Developing reading skills


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Lead-in presentation used for the workshop "Developing reading skills" at the REAL seminar in Grenoble (August 2011)

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Developing reading skills

  1. 1. Grenoble, 24 / 28 August 2011 workshop Silvia MINARDI Developing reading skills
  2. 2. reading   Once in Toronto, the 241 passengers and 14 crew members were put on a different plane, sent back to Chicago and put up in overnight accommodation before starting their journey to Frankfurt again yesterday afternoon. Flight 940, travelling from Chicago to Frankfurt, had to land in Toronto just after 10pm on Monday. A spokesperson for the airline said a communications problem had occurred, which led the pilot to choose to divert the flight, instead of crossing the Atlantic with the issue. However, Transport Canada said the problem with the equipment was caused by the pilot of the Boeing 777 tipping his coffee over. The spilled hot drink caused the radio on board the plane to send out a 7500 code, denoting a hijacking. Despite the flight crew being able to stop the faulty signal, they decided to land the plane anyway.
  3. 3. READING <ul><li>TEXT / READER </li></ul><ul><li>“ hypotheses” (Goodman) </li></ul><ul><li>hidden DIALOGUE between the reader and the writer through the text </li></ul>
  4. 4. PISA <ul><li>WHAT : International assessment framework for testing mathematical, scientific and reading literacy of young adults at the age of 15 </li></ul><ul><li>WHY : Monitoring outcomes of educational systems; providing basis for collaboration on policy; providing input for standard-setting and evaluation; supporting shift in policy focus from educational inputs to learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>HOW : 5 levels, 5 subscales, one combined scale; task descriptions (similar to can-do statements) </li></ul>
  5. 5. PISA – assessing literacy <ul><li>Aim of PISA: „to measure how well young adults, at the age of 15 and therefore approaching the end of compulsory schooling, are prepared to meet the challenges of today’s knowledge societies” </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy : mastery of processes , understanding of concepts , ability to function in various situations ( contexts ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. READING LITERACY (PISA – OECD) <ul><li>&quot;Reading literacy is understanding , using , and reflecting on written texts, in order to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential, and to participate in society.&quot; </li></ul>
  7. 7. PISA – Reading literacy <ul><li>Processes (aspects): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming a broad understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieving information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing an interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflecting on content of text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflecting on form of text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content (knowledge and understanding): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous texts (narrative, expository, descriptive, argumentative/persuasive, injunctive/instructive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-continuous texts (charts, graphs, diagrams, maps, forms, advertisements) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context of application (situations) = CEFR domains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>perception </li></ul><ul><li>decoding </li></ul><ul><li>interpreting </li></ul>processes
  9. 9. <ul><li>Retrieving information which is explicitly given in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Forming a broad understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Developing an interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting on content of text </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting on form of text </li></ul>processes
  10. 11. A portrait – “Il lettore (in)competente” <ul><li>Un lettore poco competente: </li></ul><ul><li>non sa di sapere e quindi ha difficoltà ad attivare autonomamente gli schemi mentali e le conoscenze già disponibili in memoria, a fare ipotesi e ad interagire con il testo per cercare conferme a quanto previsto; </li></ul><ul><li>non sa sfruttare la permanenza del testo , per cui tende a leggere linearmente, dall’alto al basso; </li></ul><ul><li>dimostra scarsa flessibilità: tratta allo stesso modo i diversi tipi di testo </li></ul><ul><li>non sa: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cogliere la gerarchia del testo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuare gli elementi centrali del testo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sfruttare gli elementi di coesione lessicale e i connettivi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rilevare le incongruenze del testo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>porsi domande sul testo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capire dove non capisce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adattato da POZZO, 2008 </li></ul>
  11. 12. A portrait – “Il lettore competente” <ul><li>A good reader is selective, active, and strategic </li></ul><ul><li>Readers understand what they read in terms of what they already know -- though what they read may modify what they know. </li></ul><ul><li>Readers activate strategies for managing their approach to a text, along with schemas for interpreting it. Readers may modify the strategy of reading and shift the context of interpretation as they go. </li></ul><ul><li>New information becomes meaningful only as it is interconnected with (&quot;elaborated&quot; with or &quot;instantiated&quot; into) meaningful patterns that the reader already knows. The new information thus becomes knowledge. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Reading @ school <ul><li>from “ show me what you’ve understood ” to “learning how to read a text” </li></ul>
  13. 14. Reading @school <ul><li>A student centred approach </li></ul><ul><li>An action-oriented approach </li></ul>
  14. 15. Reading at school Dealing with different types of text Different processes (activities) Working on metacognitive elements The student as a reader
  15. 16. reading @school the strategic reader better readers go about the task more strategically than others do, which means they have greater conscious control over what and how they read
  16. 17. strategies <ul><li>“ means the language user exploits to mobilise and balance his/her resources, to activate skills and procedures, in order to fulfil the demands of communication in context and successfully complete the task in question in the most comprehensible or most economical way feasible depending on his/her precise purpose. […] adoption of a particular line of action in order to maximise effectiveness ” (CEFR, p.57) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Reception strategies CEFR, p.72 Revising hypotheses if required REPAIR Hypothesis testing: matching cues to schemata EVALUATION Identifying cues and making inferences EXECUTION Framing (selecting mental set, activating schemata, setting up expectations) PLANNING ACTIVITIES STRATEGIES
  18. 19. teaching strategies <ul><li>Recognising strategies and naming them . </li></ul><ul><li>Focussing on strategies and teaching them . </li></ul><ul><li>sts talk / write about the strategies they have used. </li></ul><ul><li>sts share with their peers </li></ul><ul><li>differentiating tasks </li></ul>
  19. 20. reading @school An idea from Thom Hudson, Teaching Second Language Reading , OUP, 2007 (pp136/37 ) 8. Reinforce the think-aloud with follow-up lessons and phases. 7. Ask sts to identify other situations in which they might use the strategies. 6. List the cues and strategies used. 5. Have sts underline the words and phrases that appear in the strategy (e.g. which words have helped you to make an inference or a prediction?) 4. Read the text aloud and think aloud as it is read. 3. State the purposes 2. Decide on a few strategies to highlight 1. Choose a short section of text
  20. 21. A metacognitive approach <ul><li>TOOLS </li></ul><ul><li>What students think (opinions, beliefs…) </li></ul><ul><li>Student’s reading habits </li></ul><ul><li>Reading strategies </li></ul>
  21. 22. Thanks! [email_address]