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  1. 1. Ancient Egypt PowerPoint by: James Spillman
  2. 2. Water <ul><li>The Nile River provided fresh water, irrigation, and fertilization. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile was the most important river of Ancient Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Near the Nile R. lived fish, ducks, geese, hippos, crocodiles, giraffes, and ostriches. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Topoography <ul><li>In Egypt there are wide areas of flat land. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Nile River valley there were narrow valleys and hills. </li></ul><ul><li>The vast deserts could be used as protection from invaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt was on the east of the Nile. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vegetation <ul><li>A couple plants in Ancient Egypt were reeds and papyrus, a tough water plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Reeds could be woven into baskets and roofs for houses. Papyrus was used for rope and paper. </li></ul><ul><li>The rich farmland made it easy to grow crops like wheat and barley. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Religion <ul><li>The pharaohs were believed to be gods. </li></ul><ul><li>The pharaohs owned all the land. </li></ul><ul><li>They were responsible for the people. </li></ul><ul><li>People thought there is an afterlife that never ended. </li></ul><ul><li>The pharaohs built monuments to glorify power and success. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pharaoh Khufu <ul><li>He was a builder of famous pyramids. </li></ul><ul><li>He helped establish the pharaoh as central authority. </li></ul><ul><li>He kept control over the food supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Oversaw harvest and stored extra grain. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled a large network of government officials who carried out laws. </li></ul><ul><li>He declared himself a god. </li></ul><ul><li>He Built the great pyramid of Giza. </li></ul><ul><li>He fed thousands of people. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Great Pyramid at Giza <ul><li>It took 20 years to complete. </li></ul><ul><li>It contained 2 million stone blocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Tunnels in the pyramid led to burial chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>It was one of the wonders of the Ancient World. </li></ul><ul><li>Placed at center of huge complex temples, statues, monuments, and smaller tombs. </li></ul>
  8. 8. King Tutankhamen <ul><li>He believed in eternal life. </li></ul><ul><li>He was 18 or 19 when he died. </li></ul><ul><li>Had 2 children and a wife. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed death was a journey across the Nile to eternal life. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pharaoh Hatshepsut <ul><li>She was the first female pharaoh. </li></ul><ul><li>She was known for architecture, art, and trade. </li></ul><ul><li>One of her greatest accomplishments was gaining power. </li></ul><ul><li>Filled government with advisors. </li></ul><ul><li>She spread stories that her father was a god. </li></ul><ul><li>Made a great voyage to trade with Punt. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Temple at Dayr al-Bahri <ul><li>It was built into a cliff over the Nile. </li></ul><ul><li>Had two tall obelisks at the entrance. </li></ul><ul><li>Had 200 sphinx at entrance. </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes of Hatshepsut’s reign decorated walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Carvings depicted the voyage to Punt. </li></ul><ul><li>Carvings also showed things brought back from Punt. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Opet Festival <ul><li>Opet festival was celebrated when the Nile flooded the banks. </li></ul><ul><li>During the festival fieldwork stopped. </li></ul><ul><li>In the festival people celebrated the pharaoh and the god Amon-Re. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Social Class <ul><li>Everyone belonged to a social class. </li></ul><ul><li>The classes together made a social pyramid. </li></ul><ul><li>Top had fewer people and high status. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower had more people and lower status. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Social Pyramid <ul><li>At the top was the pharaoh, Egypt’s supreme ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>Next came government officials and priests. </li></ul><ul><li>Then scribes and artisans. </li></ul><ul><li>And at the bottom were peasants. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Government Officials <ul><li>The officials carried out orders. </li></ul><ul><li>Most came from noble families. </li></ul><ul><li>They had power, wealth, and high quality life. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Priests <ul><li>Were in charge of temples and religious rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>Also made death and burial ceremonies. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Scribes <ul><li>Held a respected position. </li></ul><ul><li>They recorded information for government and religious leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>It took many years to become a scribe. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Artisans <ul><li>Included carpenters, metal-workers, painters, sculptors, and stone carvers. </li></ul><ul><li>They were very skilled but had low status in society. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Peasants <ul><li>They were the largest social class. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants worked the land to provide a steady food supply. </li></ul><ul><li>When not farming they worked on building projects. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Life in Social Classes <ul><li>People usually belong in the same social class as their parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Most had little chance to move up. </li></ul><ul><li>Most married within their social class. </li></ul><ul><li>Children were highly valued. </li></ul><ul><li>Men were the head of the households they worked to support the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Fathers trained their sons at an early age to take on the line of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Women managed the home and raised the children. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower-class women had to do work for themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Women had more rights than most ancient society. </li></ul><ul><li>Could own land, run businesses, ask for divorces, represent themselves in legal matters, and become doctors, government officials, and priestesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher on the social pyramid meant a higher quality life. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Important Government Officials <ul><li>Three of the very important government officials were the vizier, chief treasurer, and general of of the armies. </li></ul><ul><li>The vizier had more power than anyone but the pharaoh. </li></ul><ul><li>He advised the pharaoh and carried out his commands. </li></ul><ul><li>He also as a kind of head judge because judges brought their toughest cases of him. </li></ul><ul><li>He had to be fair and impartial to either side of the case. </li></ul><ul><li>The chief treasurer looked after the goods and money. </li></ul><ul><li>His main task was to collect the taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Egypt’s economical system was based on goods. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Egypt paid their taxes in grain, cloth, silver, and unexpectedly beer. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than the pharaoh the general of the armies was the highest military commander in all of Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>He advised the pharaoh in matters of war and security like how to protect the kingdom from invaders. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Life as a Government Official <ul><li>More important government officials led lives of pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of these people were nobles with large fortunes, luxurious homes, and a large amount of time for family and friends. </li></ul><ul><li>A decent banquet host would provide a great effort to provide only the best food. </li></ul><ul><li>The cooks of these hosts cooked duck, geese, pigeons, quail, antelope, wild sheep, and goats. </li></ul><ul><li>Dishes were filled to the brim with figs, dates, grapes, coconuts, bread, cakes, honey, and a lot of beer and wine. </li></ul><ul><li>Guests dressed in exquisite clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women wore perfume. </li></ul><ul><li>The women wore ropes of beads as necklaces or bracelets. </li></ul>
  22. 22. My Name in Heiroglyphs JAMES