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Il Decadentismo
Il Positivismo
Nel XIX
secolo
POSITIVISMO (movimento
culturale fondato
sull’applicazione del metodo
scientifico allo studi...
La reazione al Positivismo
Negli anni ‘60
Dell’Ottocento
Lettura critica del
Positivismo, da parte di
tendenze culturali c...
L’Estetismo
Tra le tendenze della
sensibilità decadente
ESTETISMO: movimento
artistico nato in Inghilterra
negli ultimi de...
La letteratura decadente
I princìpi della letteratura decadente:
1. rifiuto del mondo borghese ANTICONFORMISMO
2. rifiuto ...
La poesia decadente
Aspetti principali:
1. POESIA PURA: priva di temi civili e politici
2. uso di LINGUAGGIOALLUSIVO (meta...
Il romanzo estetizzante
Nell’Ottocento PATTO NARRATIVO: il narratore
racconta una storia che il lettore deve credere
vera....
Joris Karl Huysmans
À rebours (“Controcorrente) 1884: romanzo che diffuse in
tutta Europa la poetica estetizzante. Il prot...
Gabriele D’Annunzio
Il piacere (1889): il protagonista, Andrea
Sperelli, è un dandy amante del lusso e della
raffinatezza,...
Oscar Wilde
Il ritratto di Dorian Gray (1891): è
emblematico del rapporto tra arte e
morale. L’unico principio da seguire
...
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Il decadentismo

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Il decadentismo

  1. 1. Il Decadentismo
  2. 2. Il Positivismo Nel XIX secolo POSITIVISMO (movimento culturale fondato sull’applicazione del metodo scientifico allo studio della società e dell’uomo) In campo artistico e letterario il Positivismo di realizza col NATURALISMO (in Italia “Verismo”)
  3. 3. La reazione al Positivismo Negli anni ‘60 Dell’Ottocento Lettura critica del Positivismo, da parte di tendenze culturali che non si riconoscono nella sua visione scientifica. (Decadentismo) POSITIVISMO DECADENTISMO Metodo scientifico Esaltazione dell’irrazionale e del fantastico Fiducia nel futuro Senso di decadenza Visione ottimistica della vita Visione pessimistica della vita
  4. 4. L’Estetismo Tra le tendenze della sensibilità decadente ESTETISMO: movimento artistico nato in Inghilterra negli ultimi decenni dell’Ottocento • Principio dell’arte per l’arte •Valore assoluto della bellezza • rifiuto del Realismo e dell’utilitarismo borghese • nuovo ruolo dell’artista: individuo eccezionale figura dell’ESTETA (Dandy): alla morale sostituisce il culto del bello e l’esaltazione del piacere
  5. 5. La letteratura decadente I princìpi della letteratura decadente: 1. rifiuto del mondo borghese ANTICONFORMISMO 2. rifiuto dell’ottimismo positivista 3. desiderio di evasione dalla realtà, di SURREALE 4. scelta di descrivere la realtà attraverso i valori dell’irrazionalità e della bellezza (valori SOGGETTIVI) 5. rifiuto dell’impegno politico e sociale: l’ARTE è valore assoluto 6. eccezionalità dell’artista: egli è veggente, esteta, superuomo
  6. 6. La poesia decadente Aspetti principali: 1. POESIA PURA: priva di temi civili e politici 2. uso di LINGUAGGIOALLUSIVO (metafore, analogie, simboli) 3. sintassi imprecisa e vaga 4. VERSO LIBERO Principali poeti decadenti: • Giovanni Pascoli (1855 – 1912): evasione dalla realtà e poetica del “fanciullino” • Gabriele D’Annunzio (1863 – 1938): Estetismo, ideologia del Superuomo
  7. 7. Il romanzo estetizzante Nell’Ottocento PATTO NARRATIVO: il narratore racconta una storia che il lettore deve credere vera. Fine Ottocento CRISI DELLA CONCEZIONE REALISTA: è impossibile definire scientificamente la realtà perché non esiste un’unica realtà oggettivamente e universalmente valida per tutti
  8. 8. Joris Karl Huysmans À rebours (“Controcorrente) 1884: romanzo che diffuse in tutta Europa la poetica estetizzante. Il protagonista, Jean Des Esseintes è il ritratto del perfetto esteta → eroe che disprezza l’età contemporanea e segue il principio della vita come opera d’arte. Introdusse novità narrative: • Spazio come luogo simbolico = specchio dell’interiorità del protagonista •Tempo non lineare • Punto di vista interno al personaggio
  9. 9. Gabriele D’Annunzio Il piacere (1889): il protagonista, Andrea Sperelli, è un dandy amante del lusso e della raffinatezza, ma privo di volontà morale e dedito esclusivamente all’arte
  10. 10. Oscar Wilde Il ritratto di Dorian Gray (1891): è emblematico del rapporto tra arte e morale. L’unico principio da seguire secondo Dorian è la libertà creativa, che deve ispirarsi all’ideale del bello.

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