I need to address this use of the word “Third Space” in the context of literacy now Its origins lie in the work of Bhaba (See the pact of interpretation quote…) The meaning which we are trying to make in our communication with each other is always negotiated – something of what I want to convey and something of what you want to hear makes this “third space”. Sometimes this is a real space, an after –school club, a walk to school, the activity of a sports team, play on a screen, climbing a tree with some friends, making a den or shelter – play of all kinds creates this space A spatial metaphor indicates a terrain, and Gutierrez delineates movement across that terrain, learners in transition (as we have seen this is an area of study which Oystein Gilje and colleagues operate within) Bhabha locaed it within the actual communicative act itself Further conceptions talk about the classroom itself as the site of struggle – from a neoliberal imaginary fixing people as assessment items to a negotiation with the curriculum itself…
LEGO SERIOUS PLAY ACTIVITY?
Madness and Kid British vids and activity.
Super Size Me clip.
EXPLAIN JIGSAW METHOD.
----- Meeting Notes (25/02/2014 17:29) ----- Play vid and discuss
Made in Dagenham Neds
SHOW CLIPS OR REPLACE
Outfoxed extract and discussion. Suggest Wag the Dog. In the Loop / The Thick of It. Others?
From Danna Boyd Ideology, identity, post-modern, neo-liberal, fragmented. Things have changed since the Birmingham School were allowed to ‘mess around’. Show Zizek on Starbucks and Curtis.
How to account for shared expertise and more porous interchange?
L A Noir research
----- Meeting Notes (07/03/2012 11:07) ----- Describe new project - play vid
Another Perfect World vid
Media Theory Toolkit 2016
Media Theory toolkit
(1) Texts & Literacies
(2) Concepts & Debates
•The point of it all and the what and the how;
•Texts and literacies – key concepts
•Still image analysis
•Moving image analysis
(breaks as and when)
Spot of lunch downstairs
•Debates and perspectives:
•Audiences, effects, reception
•Power, democracy, ideology
•Media 2.0 and ‘We Media’
(breaks as and when)
90 slides with many links
Lots of images, moving images and sounds
Some modelled learning plans
Some Key Readings
Lots of Charlie Brooker
Texts and Meaning
Genre, Narrative, Representation
Regulation v Responsibilities
Futures and utopia / dystopia
Funding, access and citizenship
Understanding Media by Marshall McLuhan,
Television by Raymond Williams
Mythologies by Roland Barthes
Simulacra and Simulation by Jean Baudrillard
The Image by Daniel Boorstin
Amusing Ourselves to Death by Neil Postman
Dialectic of Enlightenment by Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno
Manufacturing Consent by Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky
No Sense of Place by Joshua Meyrowitz
Television Culture by John Fiske
NB - The notable name missing is Stuart Hall, who sadly never authored a 'text' as such
(only edited them), but clearly warrants a place in a list of important media thinkers.
Sociocultural literacy (Bhabha and
Curriculum and power (Yandell)
Cultural capital (Bourdieu)
Funds of knowledge (Bourdieu,
Marsh, Moll but also Parry et al)
Semi permeable membrane
(Potter, McDougall & Potter)
The “Third Space” of learning
• Doctor Who has encompassed television, radio, literature, cinema and
videogames, across 50 years.
• All adds up to a rich metatext, with multiple access points –
although television is clearly the dominant medium.
That the more restricted forms
of textual engagement that
English offers remain at the
core of the National Curriculum
and that English retains a
relatively elevated academic
status are testament to the
strange but powerful grip of
an educational order that has
been and remains difficult to
The so-called ‘long revolution’ has indeed been ‘long’ as
the young people say.
We don’t know if the happy playground of Media Studies might in the very
long run have some serious impact on the established academic order and
might seriously challenge what Derrida has called the ‘violence’ that attends
‘the legitimization of canons’. Nick Peim, Preface to Doing Text.
Image Literacy | Semiotics
From Saussure and Barthes.From Saussure and Barthes.
Micro to macro.Micro to macro.
Polysemy and fluidity at level ofPolysemy and fluidity at level of
Camera Helps to Deliver Meaning
• Shot Types – what meanings do a long shot and a
Point of View (POV) shot help deliver?
- Long shot – establishing shot, shows the viewer where they are in the
scene. POV –feel as though you are part of the scene
Shot Types Helps to Situate the Viewer
• Angle – (high angle POV shot = superiority, low angle POV shot =
• Movement - Zoom can highlight emotion on a character, Jerky hand
held POV shot can provide tension and involvement in action sequences
• Focus / Detail – Used to highlight important elements to the
narrative / storyline
Editing Helps to Deliver Meaning
• Manipulation of Time / Space – flashbacks, Jump Cuts,
Cross Cuts, etc
• Rhythm and Pace – Fast paced / frequent cuts = action,
slow paced / infrequent cuts = drama
• Persuasion – Edit tries to influence your view of the events
• Ellipsis – When parts of the story (narrative) are edited out
(can be explicit and implicit)
• Dialectical montage (Eisenstein) – 2 different shots put
together to construct meaning
Sound | Image Helps to Deliver Meaning
• Provides Anchorage (Romantic music + 2 people staring into
each others eyes tells you that you are watching a romantic scene)
• Contrast or Flow (can provide an indication as to whether the
direction of a movie is changing or staying the same)
• Diegetic Sound (sound that originates from within the movie
narrative – e.g. the sound of a CD playing when an actor presses
• Non-diegetic sound (sound that is not part of the narrative – e.g.
Contributes to Mise en SceneContributes to Mise en Scene
Mise en scene helps to deliver meaning
•Refers to the overall Atmosphere / Ambience of a scene
•What contributes to mise en scene?
•Moving image = still images moving (Semiotics can be applied to help explain
- Where the scene provides a sense of realism (2 types:- Generic = realistic
for the type of genre, Cultural = realistic because it mimics real life)
Micro to Macro
• What are Micro elements?
– individual elements (such as camera angles, editing, sound,
elements of mise en scene) Elements can be diegetic and
• What is Macro?
What meaning the individual elements amount to
• But always remember THE ACTIVE AUDIENCE MAKESTHE ACTIVE AUDIENCE MAKES
THE MEANINGTHE MEANING (based on cultural experiences and literacy).
There may be many ways a film can be interpreted
Decoding: Bound up in identity
Your examples of curation?
Putting texts to work: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwsQ_5Wm4oo
Media Theory Toolkit:
(2) Concepts and Perspectives
Theories of Culture
Adorno: ‘Culture industry reconsidered’in
New German Critique, 6, Fall 1975, 12-19
Hesmondalgh: ‘Creative and Cultural Industries’ in
Bennett, (2008): The Sage Handbook of Cultural
The Culture Industry or Cultural Industries?
Adorno – standardisation (of cultural products and consumers)
•Popular music (and jazz) – mass consumption, formula, subjugation
•THE culture industry = monolothic, standardised
•Political economy account – sets up mass production against the
creative (high) artist.
Hesmondalgh – plural cultural industries
•Symbolic creators – degrees of creative autonomy, complexity and
•Socio-cultural account – looks at structure / agency dynamics
•Compares creative workers’ levels of freedom to other industries
•Emphasises “contested ground’ upon which different kinds of cultural
texts are produced” (Laughey, 2007: 126)
Culture | Industry
Adorno: ‘mass culture’ is structural: The cultural commodities of
the industry are governed, as value, and not by their own specific
content and harmonious formation. Anti-enlightenment
Only their deep unconscious mistrust, the last residue of the difference between art and empirical
reality in the spiritual make-up of the masses explains why they have not, to a person, long since
perceived and accepted the world as it is constructed for them by the culture industry.
Hesmondhalgh: ‘Cultural Industries’ = an attempt to pluralize
Adorno’s flawed theory. Emphasis on contradiction and complexity
in neo-liberal context.
Those who prefer the term ‘cultural industries’ tend to be much more sober in their claims regarding the role of
culture or creativity in modern economies and societies, and, as we shall see, considerably more sceptical about
the benefits of marketization in the domain of culture, than what we might call the creativity or creative
Adorno: transformations in the industrial production of art
(Frankfurt School neo-Marxist tradition – along with
Benjamin’s ‘mechanical reproduction’).
Hesmondalgh: creative labour as “communication of experience
through symbolic reproduction” (from Raymond Williams’ ‘Long
Key ideas: autonomy (workplace + creative), self-realisation,
divisions of labour.
Culture Industry, Creative Industry, Creative Work
Mass media central to consumer economy since 1950s.
Internet, social media and inter-active media – paradigm shift?
Lopez (2012) – 4 elements to neo-liberal hegemony of culture:
•Crisis for control
•Enclosure of creative commons – by corporations.
Autonomy of the creative worker:
Policies that argue for a radical expansion of these industries under present conditions,
without attention to the conditions of creative labour, risk fuelling labour markets marked by
irregular, insecure and unprotected work. (Hesmondalgh)
Sociological focus in STRUCTURE and AGENCY (Bourdieu, Giddens).
• Creative Labour
• INDUSTRIES – Art, Film, Museum, Graffiti
Group 1 - What would Adorno say?
Group 2 - Apply Hesmondalgh?
Audience, Effects, Reception
Although we might think of media habits as mundane and idiosyncratic, the fact
that we all have them shows structural forces afoot. (Ruddock: 77)
Models of Mass Media
‘Classic’ (outdated or timeless?) models:
• Shannon and Weaver, 1949
• Galtung and Ruge, 1965
• Blumer and Katz,1974
Ideology and Interpellation
Key example = gender based magazines
Nuts does four things:
1. Represents men to men.
2. Represents men to women.
3. Represents women to men.
4. Represents women to women.
Men’s magazine covers = women
Women’s magazine covers = women
Winship: complicity and
Gauntlett – irony / play
Gender is not natural, it is learned and
Playful renegotiation of gender = gender
trouble (a subversive act)
Madonna, Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift
See Gauntlett – Media, Gender, Identity
Cohen, S, 1972.
Key Reading: Charles Krinsky
Murder of James Bulger by two boys
Shocked public reaction
Trial: search for blame
Father’s videoshop membership info
CP3 picked on by press
Spurious links with narrative offered
Campus killings / knife and gun crime / gangs and Youtube
Texting, internet and literacy
Electronic media and obesity
Screen / web addiction
Social skills in decline due to internet
Films do not present a neutral, transparent view of reality, but offer
instead a mediated re-presentation of it.
Types of Realism
Key Reading: Paul Gilroy
Laughing at oneself is an
extension of the subjective
positioning of the colonized that
– internalization of inferiority.
But other examples of resistance
– women on screen in hybrid
Ownership and Media Power
A Marxist view of media will focus
on the relationship between the
providers of media, broader power
structures and the messages in
media products circulated by these
This is media hegemony /
Marxist ideology theory presents the
media as a controlling force.
Effects theories tend to assume a
Reception theory sees audiences as
active makers of meaning.
Audiences may read the media as the
producers intended (preferred reading
They may partly share the preferred
response (negotiated reading)
They may interpret the text in an
alternative way (oppositional, counter-
But ideology doesn’t go away. Ask
Lots of DIFFERENT IDEAS on this.
Very much a CONTESTED view.
Merrin | Gauntlett
• Celebrates key texts produced by media moguls and celebrated by well-known
• Vague recognition of internet and new digital media, as an 'add on' to the
• A preference for conventional ideas where most people are treated as non-expert
audience 'receivers', or, if they are part of the formal media industries, as expert
Merrin | Gauntlett
• Interest in the massive 'long tail' of independent media projects such as those
found on YouTube and many other websites, mobile devices, and other forms of
Recognition that internet and digital media have fundamentally changed the ways
in which we engage with all media
• Media now more democratic through people making and connecting
Apply new framework to:
Fake JL ad
Your two choices of media 2.0 viral
Mass media and computing converged at the end of the 20th century with
material, ecological, cultural and personal transformations.
What are these, for you?
Media Studies is a product of the analogue, broadcast era, emerging in the early 20th century as a
response to the success of newspapers, radio and cinema and reflecting that era back in its
organisation, themes and concepts.
Does it seem this way to you? If so, how? If not, why not?
Digitalisation takes us beyond this analogue era (media studies 1.0) into a new, post-broadcast era.
This era demands an upgraded academic discipline: one reflecting the real media life of its students
and teaching the key skills needed by the 21st-century user. Media 2.0 demand a media studies 2.0.
What do you think this would look like?
If digital media are the result of the meeting and merger of computing and mass media then we need
to teach our students computing to enable them to produce software and products for themselves.
One thing at least is certain: filling students’ time by teaching them how to use a video camera or
making them pretend to be a newsreader in a fake studio is a waste of their fees and an inadequate
training for the 21st century.
What about your fees, then?
Print, radio, cinema and television have been transformed in their
material basis, ecological position and relationships, cultural production,
distribution and consumption and their individual use. Each medium has had to
Realign itself to meet the demands of a different era and different market
conditions, changing their economic models, content creation, modes of
distribution, relationship with other forms and even their own idea of what they are doing and how their forms will
be used. Apply to television - discuss.
Whilst media studies 2.0 privileges digital media as a revolutionary force in consuming older forms and practices
and creating new modes of media experience, it isn’t an uncritical celebration of these forms or these modes.
McLuhan commented how ‘ many people seem to think that if you talk about something recent, you’re in favour
of it’ and discussions of digital media attract the same reaction.
Manovich already argued in The Language of New Media (2001) that ‘ new media calls for a new stage in
media theory’ , suggesting that ‘ to understand the logic of new media, we need to turn to computer science. It is
there that we may expect to find the new terms, categories and operations that characterise media that became
programmable.’ Computing can serve as a key research tool for the digital environment, with data visualisation
software allowing the analysis of large collections of information.
In order to be able to write media today our students need to know how to produce software, how to employ or
create digital tools and platforms, and how to navigate and use the digital ecology. ‘ Media practice’, therefore,
needs to be reorientated towards training students in computing and the digital ecology. Today’ s user needs up-
to-date, practical knowledge of how to best take advantage of digital technologies and, like the hacker, how to
secure their communications, anonymise or hide their activities and delete and control their digital footprint.
These may well be the most important ‘ practice’ skills of the 21st century.
How are we doing here?
• View that the web is emancipatory is a “mis-reading of history”
• Part of the technologically deterministic, cyber-utopian “Google
Doctrine” or “Twitter Agenda”, ie a mirror image of a moral
• Governments are actually using the
web for propaganda, control,
surveillance, censorship and
• Big Data - an algorithmic panopticon?
Alvin Toffler’s radical 1970 book, Future Shock, theorized that things were
changing so fast we would soon lose the ability to cope. Rushkoff argues
that the future is now and we’re contending with a fundamentally new
challenge. Whereas Toffler said we were disoriented by a future that was
careening toward us, Rushkoff argues that we no longer have a sense of a
future, of goals, of direction at all. We have a completely new relationship
to time; we live in an always-on “now,” where the priorities of this
moment seem to be everything.
Wall Street traders no longer invest in a future; they expect profits off their
algorithmic trades themselves, in the ultra-fast moment. Voters want immediate
results from their politicians, having lost all sense of the historic timescale on
which government functions. Kids txt during parties to find out if there’s
something better happening in the moment, somewhere else.
• Many scholars very much against the media 2.0 hypothesis
• It is very cynical about theory, but does draw heavily from theorists such
as Bourdieu and McLuhan
• Celebrates the “power of active users” , ignoring the commercial
structures that help to shape those powers
• Ignores real material and cultural constraints?
– Gender inequality?
– Who’s online?
Back to …. The story of text
Radical democracy or not, something is happening to
text ‘after the media’ …
Games and Media Concepts
Key Reading; Frasca
Key reading: Videogames as (authorless literature)
The Postmodern: Baudrillard’s hyper-real?
neither dream nor reality but simulacrum –
Virtual reality = product
deprived of its substance.
“Just as decaffeinated coffee
smells and tastes like real
coffee without being real
coffee,Virtual reality is
experienced as reality without
being so.What happens at the
end of this process of
virtualization, however, is that
we begin to experience ‘real
reality’ itself as a virtual
Thanks for coming!
More stuff in Dropbox …
Slides with links
Links to resources / further reading