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Pile Foundation presentation


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Master Student Presentation in Eastern Mediterranean University. Construction Technology Course.Pile Foundation Project

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Pile Foundation presentation

  1. 1. Faculty Of Engineering Civil Engineering Department CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY-I CIVL 596 1 Pile Construction Project INSTRUCTOR: PROF. DR. TAHİR ÇELİK Project Number 03 ------- Group Number 04 Students’ Name Students’ Number BILAL MOHAMMED PIROT 145292 SEVAR DILKHAZ SALAHADDIN 145233 HUSSEIN GHANDOUR 135919 SPRING 2014-2015
  2. 2. Objectives The overall objective of this Presentation is to document the idea behind using piles, types of piles and the benefits of using different types of piles 2 Historical Review In Britain, there are numerous examples of timber piling in bridge works and riverside settlements constructed by the Romans Timber, because of its lightness, durability and ease of cutting and handling, remained the only material used for piling for along time Reinforced concrete largely replaced timber for high-capacity piling for works on land Steel has been used to an increasing extent for piling due to its ease of fabrication and handling and its ability to withstand hard driving
  3. 3. Types of foundation Shallow foundation It will be on the surface of the ground level Deep foundation It will drive to lower soil layers such as pile and pier 3 Comparison of pressure distribution and soil disturbance beneath spread and piled foundations (a) Spread foundation (b) Single pile. Reference: Pile Design and Construction Practice, 5th edition, Michael Tomlinson and John Woodward
  4. 4. Pile foundations Pile is a Column driven into the soil to support a structure by transferring the building loads to the deeper and stronger layer of soil or rock, and supported by a combination of skin friction and end bearing. are commonly constructed of timber, concrete, steel and composite 4 product/piles-piers
  5. 5. The upper soil layer is too weak Bedrock is not encountered at a reasonable Subjected to horizontal forces 5Although the use of pile foundation cost more than shallow foundation, it is combination of skin friction essential to be employed for some conditions. Such Conditions Are Enumerated Expansive & collapsible soils extend to a great depth below the ground surface Foundations below the water table are subjected to uplifting forces Bridge abutments and piers are to avoid the possible loss of bearing capacity
  6. 6. Types of pile foundation Timber Pile Concrete pile Steel Pile Composite pile 6 Based on Material Different types of pile foundation Reference: steel-piles-concrete-piles-timber-piles-composite-piles/
  7. 7. Is an ideal material for piling. It has a high strength to weight ratio, it is easy to handle, it is readily cut to length and trimmed after driving. TIMBER PILES Timber piles have three types according to the American Society of Civil Engineers: 1) Class A, carry heavy loads, minimum diameter of butt 356 mm. 1) Class B; carry medium loads, minimum diameter of butt 305 mm to 330mm. 2) Class C piles are used for temporary construction work, minimum diameter of but 305mm. 7 Timber Piles Reference: Pile Foundation Construction Inspection By: Bureau of Construction Bureau Of Bridges And Structures
  8. 8. Preparation of Timber Pile In the Site Timber piles cannot withstand hard driving stress, therefore ⇒ To avoid damage at the bottom of timber piles, steel shoes may be used To avoid the damage to the top of the piles, a metal band or a cap may be used 8 Protecting timber piles from splitting during driving (a) Protecting head by mild steel hoop (b) Protecting toe by cast steel point. Reference: Pile Design and Construction Practice, 5th edition, Michael Tomlinson and John Woodward Protecting timber piles from decay (a) By precast concrete upper section above water level (b) By extending pile cap below water level. Reference: Pile Design and Construction Practice, 5th edition, Michael Tomlinson and John Woodward
  9. 9. 9 Driven Timber piles in the site Reference: Driven Timber piles in the site Reference: waterfront-composite-marine-piles-build-on-success
  10. 10. Advantages of Timber Piles Disadvantages of Timber Piles 1. They can easily be extracted 2. They are economical in cost. 3. They can stay undamaged indefinitely if they are surrounded by saturated soil. 1. Timber pile cannot withstand hard driving stress. 2. The pile capacity is generally limited. 3. Top of timber easy to damage during the driving operation. 4. Subject to attack by various organisms and insects. 10
  11. 11. Concrete Piles PRECAST CONCRETE PILE have their principal use in marine and river structures, i.e. in situations where the use of driven and cast-in-place piles is impracticable or uneconomical 11 Precast Concrete Piles, Reference:http://www.voorbijfunderingst systems/precast-concrete-pile.html Precast Concrete Piles, Reference:https://www.nationalprecast.c product/piles-piers
  12. 12. 12 Precast concrete piles Reference: Pile Foundation Construction Inspection By: Bureau Of Construction Bureau Of Bridges And Structures Precast concrete piles Reference: asp?ID=38 Precast concrete piles Reference: concrete-piles/
  13. 13. 13 Unseen breakage of precast concrete piles with welded butt joints. Reference: Pile Design and Construction Practice, 5th edition, Michael Tomlinson and John Woodward JOINTED PRECAST CONCRETE PILES casting on additional lengths to accommodate variations in the depth to a hard bearing stratum will be evident. These drawbacks can be overcome by employing jointed piles Typical locking pin joint for precast concrete pile. Reference: Pile Design and Construction Practice, 5th edition, Michael Tomlinson and John Woodward
  14. 14. 1) Can be subjected to hard driving. 2) Corrosion resistant. 3) Can be easily combined with a concrete superstructure. 1) Difficult to achieve proper cutoff. 2) Difficult to transport. Advantages of Precast Concrete Pile Disadvantages of Precast Concrete Piles 14
  15. 15. CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILES Piles are built by making a hole in the ground and then filling it with concrete. These piles may be divided to two: (a) cased (b) uncased. Both types may have a pedestal at the bottom 15 Cast in place concrete pile Reference: 1_archive.html Cast in place concrete pile Reference: concrete-piles/ top view of a cast-in-place pile Reference: ssons/
  16. 16. 16 Bulb Pile: They are special forms of cast-in-place concrete piles. It forms a large base (bulb) during the driving process increases their effectiveness in serving as an end bearing pile. Bulb Pile Reference: piles-take-up-same-loadings-as-central-piles-in-rigid- cap.html SHELL TYPES CAST-IN-PLACE PILES consist of a permanent light gauge steel tube in diameters from 150 to 500 mm with wall thickness up to 6 mm and are internally bottom driven by drop hammer. On reaching the bearing layer the hammer is removed, any reinforcement inserted, and a high slump concrete placed to produce the pile. The Taper Tube pile Reference: Pile Design and Construction Practice, 5th edition, Michael Tomlinson and John Woodward
  17. 17. 17 ROTARY DISPLACEMENT AUGER PILES the soil is displaced and compacted as the auger head is rotated into the ground to form the stable pile shaft, with little soil being removed from the hole. The Screw auger tube (b) Cleaned-off section of an excavated Screw pile. Reference : geotechnics/piles-micropiles/
  18. 18. Advantages of Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles Disadvantages of Cast-In- Place Concrete Piles 1) Relatively low cost. 2) Allow for inspection before pouring concrete. 3) Easy of length variation. 4) Minimal ground vibrations during installation. 1) The uncertainty of the shape and condition of the constructed pile. 2) The cast components may be damaged during driving. 3) Difficult to splice after concreting. 4) Steel casings (temporary or permanently) and reinforcing cages may also be required. 5) Cast-in-place concrete pile lengths are limited by the drilling equipment used. 18
  19. 19. Steel piles are either pipe pile or rolled section steel H- section piles. Wide-flange and I-section steel beams can also be used as piles. 19 H-section piles are usually preferred because their web and flange thickness are equal. Pipe pile can be driven into the ground with their ends open or close. Figure 20: shapes of steel piles (a) and (b) Reference (a): Pile Foundation Construction Inspection By: Bureau Of Construction Bureau Of Bridges And Structures (b): Https://Www.Vpgroundforce.Com/Gb/Piling/Products/Larssen-Sheet-Piles/ Placing of Steel piles in site Reference: ltd/services/steel-piling
  20. 20. 20 SHOES FOR STEEL PILES shoes or other strengthening devices at the toe are needed for tubular piles driven with open ends in easy to moderately easy driving conditions. Where open-ended piles have to be driven through moderately resistant layers to obtain deeper penetrations, or where they have to be driven into weak rock, the toes should be strengthened by welding-on a steel ring. (a) Strengthening shoe of tubular steel pile by cruciform plates (b) Buckling and tearing of welded-on external stiffening ring to tubular steel pile driven on to sloping rock surface. Reference: (a and b) Pile Design and Construction Practice, 5th edition, Michael Tomlinson and John Woodward
  21. 21. Advantages of Steel Piles Disadvantages of Steel Piles 1) Easy to handle with respect to cutoff and extension to the desired length. 2) Can stand high driving stresses. 3) Can penetrate hard layers such as dense gravel and soft rock. 4) High load-carrying capacity. 1) Steel Piles subject to corrosion. 2) They are very expensive. 3) High level of noise during pile driving. 4) H-section may be damaged or deflected from the vertical during driving through hard layers or past major obstruction. 21
  22. 22. Composite pile combinations of bored piles with driven piles can be used to overcome problems resulting from particular site or ground conditions such as the problem of timber piles above ground-water level composite piles may be made of steel and concrete or timber and concrete. Steel and concrete piles consist of a lower portion of steel and an upper portion of cast-in-place concrete composite piles are not economical compared with those of uniform section 22 different stages in construction of composite piles Reference: e-piles/
  23. 23. NON-DISPLACEMENT PILES With non-displacement piles soil is removed and the resulting hole filled with concrete or sometimes a precast concrete pile is dropped into the hole and grouted in. This method of construction produces an irregular interface between the pile shaft and surrounding soil which affords good skin frictional resistance under subsequent loading. Non- displacement pile Reference: age=piling-methods 23
  24. 24. SMALL DIAMETER BORED CAST-IN- PLACE PILES These tend to be 600mm or less in diameter and are usually constructed by using a tripod rig. The equipment consists of a tripod, a winch and a cable operating a variety of tools (a) shell auger for cohesion-less, (b) cruciform auger for cohesive soils Reference: ntype.htm 24 Small diameter bore (cast in place piles) Reference: Civil Engineering Association:
  25. 25. LARGE DIAMETER BORED CAST-IN- PLACE PILES Large boreholes from 750mm up to 3m diameter (with 7m under-reams) are possible by using rotary drilling machinery. The angering plant is usually crane or lorry mounted. Large diameter cast in place piles’ machine Reference: ?co_id=3596 Stages of constructing large diameter bored cast-in-place piles References: 25
  26. 26. PARTIALLY PRE-FORMED PILES This type of pile is particularly suitable in conditions where the ground is waterlogged, or where there is movement of water in an upper layer of the soil which could result in cement being leached from a cast-in- place concrete pile 26 Partially pre-formed pile Reference:
  27. 27. GROUT- OR CONCRETE- INTRUDED PILES The use of continuous flight augers is becoming a much more popular method in pile construction. These piles offer considerable environmental advantages during construction Their noise and vibration levels are low and there is no need for temporary borehole wall casing or bentonite slurry making it suitable for both clays and granular soils The only problem is that they are limited in depth to the maximum length of the auger (about 25m) Figure 31: Concrete intruded piles 27
  28. 28. SHEET PILES Sheet piles are structural tools which are designed to resist horizontal forces as they embedded in soils. They are also used as retaining systems. Sheet piles are made of different materials as wood, concrete, steel or aluminum which play an important role in their applications Sheet piles are widely used for several purposes such as: 1) Large and waterfront structures 2) Erosion protection 3) Stabilizing ground slopes 4) Shoring walls of trenches and other excavations, and cofferdams. 28 Installed sheet piles in a project Reference: common shapes of sheet piles Reference:
  29. 29. CHOICE OF ILE MATERIALS Timber is cheap relative to concrete or steel. It is light, easy to handle, and readily trimmed to the required length. It is very durable below ground-water level but is liable to decay above this level. Concrete is adaptable for a wide range of pile types. It can be used in precast form in driven piles, or as insertion units in bored piles. Steel is more expensive than timber or concrete but this disadvantage may be outweighed by the ease of handling steel piles, by their ability to withstand hard driving, by their resilience and strength in bending, and their capability to carry heavy loads 29
  30. 30. 1) The depth to a stratum capable of supporting a pile. 2) The availability of materials for piles. 3) The number of piles required. 4) The driving equipment. 5) The depth and kind of water if any, above the ground which the piles will be driven. 6) Location and type of structure. 7) Types of structures adjacent to the site. 8) The size, weight of the structure. 9) The physical properties of the soil stratum on site. 10)The durability required. 11)The comparative in-place cost. 30 Factors Influencing Choice Of Piles To Be Used For Construction
  31. 31. PILE HAMMERS The available types include: 1) Drop. 2) Single-acting steam or compressed air (60 blows per minute). 3) Double-acting steam or compressed air (120 blows per minute). 4) Differential-acting steam or compressed air ( Frequency usually between single and double). 5) Diesel ( Can operate in freezing weather, but may fail to operate in soft soil). 6) Hydraulic. 7) Vibratory drivers ( most effective in driving piles into granular soils, they operate at very high frequencies). Typical operation of pile driving hammers Reference: equipment-hammers.html 31
  32. 32. Dropping weight (Drop Hammer) The dropping weight or drop hammer is the most commonly used method of insertion of displacement piles. Variants of the simple drop hammer are the single acting and double acting hammers. These are mechanically driven by steam, by compressed air or hydraulically. Piles' dropping weight in the site Reference: 32
  33. 33. 33Rapid controlled explosions can be produced by the diesel hammer. Diesel Hammer Using diesel hummer in the site Reference: This type of hammer is most suitable for driving piles through non-cohesive granular soils where the major resistance is from the end bearing.
  34. 34. Vibratory methods of pile driving: Vibratory methods can prove to be very effective in driving piles through non cohesive granular soils. The vibration of the pile excites the soil grains adjacent to the pile making the soil almost free flowing thus significantly reducing friction along the pile shaft. Jacking methods of insertion: Jacked piles are most commonly used in underpinning existing structures. By excavating underneath a structure short lengths of pile can be inserted and jacked into the ground using the underside of the existing structure as a reaction. jacking method of insertion Reference: l/foundations/Fountype.htm 34
  35. 35. REFERENCES Pile Design and Construction Practice, 5th edition, Michael Tomlinson and John Woodward. Principles of Foundation Engineering, 7th edition, chapter 11, DAS, B. Construction Methods and Management, 7th edition, S. W. NUNNALLY (Consulting Engineer), Professor Emeritus, North Carolina State University. Basic Types of Sheet Pile Walls and Their Application in the Construction Industry, Leila Eskandari, Department of civil engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar abbas, Iran. Piling and Penetrative Ground Improvement Methods on Land Affected by Contamination, Guidance on Pollution Prevention National Groundwater & Contaminated, Land Centre report NC/99/73 Shallow Foundation and Deep Foundation, Wei Siong on Aug28, 2011 National Program on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL),India, Advanced Foundation Engineering-I, Module 8, Lectures 29 To 34), Pile Foundations Faculty of Environment and Technology, University of the West of England from ( Overview of Construction and Design of Auger Cast-In-Place and Drilled Displacement Piles, Monica Prezzi, Assistant Professor, And Prasenjit Basu, Doctoral Student, Purdue University, USA Excavations and Foundations in Soft Soils, Hans-Georg Kempfert, Berhane Gebreselassie 35
  36. 36. 36