Historical Background of Sikhism• The Ten Gurus: I. Guru Nanak Dev Ji II. Guru Angad Dev Ji III. Guru Amar Das Ji IV. Guru Ram Das Ji V. Guru Arjan Dev Ji VI. Guru Hargobind Ji VII. Guru Har Rai Ji VIII. Guru Har Krishan Ji IX. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji X. Guru Gobind Singh Ji• Gurus are regarded not as divine, but as enlightened teachers through whom God revealed his will.
Guru Angad Dev Ji (1504-1552)• Was a devout Hindu before he met Guru Nanak Dev.• Came out top in all Guru Nanak Dev’s test for his devotion.• His devotion convinced Guru Nanak he would be a better leader then Guru Nanak own sons.• Developed Gurmukhi - the script used for the Punjab language.• Composed 62 hymns that were later included in the Guru Granth Sahib.
Guru Amar Das Ji (1479-1574)• A very pious and humble person.• Became Guru at the age of 73 (oldest Guru)• Organized 3 annual gatherings for Sikhs.• Set up the 1st pilgrimage site at Govindval Sahib.• Introduced Sikh ceremonies for birth and death.• Most famous hymn, Anand Sahib, is part of Sikh daily prayer.• Rejected the practices of Purdha (veiling of women) and of Sati (the burning of widows on the husbands funeral.)• Established the Public kitchen (Langgar).
Guru Ram Das Ji (1534-1581)• Guru Amar Das’ son-in-law.• Started the construction of the new township known as Amritsar (Holy City of Sikhism).• Also became the capital of the Sikhs known as Chak Ram Das.• Also started the construction of the lake around the Golden Temple at Amritsar• Composed the Lavan (marriage hymn), still used in Sikh marriages.
Guru Arjan Dev Ji (1563-1606)• Guru Ram Das’ 3rd son.• Constructed Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) within the lake.• Unlike Hindu temples which build on high land and have only 1 door, it was built on lower land and have 4 doors.• Meant to be symbolic of the new faith, which required the lowest to go even lower and open for everyone.
• Compiled and collected all hymns of previous Gurus and added 2616 of his own to form the Adi Granth Sahib (half of the holy scriptures of Sikhi).• He also left lots empty pages for future Gurus to add their hyms.• He respected the Adi Granth more than himself as he used to sleep on the floor while he kept the Adi Granth on a higher bed (manji).
Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s Martrydom• What is Martyrdom? - the suffering of death on account of adherence to a cause especially to ones religious faith without ulterior motive.• Was made to sit on a large burning plate while burning hot sand was poured over his body.• Not a word of pain or a moan was uttered by Guru Arjan as he bore all the suffering.
Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji (1595-1644)• The son of Guru Arjan.• Proclaimed that Guru is a military leader as well as spiritual leader.• Made it clear that he would welcome offerings of arms and horses.• Started raising an Sikh army, gave training in horse riding and other military exercises to his army.• Built a fortress, Lohgarh in Amritsar.• He built the Akal Takht (the throne of the Timeless One), around Harmandir Sahib
• He led conflict with the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.• The Mughal emperor attacked his state several times but still failed to capture him.• The 1st war in the Sikh history.• Sikh’s only wedge wars to defend their faith or only when their community is harmed.• He fought and won all 4 wars during the conflict.
Guru Har Rai Ji & Guru Har Krishan Ji (1630-1661) (1656-1664)• Grandson of Guru Younger son of Guru Hargobind. Har Rai. Youngest Guru.• Kept the Sikh community in Became guru at the age of 5 and died of peace. smallpox at the age• Had a lot of love of 8. for nature The only Guru depicted in art without a beard.
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji (1621-1675)• Great-uncle of Guru Har Krishan.• Was barred from Amritsar corrupt masands.• So founded the Sikh center of Anandpur (the haven of bliss).• Was tortured and beheaded in Delhi by Muslims for helping Brahmins (Hindus) avoid forcible conversion to Islam.• Gave off his life for others to have religious rights.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji (1666-1708)• Son of Guru Tegh Bahadur.• Last living Guru in human form.• Often shown prominently next to Nanak in Sikh art.• Made active movement to fight the tyranny and injustice of emperor Aurangzeb.• His goal - create a nation that would be pure and strong enough to free itself from the oppression of priests and unjust rulers.
• He made the most amount of sacrifices.• Resisted oppression by Muhgal and Hindu authorities.• Main war was fought at Chamkaur. He himself with his own hands prepared his 2 elder sons to fight and watched them go into war.• His father was beheaded, his mother and 2 younger sons were tortured in the Cold Tower.• 2 younger sons were then bricked alive for resisting to convert into Islam. They are the youngest matrys in recorded world history.
• Exemplify the Sikh ideal of the heroic saint- soldier.• Founded the Khalsa (the pure brotherhood) and Sikh baptism on the day of Vasakhi.• Composed many poems which were lost in the river Sirsa during the chase from the Mughals.• nominated the Sikh sacred text (Guru Granth Sahib) as the final and immortal Guru (words are immortal)• Ordained Male Sikhs – Singh Female Sikhs – Kaur