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    1. 1. Film History <ul><li>EM 101: </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 6 </li></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>The ability of the brain to retain an image a split second longer than the eye actually sees it. </li></ul><ul><li>If we see 16 individual images in rapid succession the brain connects them to make a fluid sequence of movement. </li></ul>Persistence of Vision
    3. 3. <ul><li>Circular drum with slits. </li></ul><ul><li>allows moments of darkness. </li></ul><ul><li>creates illusion of movement. </li></ul><ul><li>1834 by William Horner. </li></ul>Zoetrope
    4. 4. <ul><li>1872 - Set up 12 cameras along a track, tied strings to the shutters which were tripped as the horse ran down the track. </li></ul><ul><li>Created movement with photography. </li></ul>Eadweard Muybridge
    5. 5. <ul><li>1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Developed celluloid film. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally created for the still camera, it made motion pictures possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible and allows light to pass through. </li></ul>George Eastman
    6. 6. <ul><li>October 1889 Dickson shows Edison projection with sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality is poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Edison opts for silent, individual showings of films. </li></ul><ul><li>Invents Kinetoscope. </li></ul>Kinetoscope Kinetoscope Open
    7. 7. <ul><li>1894 </li></ul><ul><li>Tinker with Edison’s Kinetoscope. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed their own machine within a year. </li></ul>Lumiere Brothers Auguste and Louis
    8. 8. <ul><li>1894 </li></ul><ul><li>William Dickson (working for Thomas Edison) begins using celluloid film. </li></ul><ul><li>First film in America. </li></ul>Fred Ott’s Sneeze
    9. 9. <ul><li>Camera could only move forward and backward. </li></ul><ul><li>Roof opened to allow sunlight in. </li></ul><ul><li>Building rotated to catch sun’s rays. </li></ul><ul><li>Camera used electricity. </li></ul>Black Maria
    10. 10. <ul><li>Machine shot the pictures, printed them, and projected them. </li></ul><ul><li>The camera was portable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hand crank provided the power. </li></ul></ul>Cinematographe
    11. 11. <ul><li>First theater opens to the paying public. </li></ul><ul><li>Basement of a Paris café. </li></ul><ul><li>Lumieres’ show: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers leaving the Lumiere Factory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrival at Lyon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Baby’s Meal. </li></ul></ul>December 28, 1895
    12. 12. <ul><li>Biograph & Vitagraph enter the movie industry </li></ul><ul><li>Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC) </li></ul><ul><li>Hollywood was “created” as a way of escaping the MPPC control. </li></ul>Studio Beginnings
    13. 13. <ul><li>Developed “parallel editing” (jump cuts) and our editing techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Created long films with “deep story lines.” </li></ul><ul><li>Best known for “Birth of a Nation.” (1915) </li></ul>D.W. Griffith
    14. 14. <ul><li>Early movies included sight gags and other visual points of humor (Mark Sennett). </li></ul><ul><li>Later, developed into a more “serious” actor with character-driven comedy. </li></ul><ul><li>Was a “blacklisted” actor. </li></ul>Charlie Chaplin
    15. 15. <ul><li>George Creel place filmed in the Committee on Public Information. </li></ul><ul><li>Became a important part in America’s Propaganda Campaign at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>MPPC was outlawed in the courts in 1917, thus moving the focus to California. </li></ul>World War I
    16. 16. <ul><li>Defined by studio control over the entire process. </li></ul><ul><li>The technology improved the quality of the final product. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hays Office Code controlled what content could be shown in a movie. </li></ul>“ Golden Years”
    17. 17. <ul><li>Alfred Hitchcock was a horror director that survived in the time of the Hays Office Code by using effective editing techniques. </li></ul>Hitchcock
    18. 18. Orson Welles <ul><li>Orson Welles was famous for his shot composition during “Citizen Kane.” </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>A stable color system allowed for most film to be shot in color. </li></ul><ul><li>The movie houses lost control of their vertical integration (US v. Paramount, 1938) </li></ul><ul><li>3-D, Cinerama and CinemaScope were the technological attempts to regain mindshare with the US Public </li></ul>1950’s and 1960’s
    20. 20. <ul><li>MPAA introduced the film rating system. </li></ul><ul><li>The independent filmmaker became the auteur (author) of their films. </li></ul><ul><li>George Lucas and Steven Spielberg introduced a mythos to the content of films </li></ul>Changes in the 1970’s & 1980’s
    21. 21. <ul><li>Personnel for each film is contracted film to film. </li></ul><ul><li>The aftermarket is a centerpoint to a movie studios revenue stream. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct-to-DVD allows for a by-pass of the theater system. </li></ul>Moviemaking Today
    22. 22. <ul><li>Digital distribution models are being worked out. </li></ul><ul><li>Content will still be repurposed from past media content. </li></ul><ul><li>The issues of piracy remain in the forefront of the movie industry. </li></ul>The Future of Moviemaking