ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH EYE AND VISION DISORDER

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ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH EYE AND VISION DISORDER

  1. 1. Chapter 58Assessment and Management of Patients With Eye and Vision Disorders Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  2. 2. QuestionIs the following statement True or False?Strabismus is involuntary oscillation of the eyeball. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  3. 3. AnswerFalseNystagmus is involuntary oscillation of the eyeball. Strabismus is a condition in which there is deviation from perfect ocular alignment. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  4. 4. External Structures of the Eye Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  5. 5. Extraocular Muscles Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  6. 6. Visual Pathways Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  7. 7. Cross-Section of the Eye Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  8. 8. Internal Structures of the Eye• Refer to fig. 58-4 Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  9. 9. Assessment and Evaluation of Vision• Ocular history• Visual acuity – Snellen chart • Record each eye • 20/20 means the patient can read the “20” line at a distance of 20 feet• Finger count or hand motion Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  10. 10. Examination of the External Structures• Note any evidence of irritation, inflammatory process, discharge, etc.• Assess eyelids and sclera• Assess pupils and pupillary response; use darkened room• Note gaze and position of eyes• Assess extraocular movements• Ptosis: drooping eyelid• Nystagmus: oscillating movement of eyeball Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  11. 11. Diagnostic Evaluation• Ophthalmoscopy – Direct and indirect – Examines the cornea, lens and retina• Slit-lamp examination• Color vision testing• Amsler grid• Ultrasonography• Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  12. 12. Diagnostic Evaluation• Tonometry – Measures intraocular pressure• Gonioscopy – Visualizes the angle of the anterior chamber• Perimetry testing – Evaluates field of vision – Scotomas: blind areas in the visual field Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  13. 13. Impaired Vision• Refractive errors – Can be corrected by lenses which focus light rays on the retina• Emmetropia: normal vision• Myopia: nearsighted• Hyperopia: farsighted• Astigmatism: distortion due to irregularity of the cornea Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  14. 14. Eyeball shape determines visual acuity inrefractive errors Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  15. 15. Glaucoma• A group of ocular conditions in which damage to the optic nerve is related to increased intraocular pressure (IOP) caused by congestion of the aqueous humor• The leading cause of blindness in adults in the U.S.• Incidence increases with age• Risk factors Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  16. 16. Pathophysiology of Glaucoma• Normal Outflow of Aqueous • In glaucoma, aqueous Humor production and drainage are not in balance.• Refer to fig. 58-7 • When aqueous outflow is blocked, pressure builds up in the eye. • Increased IOP causes irreversible mechanical and/or ischemic damage. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  17. 17. Types of Glaucoma• Open-angle – Chronic open angle glaucoma – Normal tension glaucoma – Ocular hypertension• Angle-closure (pupillary block) glaucoma – Acute angle-closure – Subacute angle-closure – Chronic angle-closure• Congenital glaucomas and glaucoma secondary to other conditions Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  18. 18. Clinical Manifestations• “Silent thief”; unaware of the condition until there is significant vision loss; peripheral vision loss, blurring, halos, difficulty focusing, difficulty adjusting eyes to low lighting• May also have aching or discomfort around eyes or headache Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  19. 19. Diagnostic Findings• Tonometry to assess IOP • Progression of visual field defects• Gonioscopy to assess the angle of the anterior • Refer to fig. 58.8 chamber• Perimetry to assess vision loss Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  20. 20. Treatment• Goal is to prevent further optic nerve damage• Maintain IOP within a range unlikely to cause damage• Pharmacologic therapy• Surgery – Laser tribeculoplasty – Laser iridotomy – Filtering procedures – Tribeculectomy – Drainage implants or shunts Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  21. 21. Nursing Management• Patient education.• Focus on maintaining the therapeutic regimen for lifelong control of a chronic condition.• Emphasize the need for adherence to therapy and continued care to prevent further vision loss.• Provide education regarding use and effects of medications.• Medications used for glaucoma may cause vision alterations and other side effects. The action and effects of medications need to be explained to promote compliance.• Provide support and interventions to aid the patient in adjusting to vision loss/potential vision loss. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  22. 22. Cataracts• An opacity or cloudiness of the lens• Increased incidence with aging; by age 80 more than half of all Americans have cataracts• A leading cause of disability in the U.S.• Risk factors Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  23. 23. Cataract Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  24. 24. Clinical Manifestations• Painless, blurry vision• Sensitivity to glare• Reduced visual acuity• Other effects include myopic shift, astigmatism, diplopia (double vision), and color shifts including brunescens (color value shift to yellow-brown)• Diagnostic findings include decreased visual acuity and opacity of the lens by ophthalmoscope, slit-lamp, or inspection Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  25. 25. Surgical Management• If reduced vision does not interfere with normal activities, surgery is not needed.• Surgery is preformed on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia.• Surgery usually takes less than 1 hour and patients are discharged soon afterward.• Complications are rare but may be significant. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  26. 26. Types of Cataract Surgery• Intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE): removes entire lens, rarely done today• Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE): maintains the posterior capsule of the lens, reducing potential postoperative complications• Phacoemuslification: an ECCE which uses an ultrasonic device to suction the lens out through a tube; incision is smaller than with standard ECCE• Lens replacement: after removal of the lens by ICCE or ECCE, the surgeon inserts an intraocular lens implant (IOL). This eliminates the need for aphakic lenses, however, the patient may still require glasses. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  27. 27. Nursing Management• Preoperative care• Usual preoperative care for ambulatory surgery• Dilating eye drops or other medications as ordered• Postoperative care• Patient teaching• Provide written and verbal instructions• Instruct patient to call physician immediately if vision changes; continuous flashing lights appear; redness, swelling, or pain increase; type and amount of drainage increases; or significant pain is not relieved by acetaminophen Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  28. 28. Corneal Disorders• Treatment of diseased corneal tissue – Phototherapeutic keratectomy – Keratoplasty – Use of donor tissue for transplant – Need for follow-up and support – Potential graft failure; teach signs and symptoms• Refractive surgery – Elective procedures to recontour corneal tissue and correct refractive errors – Patient need counseling regarding potential benefits, risks, and complications. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  29. 29. LASIK• Refer to fig. 58-10 Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  30. 30. Retinal Disorders• Retinal detachment• Retinal vascular disorders – Central retina vein occlusion – Branch retinal vein collusion – Central retinal vein occlusion – Macular degeneration Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  31. 31. Retinal Detachment• Separation of the sensory retina and the RPE (retinal pigment epithelium)• Manifestations: sensation of a shade or curtain coming across the vision of one eye, bright flashing lights, sudden onset of floaters• Diagnostic findings: assess visual acuity, assessment of retina by indirect ophthalmoscope, slit-lamp, stereo fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography. Tomography and ultrasound may also be used Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  32. 32. Retinal Detachment Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  33. 33. Surgical Treatment• Scleral buckle• Pars plana vitrectomy – Removal of vitreous locating the incisions at the pars plana – Frequently used in combination with other procedures• Pneumatic retinoplexy – Injected gas bubble, liquid, or oil is used is used to flatten the sensory retina against the RPE – Postoperative positioning is critical Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  34. 34. Scleral Buckle Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  35. 35. Nursing Management• Patient teaching – Eye surgery is most often done as an outpatient procedure so patient education is vital – Signs and symptoms of complications, especially increased IOP and infection• Promote comfort• Patient may need to lie in a special position with pneumatic retinoplexy Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  36. 36. Retinal Vein or Artery Occlusion• Loss of vision can occur from retinal vein or artery occlusion• Occlusions may result from atherosclerosis, cardiac valvular disease, venous stasis, hypertension, or increased blood viscosity; and associated risk factors are diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, and aging.• Patient may report decreased visual acuity or sudden loss of vision Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  37. 37. Macular Degeneration• Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)• The most common cause of vision loss in persons older than age 60• Types – Dry or nonexudative type; most common, 85–90% • Slow breakdown of the layers of the retinal with the appearance of drusen – Wet type • May have abrupt onset • Proliferation of abnormal blood vessels growing under the retina—choroidal revascularization (CNV) Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  38. 38. Vision Loss Associated with MacularDegeneration• Refer to fig. 58-15 Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  39. 39. Retina Showing Drusen and AMD Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  40. 40. Progression of AMD: Pathways to VisionLoss Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  41. 41. Photodynamic Therapy for SlowingProgression of AMD• Light-sensitive verteporfin dye is injected into vessels. A laser then activates the dye, shutting down the vessels without damaging the retina.• The result is to slow or stabilize vision loss.• Patient must avoid exposure to sunlight or bright light for 5 days after treatment to avoid activation of dye in vessels near the surface of the skin. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  42. 42. Nursing Management• Patient teaching• Supportive care• Promote safety• Recommendations to improve lighting, magnification devices, and referral to vision center to improve/promote function Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  43. 43. Trauma• Prevention of injury• Patient and public education• Emergency treatment – Flush chemical injuries – Do not remove foreign objects – Protect using metal shield or paper cup• Potential for sympathetic ophthalmia causing blindness in the uninjured eye with some injuries Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  44. 44. Protective Eye Patches Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  45. 45. Infectious and Inflammatory disorders• Dry eye syndrome• Conjunctivitis (“pink eye”) – Classified by cause—bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, allergic, toxic – Viral conjunctivitis is contagious• Uveitis• Orbital cellulitis Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  46. 46. Hyperemia in Viral Conjunctivitis Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  47. 47. Ocular Consequences of Systemic Disease• Diabetic retinopathy – Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness in people age 20–74• Ophthalmic complications associated with AIDS• Eye changes associated with hypertension Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  48. 48. Ophthalmic Medications• Ability of the eye to absorb medication is limited.• Barriers to absorption include the size of the conjunctival sac, corneal membrane barriers, blood-ocular barriers, and tearing, blinking, and drainage• Intraocular injection or systemic medication may be needed to treat some eye structures or to provide high concentrations of medication.• Topical medications (drops and ointments) are most frequently used because they are least invasive, have fewest side effects, and permit self administration. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  49. 49. Ophthalmic Medications• Topical anesthetics• Mydriatics (dilate) and cycloplegics (paralyze) – Contraindicated with narrow angles or shallow anterior chambers and inpatients on monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressant – May cause CNS symptoms and increased BP especially in children or the elderly• Anti-infective medications – Antibiotic, antifungal, or antiviral products Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  50. 50. Ophthalmic Medications• Medications used for glaucoma – Increase aqueous outflow or decrease aqueous production – May constrict the pupil and may affect ability to focus the lens of the eye; affects vision – May also may produce systemic effects• Anti-inflammatory drugs; corticosteroid suspensions – Side effects of long-term topical steroids include glaucoma, cataracts, and increased risk of infection. To avoid these effects, oral NSAID therapy may be used as an alternate to steroid use Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  51. 51. Low Vision and Blindness• Low vision – Visional impairment that requires devices and strategies in addition to corrective lenses – Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/70 to 20/200• Blindness – BCVA 20/400 to no light perception – Legal blindness is BCVA that does not exceed 20/200 in better eye or widest filed of vision is 20 degrees or less• Impaired vision often is accompanied by functional impairment Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  52. 52. Assessment of Low Vision• History• Examination of distance and near visual acuity, visual field, contrast sensitivity, glare, color perception, and refraction• Special charts may be used for low vision• Nursing assessment must include assessment of functional ability, and coping and adaptation in emotional, physical, and social areas Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  53. 53. Management• Support coping strategies, grief processes and acceptance of visual loss• Strategies for adaptation to the environment – Placement of items in room – “Clock method” for trays• Communication strategies• Collaboration with low-vision specialist, occupational therapy or other resources• Braille or other methods for reading/communication• Service animals Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  54. 54. Safety Measures and Teaching• Patient teaching is a vital nursing intervention for patient with eye and vision disorders• Prevention of eye injuries; education• Safety strategies for patients with low vision in the hospital and home setting• Patient teaching after eye surgery or trauma – Potential complications – Loss of binocular vision with patch or vision impairment of one eye; safety – Use of eye patch and shield Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  55. 55. QuestionWhich medication is administered for glaucoma, uveitis, or after surgery?A.AtropineB.CyclopentolateC.PhenylephrineD.Tropicamide Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  56. 56. AnswerAA.The medication that is administered for glaucoma, uveitis, or after surgery is atropine. Cyclopentolate, phenylephrine, and tropicamide are administered for pupillary dilation for opthalmoscopy and surgical procedures. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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