffand other sources such as groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in naturalice and snowpacks (e.g., from glaciers).The water in a river is usually confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. Inlarger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be very wide in relation to the size of the river channel. This distinction between riverchannel and floodplain can be blurred especially in urban areas where the floodplain of a riverchannel can become greatly developed by housing and industry.The term upriver refers to the direction leading to the source of the river, which is against thedirection of flow. Likewise, the term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of theriver, in which the current flowsLakes: The prominent lakes and inland seas include the Great Lakes of America including, LakeMichigan, Lake Huron, Lake Superior, Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, Lake Titicaca in SouthAmerica, Lake Chad, Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi in Africa, the Black Sea inEurope, the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal in Asia and Lake Eyre in Australia.Lakes characteristics:A lake is a body of relatively still fresh or salt water of considerable size, localized in a basin, thatis surrounded by land apart from a river, stream, or other form of moving water that serves to feedor drain the lake. Lakes are inland and not part of the ocean and therefore are distinct from lagoons,and are larger and deeper than ponds. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which areusually flowing. However most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams.Natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoingglaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In someparts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the lastIce Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in withsediments or spill out of the basin containing them.Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electricpower generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic or recreational purposes. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Travel Geography UNIT 2: INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL DESTINATIONS Objectives: • Explain the concept of destination • Outline the major destinations and attractions in the world • Identify the countries of the world and their general tourism profiles including climate, capital cities, bordering countries, and etc. • Understand the roles of UNESCOWhat is Destinations?Destination is a place to which a person is travelling or a thing is sent. Tourist destination is a city, town, or other area that is dependant to a significant extent on the revenues accruing from tourism. It may contain one or more tourist attractions and possibly some “tourist traps”.Tourist attractionsA tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibitedcultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, or amusement opportunities. Someexamples include historical places, monuments, zoos, aquaria, museums and art galleries, botanicalgardens, buildings and structures (e.g., castles, libraries, former prisons, skyscrapers, bridges),national parks and forests, theme parks and carnivals, living history museums, ethnic enclavecommunities, historic trains and cultural events. Many tourist attractions are also landmarks.Tourist attractions are also created to capitalise on legends such as a supposed UFO crash site nearRoswell, New Mexico and the alleged Loch Ness monster sightings in Scotland. Ghost sightingsalso make tourist attractions.Ethnic communities may become tourist attractions, such as Chinatowns in the United States andthe black British neighborhood of Brixton in London, England.In the US, owners and marketers of attractions advertise tourist attractions on billboards along theside of highways and roadways, especially in remote areas. Tourist attractions often provide freepromotional brochures and flyers in information centres, fast food restaurants, hotel and motelrooms or lobbies, and rest areas.While some tourist attractions provide visitors a memorable experience for a reasonable admissioncharge or even for free, others can have a tendency to be of low quality and to overprice their goodsand services (such as admission, food, and souvenirs) in order to profit from tourists excessively.Such places are commonly known as tourist traps.Novelty attraction ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Travel GeographyNovelty attractions are oddities such as the "biggest ball of twine" in Cawker City, Kansas, the CornPalace in Mitchell, South Dakota, or Carhenge in Alliance, Nebraska where old cars serve in theplace of stones in a replica of Stonehenge. Novelty attractions are not limited to the AmericanMidwest, but are part of Midwestern culture.Tourist trapsA tourist trap is an establishment, or group of establishments, that has been created with the aim ofattracting tourists and their money. Tourist traps will typically provide services, entertainment,souvenirs and other products for tourists to purchase.While the term may have negative connotations for some, such establishments may be viewed bytourists as fun and interesting diversions.Major Destination in the WorldTop Ten Country of Destination by Regions in 2011International tourist arrivals by country of destination 2011Rank Country International tourist arrivals1 France 76.80 million2 United States 60.88 million3 China 55.67 million4 Spain 52.68 million5 Italy 43.63 million6 United Kingdom 28.13 million7 Turkey 27.00 million8 Germany 26.88 million9 Malaysia 24.58 million10 Mexico 22.40 millionAfricaRank Country International tourist arrivals1 Morocco 9.29 million2 South Africa 8.07 million3 Tunisia 6.95 million4 Zimbabwe 2.24 million5 Mozambique 2.22 million (2009)6 Algeria 1.91 million (2009)7 Botswana 1.55 million (2009)8 Nigeria 1.41 million (2009)9 Kenya 1.39 million (2009)10 Namibia 0.98 million (2009) ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Travel GeographyMiddle EastRank Country International tourist arrivals1 Egypt 14.05 million2 Saudi Arabia 10.85 million3 Syria 8.55 million4 United Arab Emirates 7.43 million5 Bahrain 4.94 million (2007)6 Jordan 4.00 million7 Israel [note 2] 3.5 million8 Lebanon 2.17 million9 Qatar 1.66 million (2009)10 Oman 1.52 million (2009)Notes 1. Africa and the Middle East are classified together as one region by the UNWTO. 2. Israel is classified under the "Southern/Mediter. Eu." subregion by the UNWTO.The AmericasRank Country International tourist arrivals1 United States 59.75 million2 Mexico 22.40 million3 Canada 16.10 million4 Argentina 5.29 million5 Brazil 5.16 million6 Dominican Republic 4.13 million7 Puerto Rico 3.68 million8 Chile 2.77 million9 Cuba 2.51 million10 Colombia 2.39 millionAsia and the PacificRank Country International tourist arrivals1 China 55.67 million2 Malaysia 24.58 million3 Hong Kong 20.09 million4 Thailand 15.84 million5 Macau 11.93 million6 Singapore 9.16 million7 South Korea 8.80 million8 Japan 8.61 million9 Indonesia 7.00 million ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Travel GeographyRank Country International tourist arrivals10 Australia 5.89 millionEuropeRank Country International tourist arrivals1 France 76.80 million2 Spain 52.68 million3 Italy 43.63 million4 United Kingdom 28.13 million [note 1]5 Turkey 27.00 million6 Germany 26.88 million7 Austria 22.00 million8 Ukraine 21.20 million9 Russia 20.27 million10 Greece 15.01 millionNotes 1. Turkey is classified under the "Southern/Mediter. Eu." subregion by the UNWTO.Major Attractions in the WorldSeven Wonders of the Ancient WorldThe historian Herodotus (484 – ca. 425 BCE), and the scholar Callimachus of Cyrene (ca. 305 –240 BCE) at the Museum of Alexandria, made early lists of seven wonders but their writings havenot survived, except as references. The seven wonders included: • Great Pyramid of Giza • Hanging Gardens of Babylon • Statue of Zeus at Olympia • Temple of Artemis at Ephesus • Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus • Colossus of Rhodes • Lighthouse of AlexandriaThe list known today was compiled in the Middle Ages—by which time many of the sites were nolonger in existence. Today, the only ancient world wonder that still exists is the Great Pyramid ofGiza.New Seven Wonders of the World ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Travel Geography Wonder Date of construction LocationGreat Wall of China Since 7th century BC ChinaPetra c.100 BCE JordanChrist the Redeemer Opened October 12, 1931 BrazilMachu Picchu c.1450 CE PeruChichen Itza c.600 CE MexicoColosseum Completed 80 CE ItalyTaj Mahal Completed c.1648 CE IndiaGreat Pyramid of Giza (Honorary Candidate) Completed c.2560 BCE EgyptSeven Wonders of the Modern World Wonder Date started Date finished Location December 1, Strait of Dover, between theChannel Tunnel May 6, 1994 1987 United Kingdom and France February 6, June 26, 1976, tallest freestandingCN Tower Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1973 structure in the world 1976–2007. May 1, 1931, Tallest structure in theEmpire State January 22, world 1931–1967. First building with New York, NY, U.S.Building 1930 100+ stories. Golden Gate Strait, north ofGolden Gate January 5, May 27, 1937 San Francisco, California,Bridge 1933 U.S. Paraná River, between BrazilItaipu Dam January 1970 May 5, 1984 and ParaguayDelta Works/ 1920 May 10, 1997 NetherlandsZuiderzee Works January 1,Panama Canal January 7, 1914 Isthmus of Panama 1880Seven Natural Wonders of the WorldSimilar to the other lists of wonders, there is no consensus on a list of seven natural wonders of theworld, and there has been debate over how large the list should be. One of the many existing listswas compiled by CNN: • Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA • Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia • Harbor of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil • Mount Everest, Himalaya, International Border Nepal-China • Aurora (a natural light display in the sky particularly in the high latitude (Arctic and Antarctic) regions) • Parícutin volcano, Mexico • Victoria Falls, Southern Africa, between Zambia and ZimbabweWorld Heritage SiteA UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument,building, complex, or city) that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physicalsignificance. The list is maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Travel Geographythe UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 states parties which are elected by theirGeneral Assembly.The program catalogues, names, and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance tothe common heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from theWorld Heritage Fund. The programme was founded with the Convention Concerning theProtection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, which was adopted by the General Conferenceof UNESCO on November 16, 1972. Since then, 189 states parties have ratified the convention.As of 2011, 936 sites are listed: 725 cultural, 183 natural, and 28 mixed properties, in 153 StatesParties. Italy is home to the greatest number of World Heritage Sites to date with 47 sites inscribedon the list. UNESCO references each World Heritage Site with an identification number; but newinscriptions often include previous sites now listed as part of larger descriptions. As a result, theidentification numbers exceed 1200 even though there are fewer on the list.While each World Heritage Site remains part of the legal territory of the state wherein the site islocated, UNESCO considers it in the interest of the international community to preserve each site.UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists:The Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage are established by UNESCO aiming to ensure the betterprotection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of theirsignificance. Through a compendium of the different oral and intangible treasures of humankindworldwide, the program aims to draw attention to the importance of safeguarding intangibleheritage, which has been identified by UNESCO as an essential component and a repository ofcultural diversity and creative expression.The programme currently compiles two lists. The longer Representative List of the IntangibleCultural Heritage of Humanity comprises cultural "practices and expressions [that] helpdemonstrate the diversity of this heritage and raise awareness about its importance." The shorterList of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding is composed of those culturalelements that concerned communities and countries consider require urgent measures to keep themalive.Note: Please refer Internet for the full list of World Heritage SiteActivity:Have a look at the world map, identify the continents of the world and determine which countriesinclude in which continents. After that, explore each of the countries’ general tourism profilesincluding their climates, capital cities, currencies, bordering countries, international airports, as wellas their landmarks and major attractions.(Refer to Appendix A) UNIT 3: RESOURCES OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM Objectives: • Explain the landform landscape and identify the different types of landform • Explore the environmental Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd.coastal development ©2012 World-Point importance and impact of All Rights Reserved. • Discuss the main resources in tourism including wildlife resources, nature resources and man-made resources • Understand about protected landscape and the role of WCPA
  16. 16. Travel GeographyLandform LandscapeLandformA landform in the earth sciences and geology sub-fields, comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain, and as such, is typically an element of topography. Landform is the any recognizable naturally formed surface feature of the earth. Landforms have a characteristic shape and can include such large features as plains, plateaus,mountains,valleys as well as small features such as hills, canyons and eskers. Landform elements also include seascape and oceanic waterbody interface features such as bays, peninsulas, seas and so forth, including sub-aqueous terrain features such as submersed mountain ranges, volcanoes, and the great ocean basins.Physical characteristicsLandforms are categorised by characteristic physical attributes such as elevation, slope, orientation,stratification, rock exposure, and soil type.Gross physical features or landforms include intuitive elements such as berms, mounds, hills,ridges, cliffs, valleys, rivers, peninsulas and numerous other structural and size-scaled (i.e. pondsvs. lakes, hills vs. mountains) elements including various kinds of inland and oceanic waterbodiesand sub-surface features.Hierarchy of classesOceans and continents exemplify the highest-order landforms. Landform elements are parts of ahigh-order landforms that can be further identified and systematically given a cohesive definitionsuch as hill-tops, shoulders, saddles, foreslopes and backslopes.Some generic landform elements including: pits, peaks, channels, ridges, passes, pools and plains,may be extracted from a digital elevation model using some automated techniques where the datahas been gathered by modern satellites and stereoscopic aerial surveillance cameras.Terrain (or relief) is the third or vertical dimension of land surface. Topography is the study ofterrain, although the word is often used as a synonym for relief itself. When relief is describedunderwater, the term bathymetry is used. In cartography, many different techniques are used todescribe relief, including contour lines and TIN (Triangulated irregular network).*Landforms do not include man-made features, such as canals, ports and many harbors; andgeographic features, such as deserts, forests, grasslands, and impact craters.TerrainTerrain is used as a general term in physical geography, referring to the lie of the land. This isusually expressed in terms of the elevation, slope, and orientation of terrain features. Terrain affectssurface water flow and distribution. Over a large area, it can affect weather and climate patterns. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Travel Geography* Differences between topography and cartography: Topography CartographyTopography is a field of planetary science Cartography is the study and practice ofcomprising the study of surface shape and making maps. Combining science, aesthetics,features of the Earth and other observable and technique, cartography builds on theastronomical objects including planets, moons, premise that reality can be modeled in ways thatand asteroids. It is also the description of such communicate spatial information effectively.surface shapes and features (especially theirdepiction in maps). Modern cartography is closely integrated with geographic information science (GIScience) andThe topography of an area can also mean the constitutes many theoretical and practicalsurface shape and features themselves. foundations of geographic information systems.In a broader sense, topography is concerned withlocal detail in general, including not only reliefbut also vegetative and artificial features, andeven local history and culture.* List of landforms: Type of landforms Characteristics Aeolian landforms are features of the EarthsAeolian landforms surface produced by either the erosive or constructive action of the wind.Coastal and oceanic landforms See: Ocean and sea (Unit 1) Landforms produced by erosion and weathering usually occur in coastal or fluvial environments. Erosion is the process by which soil and rockErosion landforms are removed from the Earths surface by natural processes such as wind or water flow, and then transported and deposited in other locations. Fluvial is a term used in geography and Earth science to refer to the processes associated with rivers and streams and the deposits andFluvial landforms landforms created by them. When the stream or rivers are associated with glaciers, ice sheets, or ice caps, the term glaciofluvial or fluvioglacial is used.Lacustrine landforms See: Lake (Unit 1) Glacial landforms are those created by the action of glaciers. Most of todays glacial landforms were created by the movement of large ice sheets during the QuaternaryMountain and glacial landforms glaciations. Some areas, like Fennoscandia and the southern Andes, have extensive occurrences of glacial landforms; other areas, such as the Sahara, display very old fossil glacial landforms.Slope landforms See: Plateau and plain (Unit 1) A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planets surface or crust, which allows hot magma,Volcanic landforms volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Travel GeographyCoastalA coastline or seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean. A precise line that can becalled a coastline cannot be determined due to the dynamic nature of tides. The term "coastal zone"can be used instead, which is a spatial zone where interaction of the sea and land processes occurs.Both the terms coast and coastal are often used to describe a geographic location or region; forexample, New Zealands West Coast, or the East and West Coasts of the United States.A pelagic coast refers to a coast which fronts the open ocean, as opposed to a more sheltered coastin a gulf or bay. A shore, on the other hand, can refer to parts of the land which adjoin any largebody of water, including oceans (sea shore) and lakes (lake shore). Similarly, the somewhat relatedterm "bank" refers to the land alongside or sloping down to a river (riverbank) or to a body of watersmaller than a lake. "Bank" is also used in some parts of the world to refer to an artificial ridge ofearth intended to retain the water of a river or pond. In other places this may be called a levee.Environmental importanceThe coast and its adjacent areas on and off shore is an important part of a local ecosystem as themixture of fresh water and salt water in estuaries provides many nutrients for marine life. Saltmarshes and beaches also support a diversity of plants, animals, and insects crucial to the foodchain.The high level of biodiversity creates a high level of biological activity, which has attracted humanactivity for thousands of years.Human impactsHuman uses of coastsAn increasing part the global population inhabits coastal regions. Many of the worlds major citieshave been built on or near good harbors and have port facilities. Jurisdictions that are landlockedhave achieved port status by such measures such as building canals.The coast is a crucial frontier that nations typically defended against military invaders, smugglersand illegal migrants. Fixed Coastal defenses have long been erected in many nations and coastalcountries typically have a navy and some form of coast guard.Coasts, especially those with beaches and warm water are an important draw for tourists. In manyisland nations such as those of the Mediterranean, South Pacific and Caribbean, tourism is central tothe economy. Coasts are popular destinations because of recreational activities such as swimming,fishing, surfing, boating, and sunbathing. Growth management can be a challenge for coastal localauthorities who often struggle to provide the infrastructure required by new residents.Threats to a coastCoasts also face many environmental challenges relating to human-induced impacts. The humaninfluence on climate change is thought to be a contributing factor of an accelerated trend in sealevel rise which threatens coastal habitat.Pollution can occur from a number of sources: garbage and industrial debris, the transportation ofpetroleum in tankers, increasing the probability of large oil spills, small oil spills created by largeand small vessels, which flush bilge water into the ocean. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Travel GeographyFishing has diminished due to habitat degradation, overfishing, trawling, bycatch and climatechange. Since the growth of global fishing enterprises after the 1950s, intensive fishing has gonefrom a few concentrated areas to encompass nearly all fisheries. The scraping of the ocean floor inbottom dragging is devastating to coral, sponges and other long-lived species that do not recoverquickly. This destruction alters the functioning of the ecosystem and can permanently alter speciescomposition and biodiversity. Bycatch, the capture of unintended species in the course of fishing, istypically returned the ocean only to die from injuries or exposure. Bycatch represents approximately¼ of all marine catch. In the case of shrimp capture, the bycatch is five times larger than the shrimpcaught.Also, the melting arctic ice will cause sea rise which will flood costal areas.Coastal managementIn some jurisdictions the terms sea defense and coastal protection are used to mean, respectively,defense against flooding and erosion. The term coastal defence is the more traditional term, butcoastal management has become more popular as the field has expanded to include techniques thatallow erosion to claim land.Current challenges in coastal managementThe coastal zone is a dynamic area of natural change and of increasing human use. They occupyless than 15% of the Earths land surface; yet accommodate more than 50% of the world population(it is estimated that 3.1 billion people live within 200 kilometres from the sea). With three-quartersof the world population expected to reside in the coastal zone by 2025, human activities originatingfrom this small land area will impose an inordinate amount of pressures on the global system.Coastal zones contain rich resources to produce goods and services and are home to mostcommercial and industrial activities. Shore protection consists up to the 50s of interposing a staticstructure between the sea and the land to prevent erosion and or flooding, and it has a long history.From that period new technical or friendly policies have been developed to preserve theenvironment when possible. Is already important where there are extensive low-lying areas thatrequire protection. For instance: Venice, New Orleans, Nagara river in Japan, Holland, Caspian SeaProtection against the sea level rise in the 21st century will be especially important, as sea level riseis currently accelerating. This will be a challenge to coastal management, since seawalls andbreakwaters are generally expensive to construct, and the costs to build protection in the face of sea-level rise would be enormous.Changes on sea level have a direct adaptative response from beaches and coastal systems, as we cansee in the succession of a lowering sea level. When the sea level rises, coastal sediments are in partpushed up by wave and tide energy, so sea-level rise processes have a component of sedimenttransport landwards. This results in a dynamic model of rise effects with a continuous sedimentdisplacement that is not compatible with static models where coastline change is only based ontopographic data. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. Travel GeographyPlanning approachesThere are five generic strategies for coastal defense: • Inaction leading to eventual abandonment , involving no protection, is cheap and expedient. The coast takes care of itself and coastal facilities are abandoned to coastal erosion, with either gradual landward retreat or evacuation and resettlement elsewhere. • Managed retreat or realignment, which plans for retreat and adopts engineering solutions that recognize natural processes of adjustment, and identifies a new line of defense where to construct new defenses • Hold the line, shoreline protection, whereby seawalls are constructed around the coastlines • Move seawards, this happens by constructing new defenses seaward the original ones • Limited intervention, accommodation, by which adjustments are made to be able to cope with inundation, raising coastal land and buildings vertically ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. Travel GeographyWildlife ResourcesWildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wildplant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has amajor impact on the environment, both positive and negative.Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, forests, rain forests, plains, grasslands, and otherareas including the most developed urban sites, all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term inpopular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agreethat wildlife around the world is impacted by human activities.Humans have historically tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of waysincluding the legal, social, and moral sense. This has been a reason for debate throughout recordedhistory. Religions have often declared certain animals to be sacred, and in modern times concern forthe natural environment has provoked activists to protest the exploitation of wildlife for humanbenefit or entertainment.Major threats to wildlife can be categorized as below: • Habitat loss: Fewer natural wildlife habitat areas remain each year. Moreover, the habitat that remains has often been degraded to bear little resemblance to the wild areas which existed in the past. • Climate change: Because many types of plants and animals have specific habitat requirements, climate change could cause disastrous loss of wildlife species. A slight insect are harmed and disturbed. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so, they will be harmed by any change in moisture level. • Pesticides and toxic chemical: Widely used, making the environment toxic to certain plants, insects, and rodents. • Unregulated Hunting and poaching: Unregulated hunting and poaching causes a major threat to wildlife. Along with this, mismanagement of forest department and forest guards triggers this problem. • Natural phenomena: Floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, lightning, forest fires. • Pollution: Pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms. • Over-exploitation of resources: Exploitation of wild populations for food has resulted in population crashes (over-fishing, for example). • Accidental deaths: Car collisions, air collisions (birds), collisions with ships (whales), etc.* Based on the degree of threat rating on them, they could be classified as: Classification Characteristics Their numbers have been reduced to a critical level pushing them to near extinction. They mayEndangered species become extinct very shortly. Example; snow leopard, red panda and Asian elephant. Their population is still abundant but their habitat is adversely affected. They may becomeVurnerable species endangered if their habitat continues to be affected. Example; leopand and golden langur. They are such species – whose population is very thinly populated on a wide geographicalRare species area – affecting their natural reproduction. Example; Indian desert cat and wild yak. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. Travel GeographyWildlife managementWildlife management attempts to balance the needs of wildlife with the needs of people using thebest available science. Wildlife conservation aims to halt the loss in the earths biodiversity bytaking into consideration ecological principles such as carrying capacity, disturbance and successionand environmental conditions such as physical geography, pedology and hydrology with the aim ofbalancing the needs of wildlife with the needs of people. Most wildlife biologists are concernedwith the preservation and improvement of habitats although reinstatement is increasingly beingused. Techniques can include reforestation, pest control, nitrification and denitrification, irrigation,coppicing and hedge laying.Types of wildlife managementThere are two general types of wildlife management: • Manipulative management acts on a population, either changing its numbers by direct means or influencing numbers by the indirect means of altering food supply, habitat, density of predators, or prevalence of disease. • Custodial management is preventive or protective. The aim is to minimize external influences on the population and its habitat. It is appropriate in a national park where one of the stated goals is to protect ecological processes. It is also appropriate for conservation of a threatened species where the threat is of external origin rather than being intrinsic to the system.Wildlife conservationWildlife conservation is a practice in which people attempt to protect endangered plant and animalspecies, along with their habitats. The goal of wildlife conservation is to ensure that nature will bearound for future generations to enjoy, and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wildernesslands to humans. Many nations have government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation whichhelp to implement policies designed to protect wildlife, and numerous independent nonprofitorganizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes.Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects ofhuman activity on wildlife. The science of conservation biology plays a part in wildlifeconservation. The ethic of conservation and lobbying by conservationists has made it an importantenvironmental issue.Types of conservation: 1. Ex-situ conservation means literally, "off-site conservation". It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal outside of its natural habitat; for example, by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild area or within the care of humans. 2. In-situ conservation is on-site conservation or the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species, such as forest genetic resources in natural populations of tree species. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. Travel GeographyMan-made Resources versus Nature ResourcesA man-made resource is a resource that has been created through the acts of humans. For example,bleach is a man-made resource. It does not exist in nature (in any significant quantity), and isproduced and consumed by humans.A natural resource is a resource that exists naturally. It might also be defined as a resource whichman did not create (i.e. not man-made). For example, coal is a natural resource. It only exists innature, and it is consumed by humans.Some resources are both. For example, forests can be both natural and man-made resources. Foreststhat were planted by humans are man-made resources, while forests that were not planted byhumans are natural resources. Baking soda is another example of a man-made or natural resource.Most baking soda is made by humans from other materials, but baking soda can also be mined fromthe ground in certain locations.Natural ResourcesNatural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed bymankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity andgeodiversity existent in various ecosystems. Natural resources are derived from the environment.Some of them are essential for our survival while most are used for satisfying our wants. Naturalresources may be further classified in different ways.Natural resources are materials and components (something that can be used) that can be foundwithin the environment. Every man-made product is composed of natural resources (at itsfundamental level). A natural resource may exist as a separate entity such as fresh water, and air, aswell as a living organism such as a fish, or it may exist in an alternate form which must beprocessed to obtain the resource such as metal ores, oil, and most forms of energy.There are very few resources that are considered inexhaustible (will not run out in foreseeablefuture) – these are solar radiation, geothermal energy, and air (though access to clean air may notbe). The vast majority of resources are however exhaustible, which means they have a finitequantity, and can be depleted if managed improperly. The natural resources are materials, whichliving organisms can take from nature for sustaining their life or any components of the naturalenvironment that can be utilized by man to promote his welfare is considered as natural resources.ManagementNatural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water,soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life forboth present and future generations (stewardship).Natural resource management deals with managing the way in which people and natural landscapesinteract. It brings together land use planning, water management, biodiversity conservation, and thefuture sustainability of industries like agriculture, mining, tourism, fisheries and forestry. Itrecognises that people and their livelihoods rely on the health and productivity of our landscapes,and their actions as stewards of the land play a critical role in maintaining this health andproductivity. Natural resource management is also congruent with the concept of sustainabledevelopment, a scientific principle that forms a basis for sustainable global land management andenvironmental governance to conserve and preserve natural resources. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. Travel GeographyProtected landscape/seascapeA protected area where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area ofdistinct character with significant, ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value – and wheresafeguarding the integrity of this interaction is vital to protect and sustain the area and its associatednature conservation and other values.Thinking on protected areas is undergoing a fundamental shift. Whereas protected areas were onceplanned against people, now it is recognized that they need to be planned with local people, andoften for and by them as well. Where once the emphasis was on setting places aside, we now lookto develop linkages between strictly protected core areas and the areas around; economic linkswhich benefit local people, and physical links, via ecological corridors, to provide more space forspecies and natural processes.The use of the protected landscape approach has many benefits. By including working landscapestaht are rich in biodiversity, and demonstrate sustainable use of natural resources, the protectedareas estate can be extended. Protected landscapes can also reinforce more strictly protected areasby surrounding them and linking them with landscape managed for conservation and sustainableuse. They can help to conserve both wild and agricultural biodiversity, and to conserve humanhistory alongside nature. They can support and reward stewardship of natural resources, sustainrural economies, and help communities resist pressures from outside which could undermine theirway of life.World Commission on Protected AreasThe World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) is the worlds premier network of protectedarea expertise. It is administered by IUCNs Programme on Protected Areas and has over 1,400members, spanning 140 countries.WCPA works by helping governments and others plan protected areas and integrate them into allsectors; by providing strategic advice to policy makers; by strengthening capacity and investment inprotected areas; and by convening the diverse constituency of protected area stakeholders to addresschallenging issues.WCPAs MissionPromote the establishment and effective management of a world-wide representative network ofterrestrial and marine protected areas as an integral contribution to IUCNs mission.WCPAs Objectives • help governments and others plan protected areas and integrate them into all sectors, through provision of strategic advice to policy makers; • strengthen capacity and effectiveness of protected areas managers, through provision of guidance, tools and information and a vehicle for networking; • increase investment in protected areas, by persuading public and corporate donors of their value; and • Enhance WCPAs capacity to implement its programmed, including through co-operation with IUCN members and partners. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. Travel Geography UNIT 4: THE APPEAL OF TOURISM DESTINATIONS Objectives: • Understand the primary factors that establish destinations • Explore the historical and cultural factors in tourism • Identify and discuss the different types of tourists • State and explain the different types of tourism • Discuss about sporting and urban facilitiesThe Factors that Establish DestinationsThe success of a tourism destination in its approach to destination management can be influenced by a wide range of factors. As a dynamic and complex industry, destination managers need to be continually monitoring, reviewing and evaluating tourism performance and management strategies to ensure the long-term sustainability of tourism in the destination. The strategic planning and ongoing management for a destination will contribute to the continuous improvement and success of a tourism destination. • Destinations are dynamic places characterised by complex sets of relations between community members, business interests and government. In this context, no two destinations are the same. Any number of conditions, such as destination size/scale, geography, climate, local economic conditions, social and cultural values, political orientations, tourist perceptions and movements combine to produce different issues and outcomes. Destinations can therefore exist at multiple scales from local to international. They can be defined as geographical locations; clusters of attractions, services, activities and infrastructure; politicaladministrative units; or social, cultural, economic or spatial constructs, or any combination of these perspectives. • Destinations are also characterised by different combinations of natural, built and human resources, receive different levels of support from governments, and have different capacities to innovate, compete and differentiate. It is therefore difficult to draw lessons about good or best practice from the literature because practice also requires local knowledge and an understanding of political sensitivities which are often embedded within specific destination contexts. It is therefore important that destination researchers and destination planning and management practitioners have a well formed appreciation for the complexity of destinations, how they are imagined and perceived, and how they are defined by different stakeholders and markets. • Successful destinations are also founded on effective and sustainable planning and management. Good destination planning and management must adopt an approach whereby sustainable destination management, development and marketing practices are regarded as being inter-related and equally valued. More recently, with increasing realization of the vulnerability of many destinations to environmental crises, market downturns and increased international competition, there has been a strengthening commitment to a balanced approach to destination planning and management. Good tourism destination planning and management should therefore be underpinned by sustainable tourism development, good governance and good marketing. Furthermore assigning a ‘one size fits all’ strategy for effective planning and management of tourism destinations is not appropriate. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.