{deof Am{W©H$ joÌ
bmoH$V§Ì na KmVH$ h_bm !




     Z¡eZb g{ÝQ>a $m°a ES>dm{H$gr ñQS>rO
                                  ...
{deof Am{W©H$ joÌ - bmoH$V§Ì na KmVH$ h_bm!
boIZ Ed§ g§nmXZ :
_mZer Amea, [a$V _w_VmμO$
g§nmXZ gh`moJ$ :
g§O` g§JdB©, _{V`...
AZwH«$_

1. àñVmdZm ----------------------------------- 5

2. Am{W©H$ Am¡a Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ- ZdCn{ZdoedmXr Xm¡a _| ---------...
4
àñVmdZm

       {nN>co 50 gmcm| _| {díd ~mμOma Ho$ {dH$mg Ho$ g~go Img cjUm| _| go EH$ h¡, "{dH$mgerc'
Xoem| _| Am{W©H$ jo...
{ZOr H$ånZr`m| Zo ñWmZr` g_wXm`m| Ho$ {damoY Ho$ ~mdOyX ~hþV gmar IoVr H$s Am¡a VQ>r` μO_rZ
A{YJ«{hV H$aZo H$s H$mo{ee| Om...
amoeZr S>mcZo H$m n«`mg {H$`m J`m h¡& Mm¡Wo ^mJ _| AcJ-AcJ àXoem| _| ~Z aho EgB©μOoS> Ho$
{dH$mg Am¡a CZHo$ {damoY H$mo gm...
8
Am{W©H$ Am¡a Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ
    ZdCn{ZdoedmXr Xm¡a _| Cn{ZdoedmXr
                {damgV


I     Xw{Z`m _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| H...
e¡ZZ : {díd H$m nhcm EgB©μOoS>
                             AQ>cm§{Q>H$ gmJa H$mo nma H$aHo$ OmZo dmco OhmμO B§YZ ny{V© Ho...
d¡œrH$aU Ho$ H$maU _wº$ ì`mnma joÌ ~ZZo cJo&

e¡ZZ (Am`ac¢S>) Ho$ VOw~©o Ho$ ~mX g§`wº$ amï´> g§K Zo ^r {díd
{Z`m© V n« g ...
{H$`m& gaH$mar àñVmdm| _| μO_rZ Am¡a nmZr na H$am|, Am`mV
                             (~mha Xoem| go IarXm J`m CËnmX) Am¡...
Vrgar Xw{Z`m Ho$ {Z`m©V CËnmXZ _| 61 à{VeV `moJXmZ BZ Xoem| H$m Wm O~{H$ AHo$co B§S>moZo{e`m,
_co{e`m Am¡a WmB©c¢S> H$s {V...
BZ joÌm| _| `y{Z`Z| ~ZZo H$s Xa ^r ~hþV Yr_r h¡Ÿ&

                           _opŠgH$mo Ho$ _{H$cmS>moamμO H$ho OmZo dmco ...
B©nrμOoS> _| _yë` g§dY©Z H$s Am¡gV dm{f©H$ {dH$mg Xa Ho$dc 2.9%
   Wr& BgH$m _Vc~ `h h¡ {H$ BZ joÌm| _| H$m_ H$aZo dmcr H§...
EgB©μOoS> _|
                                Zr{V Ho bmJy hmoVo hr 2000 _| Mma {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ/
{XbMñnr aIZo dmbo     ...
nhco go hr H$m_ H$a aho Wo&

       A~ gdmc CR>Vm h¡ {H$ O~ g^r amÁ`m| _| Zr{V`m± h¢ Am¡a do CÝh|
AnZm ^r aho h¢ Vmo EH$ "...
_§Oyar, H|$Ð _| dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` _| ~moS©> Am°°$ Aàydëg XoJm d amÁ` _|
                          {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$s AJwdmB© _|...
μO~aXñV ~‹T>moVar XO© H$s JB© h¡& Bg VOw~©o H$m BñVo_mc `h VH©$ XoZo
Ho$ {cE ^r {H$`m J`m h¡ {H$ gyMZm àm¡Úmo{JH$s H«$m§{V...
^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ {cE AmH$f©U
    {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Ho$ {Z_m©U (construction) goŠQ>a H$s BH$mB`m| _| Am°°Q>m...
SEZ n«ñVmdm| H$mo Xr JB© _§Oyar (AŠVy~a 06 VH$ H$s amÁ`dma gyMr)

A.    amÁ` H$o Zm_            Am¡nMm[aH$         g¡Õm§{V...
^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| na
                       {N>‹S>r ~hg Am¡a {damoY



      ^maV _| EgB©μOoS> H$s AmbmoMZm Am¡a...
g~go nhco Vmo SEZ Am¡a EPZ _| VwcZm H$s JB© h¡& {Og_| `h gdmc CR>mE JE -
         · B©nrμOoS> Ho$ H$m_H$mO Am¡a {Z`m©V ~‹T...
•   {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Zr{V _| BH$mB`m| H$mo {Z`m©V Ho$ Acmdm Kaocy
     g^r hmcmV _|,
  EgB©μOoS _| μÁ`mXm          ~mμOma...
{dXoer {Zdoe {Z`m©V H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZo Ho$ ~Om` Kaocy ~mOμma Ho$ {cE hþAm
h¡&5
   ^maV _| BZ joÌm| H$s Oê$aV na cJmVma e§H$...
{dH$mgerc Xoem| _|,
                        {Xem-{ZX©oe XoZo na μOmoa {X`m Wm&6
   AmB©Q>r godmAm| _|
       AmE CN>mc go
...
II. O_rZ H$m gdmc
      ^maV Am¡a MrZ O¡go Xoem| _| Am¡Úmo{JH$ n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ {cE
J«m_rU BcmH$m| _| ~‹So> n¡_mZo na IoVr...
Xygam ~`mZ Omo dm{UÁ` _§Ìr AŠga XmohamVo aho h¢, dh h¡ amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo A{YJ«hU H$s
à{H«$`m go Xya ahZo H$s μOê$aV Am¡a ...
àH$ma H$m H$moB© AZw_mZ hr Zht {H$`m h¡ na `h Oê$a H$hm h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS IoVr _| BñVo_mc Z
hmoZo dmcr μO_rZ na cJ gH$Vo h¡&...
nÅ>m `m _m{cH$mZm Z hmoZo H$s dOh go, Jm±d dmcm| Ho$ nmg gm¡X~mμOr
                                                       ...
8
                {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Ho$ {cE amï´>r` nwZdm©g Zr{V 2006
  {nN>co 20 gmcm|§ _| nwZdm©g Zr{V Ho$ H$B© _gm¡Xo A...
go nhco Z`r n[a`moOZmAm| (63 A{Ygy{MV n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ Acmdm {OZH$mo CZH$s gaH$ma Zo
nhco hr _§Oyar Xo Xr h¡) H$mo _§Oyar ...
g|Q>a $m°a Q´>oS> `y{Z`Ýg (grQy>) Ûmam 2002 _| Am`mo{OV B©nrμOoS>/EgB©μOoS> H$_©Mm[a`m| Ho$
       EH$ A{Ic ^maVr` gå_ocZ ...
IV   {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| _| n`m©daU g§~§Yr _wÔo
      A^r Ohm± ~S>μr g§»`m _| AmZo dmco EgB©μOoS n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ n`m©daU ...
H|$Ð Ûmam _§Oya H$s OmZo dmcr loUr A Ho$ A§VJ©V “Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ (EgB©μOoS>) H$m `{X EH$
      CÚmoJ ^r loUr A _| AmVm h¡ V...
"EH$c-{I‹S>H$s _§Oyar' (single window clearance) H$s ì`dñWm Ho$ H$maU amÁ` Ho$ ñVa
     na g^r EgB©μOoS BH$mB`m| H$mo _§Oy...
V   àemgZ Am¡a ñdemgZ Ho$ _wÔo
      ^maVr` g§{dYmZ Ho$ AZwÀNo>X 243Q Ho$ I§S> 1 Am¡a >EgB©μOoS
H$mZyZ 2005 Ho$ ^mJ 3.2 _|...
BZgo g§~§{YV gmar {eH$m`V| Ho$dc amÁ` gaH$ma Ûmam {ZYm©[aV H$moQ©> _| hr Xm`a H$s Om gH$Vr
h¢& `o Ho$dc {g{dc Am¡a EgB©μOo...
^maV _| O~ H$^r
                                                                          MrZr Am{W©H$ VOw~©}
            ...
ZmBH$s O¡gr ~‹S>r H§$n{Z`m§ g^r MrZr l_ H$m BñVo_mc H$aVr h¢&
                         CXmhaU Ho$ Vm¡a na {g©$ ZmBH$s Ho$ ...
eharH$aU go C^ar g_ñ`mE§ Am¡a gm_m{OH$ {damoY - {dœ ~¢H$ Ho$ EH$ AÜ``Z _| nm`m J`m
  h¡ {H$ EH$ {dH$mgerc Xoe _| à{V ì`{º$...
J«m_rU Ed§ ehar ~oamoOJmar-      1978    go 2000 Ho$ ~rM J«m_rU
                          Am_XZr N>h JwZm ~‹T>r, co{H$Z `h...
H§$n{Z`m± Á`mXmVa J«m_rU BcmH$m| Ho$ àdmgr `wdmAm| H$mo H$m_ na
aIVr h¢& Š`m|{H$ `o AcJ-WcJ ahVo h¢, VwcZmË_H$ ê$n go H$_ ...
Am¡a aoc _mJm] Ho$ {Z_m©U Ho$ {cE hñ§VmV[aV H$aZo Ho$ H$maU MrZ _| IoVr H$s μO_rZ H$_
       (cJ^J 20% H$s H$_r) ah JB© h¡...
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
SEZ Hit on Democracy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

SEZ Hit on Democracy

1,515 views

Published on

this tell about reality of SEZ

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,515
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

SEZ Hit on Democracy

  1. 1. {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ bmoH$V§Ì na KmVH$ h_bm ! Z¡eZb g{ÝQ>a $m°a ES>dm{H$gr ñQS>rO μ 1
  2. 2. {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ - bmoH$V§Ì na KmVH$ h_bm! boIZ Ed§ g§nmXZ : _mZer Amea, [a$V _w_VmμO$ g§nmXZ gh`moJ$ : g§O` g§JdB©, _{V`g ^|Jam AZwdmX : `moJe nmbrdmb o gh`moJ : _Yw_§Vr, g§nV H$mbo {gH§$Xa Hw$edmhm, í`m_bVm Mmha, _¡Ìo`r XogmB© grarO E{S>Q>a : A{_Vm^ ~ohma H$ìha {S>μOmB©Z : OwZwH$m Xoenm§S>o _wÐH$ : AemoH$ XmZdo, {H«$EQ>g© 759/97 gr, à^mV amoS>, nwUo 4 àH$meH$ : Z¡eZb goÝQ>a $m°a ES>>dmoH$gr ñQ>S>rμO goao{ZQ>r H$m°åßboŠg, am_ZJa H$mbmoZr, nmfmU, nwUo 411 021. _hmamï´> $moZ : 020-22952003/4 B-_ob : ncas@vsnl.com Bg XñVmdoμO H$mo OZg§JR>Z, OZ{hV _o§ H$m_ do~gmBQ> : www.ncasindia.org H$aZo dmbr g§ñWmAm| Ed§ ì`{º$`mo§ Ûmam d{Hª$J nona grarμO 25 OZ{hV Ho$ H$m`m] Ho$ {bE Cn`moJ {H$`m Om àH$meZ : $adar 2007 gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& H¥$n`m Cn`moJ H$aZo na àH$meH$ g§ñWm H$m Zm_ {ZX}e {H$`m OmE & {ZOr {dVaU Ho$ {bE 2
  3. 3. AZwH«$_ 1. àñVmdZm ----------------------------------- 5 2. Am{W©H$ Am¡a Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ- ZdCn{ZdoedmXr Xm¡a _| ---------- 9 Cn{ZdoedmXr {damgV I Xw{Z`m _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$m B{Vhmg II. ^maVr` g§X^© _| EgB©μOoS> III. ^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ : _m¡OyXm ñdê$n 3. ^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| na {N>‹S>r ~hg Am¡a {damoY --------- 22 I. EgB©μOoS> Ho$ Am{W©H$ VH©$ na CRo> gdmc II. μO_rZr g§Kf©, {damoY Am¡a H$m`©H$Vm©Am| Ho$ Ûmam CR>mE JE _wÔo III _μOXyam| Ho$ emofU Ho$ _wÔo IV {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| _| n`m©daU g§~§Yr _wÔo V àemgZ Am¡a ñdemgZ Ho$ _wÔo 4. MrZ _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ - MH$mMm¢Y Ho$ nrNo> H$s Ag{c`V ----- 39 5. {d{^ÝZ amÁ`m| _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm§ H$moo coH$a Ja_m`m _mhm¡c ---- 45 6. {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ - {dZme H$s amOZr{V, {dH$mg H$m ^«_ ------ 64 n[a{eï> ------------------------------------- 69 I 13 {Xg§~a 06 VH$ A{Ygy{MV {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$s gyMr II {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ na dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` Ûmam n«ñVwV OmZH$m[a`m§ III g§nH©$ gyMr 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. àñVmdZm {nN>co 50 gmcm| _| {díd ~mμOma Ho$ {dH$mg Ho$ g~go Img cjUm| _| go EH$ h¡, "{dH$mgerc' Xoem| _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$m {Z_m©U& BÝh| _wº$ ì`mnma joÌ («$s Q>´>oS μOmoZ>FTZ), {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ EŠñnmoQ>© àmogo{g§J μOmoZ (B©μnrOoS>) Am¡a AmOH$c {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ (Special Economic Zone 'EgB©μOoS>.' /goO ) H$hm OmVm h¡& A_o[aH$s l_ {d^mJ Ho$ EH$ AÜ``Z _| B©μnrOoS> Ho$ {cE 19 μ eãX {XE JE h¢, {OZHo$ cjU nyar Xw{Z`m _| dmñVd _| EH$ O¡go hr h¢&1 `o joÌ Am¡Úmo{JH$ CËnmXZ H$mo nyar Xw{Z`m Am¡a Kaocy ~mμOma _| InmZo Ho$ {cE ^m¡Jmo{cH$ `m ^m¡{VH$ ê$n go {MpÝhV {deof Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ hmoVo h¢& BZH$s Im{g`V hmoVr h¡ BZ joÌm| _| ñWm{nV hmoZo dmcr BH$mB`m| H$mo {_cZo dmcr H$am| H$s ^mar Ny>Q>& BgHo$ Acmdm l_ Am¡a n`m©daU g§~§Yr {Z`_m| H$s J¡a-_m¡OyXJr BZHo$ {cE gw{ZpíMV H$s OmVr h¡ & BZH$m A§{V_ cú` hmoVm h¡, ~hþamï´>r` Am¡a Kaocy {ZJ_m| H$mo Bg Cå_rX _| {Zdoe Ho$ {cE AmH${f©V H$aZm {H$ do Cg Xoe Ho$ Am{W©H$ {dH$mg _| `moJXmZ X|Jo& {nN>co H$B© gmcm| _| `o joÌ ImgH$a Jar~ Xoem| _| "Aën{dH$mg’ Am¡a ~oamoμOJmar H$s g_ñ`m Ho$ OmXwB© g_mYmZ Ho$ ê$n _| C^a H$a AmE h¢& Bgr g_mYmZ H$mo cmJy H$aZo H$s H$mo{ee _| ^maV gaH$ma Zo {nN>co 45 gmcm| _| 8 amÁ`m| _| {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ (B©μnrOoS>) ~ZmE& BZgo hþE {dH$mg Am¡a {Zdoe Ho$ Xa go Ag§Vwï> hmoZo Ho$ H$maU d 1990 Ho$ XeH$ _| Am{W©H$ Zr{V`m| Ho$ CXmarH$aU Ho$ gmW gaH$ma Zo n«Ë`j {dXoer {Zdoe na μOmoa XoZm ewê$ {H$`m& gZ² 2000 _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ {cE ~ZmB© JB© ZB© Zr{V Bgr {gc{gco H$s EH$ H$‹S>r h¡& 2005 _| EgB©μOoS> Zr{V H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZo Ho$ {cE EH$ H|$Ðr` H$mZyZ "{deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ 2005' cm`m J`m {OgHo$ AmZo Ho$ ~mX H|$Ð Ho$ ñVa na dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` Zo EH$ gmc go ^r H$_ g_` _| ({Xg§~a 2006 VH$) Xoe _| 237 EgB©μOoS> àñVmdm| H$mo BOmμOV Xo Xr h¡& XoIVo hr XoIVo EgB©μOoS> Ho$ _wÔo na EH$ μO~aXñV ~hg {N>>‹S> JB© – O~ amÁ` gaH$mam| Am¡a 5
  6. 6. {ZOr H$ånZr`m| Zo ñWmZr` g_wXm`m| Ho$ {damoY Ho$ ~mdOyX ~hþV gmar IoVr H$s Am¡a VQ>r` μO_rZ A{YJ«{hV H$aZo H$s H$mo{ee| Omar aIr; O~ AW©em{ó`m| Am¡a {dícofH$m| Zo BZHo$ Am{W©H$ VH©$ na cJmVma gdmc CR>mE Am¡a BÝh| ar`c EñQo>Q> Ho$ KmoQ>mco H$ama {X`m; O~ dm_n§Wr Xcm| Zo _μOXyam| Ho$ A{YH$mam| H$s ajm Ho$ {cE H$mZyZ _| g§emoYZ H$s _m±J H$s Am¡a O~ OZ A{YH$ma H$m`©H$Vm©Am| Zo 2005 Ho$ {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ A{Y{Z`_ go Xoe H$s g§à^wVm Am¡a cmoH$Vm§{ÌH$ ~ZmdQ> H$mo IVam hmoZo H$m _wÔm CR>m`m& 2006 Ho$ IË_ hmoVo-hmoVo Eg.B©.μOoS>. Ho$ {cE O~aZ ^y-A{YJ«hU Ho$ {Icmμ$ _hmamï´>, h[a`mUm Am¡a CËVan«Xoe _| {H$gmZm| Ho$ {damoY go _mhm¡c J_m©© MwH$m Wm& OZdar 2007 _| Z§XrJ«m_, npíM_ ~§Jmc _| hþE ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mo coH$a EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {Icm$ {damoY Am¡a qhgH$ P‹S>n Ho$ ~mdOyX amÁ` gaH$ma H$m ê$I ñWmZr` g_wXm`m| Ho$ à{V Ag§doXZerc ahm& EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {Icm$ CRo> gdmcm| Zo Z {g©$ npíM_ ~§Jmc H$s gaH$ma na X~md ~Zm`m, ~pëH$ H|$X« gaH$ma H$mo ^r EgB©μOoS> na nwZ©{dMma H$aZo H$mo _O~ya {H$`m& gmW hr n§Om~, CÎmamI§S> Am¡a CÎma n«Xoe _| AmZo dmco _hrZm| _| hmoZo dmco MwZmdm| Zo ^r _w»` amOZr{VH$ Xcm| H$mo EgB©μOoS> Am¡a Cggo Ow‹So> _wX²Xm| na AnZm nj aIZo _| gV©H$ H$a {X`m h¡& BgHo$ A{V[aŠV Xoe Ho$ n«YmZ_§Ìr lr. _Z_mohZ qgh Zo ^r A§VV… _O~yar _| `h ~`mZ {X`m h¡ {H$ nwZdm©g Zr{V Ho$ AmZo go nhco Z`r n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo _§Oyar Zht Xo§Jo& dmñVd _o§ EgB©μOoS> Zr{V go CRo> {ddmX H$s amOZr{V Š`m h¡ ? `h XñVmdoμO Bg gdmc Ho$ Odm~ Ho$ {d{^ÝZ njm| H$mo g_PZo H$m EH$ n«`mg h¡μ& BgH$m CÔoí` nyao Xoe _| EgB©μOoS> Ho$ Zm_ na {ZaW©H$ Am¡Úmo{JH$ Zr{V`m| Am¡a H$mZyZm| H$mo MwZm¡Vr XoZo Ho$ {cE ~Z aho _mhm¡c H$m Ñ{ï>H$moU ~VmZm h¡& Hw$N> cmoJm| Ho$ $m`Xo Ho$ {cE Am{W©H$ {dH$mg Ho$ Zm_ na h_mao g_mO Ho$ Jar~ V~H$m| Ho$ Am{W©H$, gm_m{OH$ Am¡a n`m©daU g§~§Yr A{YH$mam| H$mo ~oMZo na `h XñVmdoO gdmc CR>mVm h¡& XñVmdoμO Ho$ nhco ^mJ _|, ~hþV g§jon _|, Xw{Z`m _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ {dH$mg Am¡a `h Zr{V AnZmZo dmco Xoem| _| H$m_ H$aZo dmco nhcyAm| na àH$me S>mcZo H$s H$mo{ee H$s JB© h¡& Xygao ^mJ _|, ^maV Ûmam MrZ _| cmJy {H$`o JE EgB©μOoS> Ho$ _m°S>c H$mo AnZmZo Am¡a EgB©μOoS> H$mZyZ Ho$ g§X^© _| A^r Ho$ hmcmV na MMm© H$s JB© h¡& Vrgao ^mJ _| gaH$ma Ho$ nj Am¡a VH$m] Ho$ gmW-gmW CZHo$ {dnj Ho$ VH$m] H$mo gm_Zo aIZo H$m n«`mg {H$`m h¡& nyao Xoe Ho$ OZ A{YH$ma g§JR>Zm| Am¡a g_wXm`m| Ûmam EgB©μOoS> H$mZyZ Ho$ g§X^© _| μOm{ha H$s JB© qMVmAm| H$m {dñVma go {dícofU ^r {H$`m h¡& {nN>co 20 gmcm| _| MrZ Ho$ Am{W©H$ {dH$mg Ho$ dhm§ Ho$ cmoJm| Am¡a n`m©daU na hþE n«^mdm| na 6
  7. 7. amoeZr S>mcZo H$m n«`mg {H$`m J`m h¡& Mm¡Wo ^mJ _| AcJ-AcJ àXoem| _| ~Z aho EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {dH$mg Am¡a CZHo$ {damoY H$mo gm_Zo aIZo H$m n«`mg {H$`m h¡& XñVmdoμO H$mo {cIZo Ho$ Xm¡amZ EgB©μOoS> Ho$ _wX²Xo na ~Zr h_mar g_P Am¡a {d{^ÝZ OZ Am§XmocZm| Ûmam CR>mE JE gdmcm| H$mo Am{Iar ^mJ "EgB©μOoS> H$s amOZr{V - {dH$mg H$m ^«_' _| g_oQ>m J`m h¡& h_| Cå_rX h¡ {H$ `h XñVmdoμO EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {damoY _| Mc aho Am§XmocZm| Am¡a Bg _wX²Xo na {N>‹S>r ~hg H$mo _μO~yVr XoJm& Bg XñVmdoμO Ho$ _mÜ`_ go EgB©μOoS> Am¡a Cggo Ow‹S>r hþB© _hËdnyU© OmZH$m[a`m| H$mo Á`mXm go Á`mXm cmoJm| Am¡a OZ g_whm| VH$ nhþ§MmZo H$s H$mo{ee H$s J`r h¡& _mZer Amea [a$V _w_VmμO 1 Á`m§-nm°c _¡hm©oμO Am¡a _mg©ocm {Oμ_m§ñH$s H$s AmB©grE$Q>r`y [anmoQ©> -{~hmB§S> X dm`a- E§Q>r `y{Z`Z [aàoeZ BZ X EŠgnmoQ©> àmogoqgJ μOmoÝg-Aà¡c 1996 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. Am{W©H$ Am¡a Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ ZdCn{ZdoedmXr Xm¡a _| Cn{ZdoedmXr {damgV I Xw{Z`m _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$m B{Vhmg `{X h_ Bg {dMma H$mo Cn{ZdoedmXr `wJ Ho$ nwamZo Cn{Zdoem| Ho$ {cE n¡Xm hþAm Zht _mZ|, Vmo AcJ go Am{W©H$ joÌ ~ZmZo H$m {dMma 20 dt gXr Ho$ _Ü` _| Am`m Wm& A§Va {Z{üV ê$n go `hr h¡ {H$ n{hbm Cn{ZdoerH$aU $m¡O H$s VmH$V go hþAm Wm Ohm± Am¡Úmo{JH$ ê$n go {dH${gV `yamo{n`Z Xoem| Zo AnZo Am{W©H$ {hVm| Am¡a amOZr{VH$ X~X~o Ho$ {cE N>moQo> Am¡a Jar~ Xoemo§ na hþHy$_V H$s Wr& ZE Cn{ZdoedmXr Xm¡a _|, `o Am{W©H$ joÌ Xoe Ho$ ^rVa N>moQo> {dXoer n[ajoÌ hmoVo h¢Ÿ& d¡pídH$ Am{W©H$ T>m±Mo _| BÝh| T>mcZo Ho$ {cE "Zr{V`mo§' H$m dmVmdaU ~ZmZm, CXmarH$aU Ho$ `wJ _|, $m¡Or VmH$V H$m EH$ {dH$ën h¡ Omo "Vrgar "AZw^dhrZ {dXoer Xw{Z`m' Ho$ Xoem| H$s gaH$ma| ñd§` AnZm ahr h¢& {ZdoeH$ Ho$ {cE `h d¡gm hr h¡ O¡gm {H$ AmB©EcAmo H$s [anmoQ©> Ho$ AZwgma nhcm A{YH¥$V Am{W©H$ joÌ EH$ gVH©$ n`©Q>H$ Ho$ ñnoZ _| 1929 _| ~Zm& AmB©grE$Q>r`y (B§Q>aZ°ebZ H$Ýo$S>aoeZ Am°$ {cE n¡Ho$O hm°{cSo> {«$ Q´>oS> `w{Z`Ýg) H$s EH$ [anmoQ©> Ho$ AZwgma, ImgVm¡a na {Z`m©V hmoVm h¡' Am{W©H$ CËnmXZ Ho$ {cE nhcm {Z`m©V (Xoe Ho$ ~mha ~oMm OmZo dmbm CËnmX) joÌm| na A§Va©mï´>r` àg§ñH$aU joÌ (B©μnrOoS>)"1960 Ho$ XeH$ H$s ewéAmV _| Am`ac¢S> l_ g§JR>Z H$s Ho$ e¡ZZ hdmB©AÈo> Ho$ Amgnmg Ho$ joÌ _| ewê$ hþAm& Bgo Zm¡H$[a`m| Ho$ [anmoQ©>Ÿ& 9
  10. 10. e¡ZZ : {díd H$m nhcm EgB©μOoS> AQ>cm§{Q>H$ gmJa H$mo nma H$aHo$ OmZo dmco OhmμO B§YZ ny{V© Ho$ {cE e¡ZZ E`anmoQ>© na ê$H$Vo Wo & naVw§ ~mX _| A{YH$ j_Vm dmco OhmμOm| Ho$ AmZo na A{YH$V_ OhmμOm| H$m e¡ZZ E`anmoQ>© na ê$H$Zm H$_ hmo J`m& Bg dOh go E`anmoQ©> Ho$ H$_©Mm[a`m| Ho$ ~oamoOJma hmoZo H$s g§^mdZm ~‹T> JB©& Bg pñW{V go ~MZo Ho$ {cE E`anmoQ>© na {Z`m©V Ho$ {cE H$a _wŠV dñVwAm| H$m CËnmXZ joÌ ~Zm`m J`m& _m¡Ho$ ~‹T>mZo H$m Am¡a {Z`m©V H$s MrμOm| na H$a MwH$mZo H$s Zm¡H$aemhr àUmcr go ~MZo H$m EH$ gñVm VarH$m _mZm J`m Wm& ~hahmc Bg AmH$f©H$ {dMma _| ewê$ go hr EH$ ~‹S>r Im_r Wr& BgHo$ {cE joÌ H$mo `m {MpÝhV H$maImZm| H$mo grc H$aZm hmoVm Wm Vm{H$ {~Zm H$a dmcr MrμO| VñH$ar go Xoe H$s AW©ì`dñWm _| em{_c Z hmo OmE±&'1 `h EH$ Vah go Eogo Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌm| H$s ewê$AmV Wr {Ogo gm_mÝ` joÌm| go n¥WH$ H$a AcJ ~Zm`m OmZo cJm& O~ `o joÌ ~‹T>Zo cJo, Vmo ZE-ZE _m°S>cm| Ho$ VOw~©o gm_Zo AmZoo cJo {OZ_| H§$n{Z`m| Ho$ {cE Am¡a μÁ`mXm AmH$f©U Am¡a $m`Xo Wo& 1995 _|, H$ar~ 70 Xoem| _| 230 go μÁ`mXm Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ Wo, {OZ_| go 100 go μÁ`mXm c¡{Q>Z A_o[aH$m Am¡a H¡$[a{~`Z _|, Am¡a 64 E{e`m Am¡a 31 A«$sH$m _| Wo& AmB©grE$Q>r`y Ho$ AZwgma 2002 _| `h Am±H$‹S>m 116 Xoem| _| 3000 joÌm| VH$ nhþ±M J`m h¡&2 {nN>cr gXr Ho$ A§V _| Am¡Úmo{JH$ H«$m§{V, Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$s d¥{Õ H$s _w»` YmamE§ CgHo$ ~mX {nN>cr gXr Ho$ A§V _|, Am¡Úmo{JH$ H«$m§{V Ho$ H$maU Am¡a CgHo$ Cn{ZdoedmX Ho$ ~mX Cn{ZdoedmX Ho$ {dñVma Am¡a {$a CXma AW©ì`dñWmAm| Ho$ {dñVma Am¡a {$a {dœ ~¢H$ Am¡a A§Vamï´>r` _wÐm H$mof O¡gr A§Vamï´>r` {dVr` ghm`Vm © © CXma AW©ì`dñWmAm| Ed§ F$U XoZo dmcr ~‹S>r g§ñWmE§ {OZH$m Vrgar Xy{Z`m Ho$ Xoem| _| Ho$ d¡œrH$aU Ho$ CXmadmX H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZo _| ~hþV ~‹S>m hmW h¡, BZ g§ñWmAm| Zo ^r H$maU _wº$ ì`mnma AnZr `moOZmAm| _| "Am{W©H$ joÌm|' H$mo {dH$mgerc Xoem| Ho$ joÌ ~ZZo cJo& CXmarH$aU H$m Oê$ar {hñgm _mZm h¡& μ 10
  11. 11. d¡œrH$aU Ho$ H$maU _wº$ ì`mnma joÌ ~ZZo cJo& e¡ZZ (Am`ac¢S>) Ho$ VOw~©o Ho$ ~mX g§`wº$ amï´> g§K Zo ^r {díd {Z`m© V n« g § ñ H$aU jo Ì g§ K (dëS>© EŠnmo Q >© àmo g o q gJ μ O mo Z Agmo{gEeZ) H$m JR>Z H$aHo$ {dH$mgerc Xoem| _| B©μnrOoS> Ho$ {dH$mg H$mo ~‹T>mdm {X`m& {dH$mgerc Xoem| Ho$ {Z`m©V na My§{H$ [a`m`Vr H$a cJVm Wm Bg{cE ^r {dH${gV (CÎma Ho$) Am¡Úmo{JH$ Xoem| Zo BZ Xoem| _| Am{W©H$ E§d ì`dgm{`H$ joÌm| H$mo ~‹T>mdm {X`m& gmW hr `h cmJV KQ>mZo H$s EH$ ì`mnH$ `moOZm H$m ^r {hñgm ahm {Og_| {dH${gV Xoem| Zo AnZo `h§m go hQ>mH$a {dH$mgerc Xoem| Ho$ Eogo joÌm| _| AnZm {Z`m©V CËnmXZ joÌ {dH${gV {H$`m& Bg n«H$ma Ohm§ EH$ Amoa {dH${gV Xoem| Zo CËnmX cmJV H$_ H$s dht CZ CËnmXm| na AnZm ~«m§S> Zm_ gwa{jV aIm h¡ Am¡a ~mOma na AnZo {Z`̧U aIZo Ho$ gmW _wZm$m ^r ~‹T>m`m& Am¡Úmo{JH$ {dXoer {Zdoe Am¡a {dH$mgerc Xoem| H$mo {dÎmr` ghm`Vm XoZm "n«W_ Xw{Z`m' Ho$ A_ra Xoem| _| Jar~ Xoem| go amoμOJma H$s Vcme _| AmZodmco _μOXyam| Ho$ àdmg H$mo amoH$Zo H$m g~go AÀN>m VarH$m ^r _mZm OmVm h¡& Vrgar Xw{Z`m _| H$maImZo cJmZm Am¡Úmo{JH$ Xoem| Ho$ ~mμOmam| _| "A{V[aº$' _μOXyam| H$mo KwgZo go amoH$Zo H$s aUZr{V ^r Wr& ~hahmc, Bg VH©$ _| H$moB© X_ Zht h¡ BZ joÌm| H$mo H$mZyZr Š`m|{H$ {H$gr CÚ_ H$m CÔoí` Zm¡H$[a`m± n¡Xm H$aZm Z hmoH$a Vm¡a na "n[ajoÌ' BgHo$ eo`aYmaH$m| Ho$ {cE $m`Xm H$_mZm hmoVm h¡, Am¡a Bg{cE Kmo{fV H$aHo$ ~mH$s ^r {H$ {dXoer CÚ_m| _| {_cZo dmcr Zm¡H$[a`m± _μOXyam| H$s g§»`m Xoe go ^m¡{VH$, H$s VwcZm _| ~hþV H$_ hmoVr h¢& Am{W©H$ Am¡a gm_m{OH$ ê$n go Xygar Va$, Jar~ Xoem| H$s gaH$mam| Zo ^r {dXoer {Zdoe H$mo n¥WH$ H$a {X`m AmH${f©V H$aZo Ho$ {cE B©μnrOoS> Am¡a EgB©μOoS> H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZm ewê$ OmVm h¡& 11
  12. 12. {H$`m& gaH$mar àñVmdm| _| μO_rZ Am¡a nmZr na H$am|, Am`mV (~mha Xoem| go IarXm J`m CËnmX) Am¡a {Z`m©V ewëH$m| _| Ny>Q> XoZo go coH$a, l_ H$mZyZm| Am¡a n`m©daU g§~§Yr {Z`_Zm| _| Ny>Q> XoZm ^r em{_c hmo J`m& 1990 Ho$ XeH$ _| H$B© gaH$mam| Zo, CXmhaU Ho$ Vm¡a na {${cntg Zo, Am{W©H$ joÌm| go Ow‹So> H$mZyZ noe {H$E& `h nyar Xw{Z`m Ho$ McZ H$m {hñgm Wm, Ohm± {nN>co 20 gmcm| _| VmH$Vda H$m°nm©oaoQ> BH$mB`m| Ho$ H$mZyZr A{YH$ma ZmQ>H$s` ê$n go ~‹To> & Bg_| {dœ ì`mnma g§JR>Z Am¡a joÌr` Ed§ {Ûnjr` ì`mnma g_Pm¡Vm| H$m hmW n«_wI ê$n go ahm h¡& Xygar Va$, Jar~m|, _μOXyam| Ed§ H$m°nm©oaoQ> {hVm| Ho$ {cE {dñWm{nV hmoZo dmco cmoJm| Ho$ A{YH$mam| H$s ajm go Ow‹So> hþE H$mZyZm| H$mo H$_μOmoa ~Zm`m J`m&3 BZ joÌm| Ho$ {cE Omo H$mZyZ ~ZmE JE CZ_| {ZdoeH$m| H$mo AmH${f©V H$aZo dmcr Am¡a ^r H$B© njm| _| (H$a cm^ Ho$ Acmdm) go EH$ `h ^r h¡ {H$ BZ joÌm| H$mo H$mZyZr Vm¡a na "n[ajoÌ' Kmo{fV H$aHo$ ~mH$s Xoe go ^m¡{VH$, Am{W©H$ Am¡a gm_m{OH$ ê$n go n¥WH$ H$a {X`m OmVm h¡& à{V`mo{JVm ~‹T>Zo Ho$ gmW H§$n{Z`m± Eogr OJh| XoIVr h¢ Ohm± H$m_ BZ joÌm| _| Cn`moJ H$aZm μÁ`mXm go μÁ`mXm $m`Xo_§X hmo& {deof g§Hw$cm| H$s CncãYVm _| cmB© OmZo dmcr na AmYm[aV Eogm CÚ_r dmVmdaU Omo à{V`mo{JVm H$mo ~‹T>mdm Xo& VH$ZrH$ H$m `h dh gyÌ h¡ {Og na AmO μÁ`mXmVa ~hþamï´>r` H§$n{Z`m± E§d hñVm§VaU dmñVd _| {ZdoeH$ Ü`mZ Xo aho h¢& CXmhaU Ho$ {cE, gyMZm Ed§ n«m¡Úmo{JH$ Zht hmoVm h¡ Š`m|{H$ nmH©$ (IT) godmAm| Ho$ {cE g_W©Z godmE± Am¡a $_m] _| gh`moJ ñWmZr` CËnmXH$m| go godmAm| H$m EH$ ñWmZ na hmoZm& BZH$m H$moB© coZmXoZm Zht hmoVm, Bg{cE `o g^r H$maU {dH$mgerc Xoem| _| EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {dH$mg H$m AmYma ñWmZr` VH$ZrH$s aho h¡§& Xw{Z`m Ho$ gm_Zo {XImZo Ho$ {cE Am¡a ^maV O¡go Xoe _| AnZmZo j_VmE± ~‹T>Vr Zht Ho$ {cE E{e`mB© _hmaWr Xoem| X{jU H$mo[a`m, B§S>moZo{e`m, _co{e`m h¢& Am¡a qgJmnwa H$m CXmhaU noe {H$`m OmVm h¡& ~hþV nhco 1990 _| 12
  13. 13. Vrgar Xw{Z`m Ho$ {Z`m©V CËnmXZ _| 61 à{VeV `moJXmZ BZ Xoem| H$m Wm O~{H$ AHo$co B§S>moZo{e`m, _co{e`m Am¡a WmB©c¢S> H$s {VH$‹S>r H$m 12 à{VeV Wm& Ohm§ EH$ Amoa Eogo {Z`m©V n[ajoÌm| _| {dXoer {Zdoe Am¡a ~‹S>r H§$n{Z`m| Ho$ {Zdoe go {Z`m©V, gH$c Kaocy CËnmX E§d Am` ~‹T>r, dht Xygar Va$ BZ joÌm| Ho$ _mÜ`_ go hþE Am{W©H$ {dH$mg Ho$ Am¡a Xmo _hËdnyU© nhcy ahoŸ& Am`.gr.E$.Q>r.`y. H$s EH$ [anmoQ©>, "{~hmB§S> X dm`g© - E§Q>r `y{Z`Z [aàoeZ BZ B©nrμOoS>' Ho$ AZwgma : Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$s Am` XaAgc ~hþV μÁ`mXm Zht h¡& AmB©grE$Q>r`y Zo 1995 _| 6 E{e`mB© Xoem| Ho$ EH$ AÜ``Z _| nm`m {H$ "Am{YH$m[aH$ Am±H$‹S>m| _| {Z`m©V H$s Am_XZr H$mo AŠga ~‹T>m-M‹T>m H$a ~Vm`m OmVm h¡&' CXmhaU Ho$ {cE, lrc§H$m Zo B©μnrOoS> go 250 {_{c`Z S>m°ca H$s Am` XO© H$s O~{H$ BgH$m Am`mV 174 {_{c`Z S>m°ca H$m Wm& Bg Vah BZ joÌm| go hþB© ewÜX Am` ~hþV μÁ`mXm Zht Wr& BgH$m Xygam Am`m_ `h h¡ {H$ _oO~mZ Xoe Ho$ {bE H$am| _| àmoËgmhZ Am¡a gpãgS>r XoZm ~hyV _h±Jm hmoVm h¡Ÿ& CXmhaU Ho$ {bE, ~m§½bmXoe BZ joÌm| _| amoμOJma nmZodmbo ha ì`{º$ Ho$ {bE 6000 S>m°ca IM© H$a ahm h¡ Am¡a Bgo dmng nmZo _| Cgo Xg gmc cJ|Jo& BgHo$ Abmdm BZ joÌm| _o Cn`moJ _| bmB© OmZo dmbr VH$ZrH$ H$m hñVm§VaU dmñVd _| Zht hmoVm h¢, Š`m|{H$ ñWmZr` CËnmXH$m| go BZH$m H$moB© boZm XoZm Zhr§ hmoVm, Bg{bE ñWmZr` VH$ZrH$s j_VmE§ ~T>Vr Zht h¢Ÿ& Bg Vah BZ joÌm| H$mo ~ZmZo na ^r _oO~mZ Xoe H$s AW©ì`dñWm H$mo H$moB© Img _μO~yVr Zhr§ {_bVr h¢Ÿ& gñVr _μOXyar, H$m_ H$s Iam~ XemE± Am¡a J¡a-`y{Z`ZdmXr VarHo$& nyar Xw{Z`m _| BZ joÌm| _| 430 cmI go μÁ`mXm cmoJ H$m_ H$aVo h¢&hm§cm{H$, BZ joÌm| Ho$ amoμOJma n¡Xm H$aZo _| `moJXmZ na J§^raVm go gdmc CR>m H$a CZH$m {dûcofU em`X Zht {H$`m J`m h¡& BZ joÌm| Ho$ ~mao _| g~go μÁ`mXm {Og {deoîmVm H$m àMma {H$`m OmVm h¢ dh h¡ gñVr _μOXyar H$s CncãYVm& O~{H$, H$m_ H$s A_mZdr` XemE§, H$_ doVZ H$s Zm¡H$[a`m§ Am¡a H$m_ na go {ZH$mcZo H$s KQ>ZmE± BZ joÌm| _| ~hþV Am_ h¢& ImgH$a _opŠgH$mo, Ec-gmëdmS>moa, ~«mμOrc O¡go c¡{Q>Z A_o[aH$s Xoe, A«$sH$m Am¡a MrZ Ho$ EgB©μOoS> _| `h g_ñ`mE§ C^aH$a gm_Zo AmB© h¡& {OZ na AmJo {dñVma go MMm© H$s JB© h¡& 13
  14. 14. BZ joÌm| _| `y{Z`Z| ~ZZo H$s Xa ^r ~hþV Yr_r h¡Ÿ& _opŠgH$mo Ho$ _{H$cmS>moamμO H$ho OmZo dmco ì`mnma joÌm| _| VOw~m© `h ahm h¡ {H$ l_ {ZarjH$m| H$mo BZ joÌm| _| KwgZo hr Zht {X`m OmVm h¡& _m{cH$m| Zo `y{Z`Z {damoYr à^mdr VarHo$ AnZmE hþE h¢& Bg n«H$ma {díd ~mμOma H$m Omc {~N>mZo H$s n«{H«$`m "d¡ídrH$aU' H$s amOZr{V Ho$ VhV {dH$mgerc Xoem| _| {dXoer {Zdoe Ho$ Zm_ na gñVm _μOXya E§d g§gmYZm| Ho$ cyQ>-_ma Ho$ {cE ZE Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$m {dñVma VoμOr go hþAm& II. ^maVr` g§X^© _| EgB©μOoS> ^maV gaH$ma Zo EgB©μOoS> na nhcm H$mZyZ 2005 _| ~Zm`m J`m, na ^maV Zo Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌm| H$s ewéAmV XaAgc 1960 Ho$ XeH$ _| hr H$a Xr Wr& `h B©μnrOoS> Ho$ ê$n _| ewê$ hþAm {OZH$m _w»` CÔoí` Xoe _| {Z`m©V CËnmXZ H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZm Wm& nhcm {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ H$m§S>cm (JwOamV) _| 1965 _| ~Zm, CgHo$ ~mX _wå~B© H$m grßμO 1972 _| ~Zm& BgHo$ ~mX 1984 _| ZmoES>m (C. à.), $mëQ>m (n{ü_ ~§Jmc), H$mo{MZ (Ho$ac), MoÞB© (V{_cZmSw>) Mma joÌ ~Zo Am¡a {demImnÅ>Z_ (Am§Y« àXoe) _| 1989 _| Am¡a 1997 _| gyaV B©μnrOoS> ~Zm& ^maV gaH$ma Zo EgB©OS> na nhcm μ o ^maV go B©nrμOoS> H$m {Z`m©V 1966 Ho$ 10 cmI é. go ~‹T> H$a H$mZyZ 2005 _| 2002 _| 97.727 cmI é. go μÁ`mXm hmo J`m& Bgr Xm¡amZ, BZ_| ~Zm`m J`mŸ& na Hw$c amoμOJma 70 go ~‹T> H$a H$ar~ 89,000 Hw$c {dXoer _wÐm H$s Am` ^maV Zo Am¡Úmo{JH$ 0.16 cmI é. go ~‹T> H$a 43. 195 H$amo‹S> é. Am¡a _yë` g§dY©Z joÌm| H$s ewéAmV (d¡ë`y E{S>eZ) 21% go ~‹T> H$a 44% hmo J`m&4 XaAgc 1960 Ho$ XeH$ _| hr H$a Xr Ohm± `o ~‹So> Am±H$‹So> à^mdemcr cJVo h¢, dht H$ar~ go XoIZo na H$B© Wr& J§^ra g_ñ`mE± {XImB© XoVr h¢… 14
  15. 15. B©nrμOoS> _| _yë` g§dY©Z H$s Am¡gV dm{f©H$ {dH$mg Xa Ho$dc 2.9% Wr& BgH$m _Vc~ `h h¡ {H$ BZ joÌm| _| H$m_ H$aZo dmcr H§$n{Z`m± _yc ê$n go Omo Hw$N> ^r Am`mV H$a ahr Wt CgHo$ CËnmX Ho$ H$s_V _| {~Zm H$moB© Img ~‹T>moVar {H$E Cgo cJ^J CVZo hr Xm_ na {Z`m©V ^r H$a ahr Wt& Bg Vah B©nrμOoS> Zo Kaocy ~mμOma H$s Hw$ecVmAm| H$mo ~‹T>mZo `m VH$ZrH$s OmZH$mar Ho$ hñVm§VaU _| _m_wcr `moJXmZ {H$`m h¡& B©nrμOoS> go {Z`m©V Ho$ Hw$c ~‹T>V Ho$ ~mdOyX, XaAgc Hw$c amï´>r` {Z`m©V Am¡a {Z{_©V {Z`m©V _| CZH$m {hñgm 1973 Ho$ H«$_e… .07% Am¡a .14% go 2001 _| 4.3% Am¡a 5.6% hþAm& amoμOJma Ho$ _m_bo _o§, ewéAmV _| B©nrμOoS> _| cmoJm| H$mo AÀN>r g§»`m _| Zm¡H$[a`m± {_cZo Ho$ ~mX Am_Vm¡a na `h g§»`m KQ>r h¡ Am¡a Bg_| R>hamd ^r Am`m h¡& CXmhaU Ho$ {cE 1966 Am¡a 1970 Ho$ ~rM B©nrμOoS> _| amoμOJma 50.2% go μÁ`mXm H$s Xa na ~‹T>m co{H$Z 2000 Am¡a 2002 Ho$ ~rM `h KQ> H$a Ho$dc 5.2 % ah J`m&5 1990 Ho$ XeH$ Ho$ Am{Ia _| ^maV gaH$ma Zo EgB©μOoS na {dMma H$aZm ewê$ H$a {X`m Wm& ^mOnm àUrV amï´>r` n«OmVm§{ÌH$ JR>~§YZ-am. n«. J. (NDA) gaH$ma Zo Am{IaH$ma Aà¡c 2000 _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Zr{V noe H$s& 1997-2002 H$s Am`mV-{Z`m©V Zr{V, {Z`m©VH$m| Ho$ {cE ~mYH$ {Z`m©V-Am`mV {Z`_Zm| H$mo Xya H$aZo Am¡a Bgo ^maV H$s {dœ ì`mnma g§JR>Z H$s eVm§} Ho$ _wVm{~H$ ~ZmZo na H|${ÐV Wr& `h em`X ^maV _| nhco go H$m_ H$a aho B©nrμOoS> Ho$ Acmdm amï´>r` n«OmVm§{ÌH$ EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE amñVm ImocZo H$s nhcr H$mo{ee Wr& am. n«. J. gaH$ma JR>~YZ (NDA) § Ho$ dm{UÁ` _§Ìr lr _wamgmocr _maZ Zo, Omo nyar Vah MrZr EgB©μOoS na gaH$ma Zo Aàoc _w½Y Wo, Bgo ghr R>hamVo hþE H$hm Wm {H$ `h Zr{V ""h_| {Z`m©V Ho$ 2000 _| {deof ZH$mamË_H$ AZw^d Am¡a CXmgrZVm go {ZH$mcVr h¡' Am¡a "{Z`m©V Am{W©H$ joÌ Zr{V {dH$mg H$m B§OZ" h¡&'' noe H$s& 15
  16. 16. EgB©μOoS> _| Zr{V Ho bmJy hmoVo hr 2000 _| Mma {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ/ {XbMñnr aIZo dmbo E$Q>rμOoS> H$m§S>cm, Eg.B©.B©.nr.μOoS> _wå~B©, H$mo{MZ Am¡a gyaV EgB©μOoS H$ar~ H$ar~ g^r _| ~Xc {XE JE&6 hmcm±{H$, MrZ Zo Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌm| H$m `h amñVm amÁ`m| Zo gmb 1970 Ho$ XeH$ Ho$ Am{Ia _| MwZm, 1999 VH$ MrZ H$m {Z`m©V 2003 VH$ 190 {~{c`Z S>m°ca go μÁ`mXm Wm Omo ^maV Ho$ 34.5 {~{c`Z S>m°ca EgB©OS Ho$ {bE μ o go ~hþV μÁ`mXm Wm& MrZ H$s `h CN>mc BgHo$ nm±M ~Soμ> EgB©μOoS Ho$ A{YgyMZmE±, AmXoe H$maU _mZr OmVr h¡ - e|μOoZ, μOwhmB©, g¢Q>mo, {Oμ`m{_Z Am¡a h¡ZZ - Omo `m Zr{V`m± ~Zm br MrZ Ho$ Hw$c {Z`m©V Ho$ 40 à{VeV H$m CËnmXZ H$aVo h¢& WrŸ& III. ^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ : _m¡OyXm ñdê$n ^maV _| EgB©μOoS ~ZmZo Ho$ {cE gm$ {Xem-{ZX©oe SEZ Zr{V, 2000, _| {XE JE Wo& amÁ`m| H$mo BgHo$ {cE ZmoS>c EO|{g`m± {Z`wº$ H$aZo Ho$ {ZX©oe {XE JE Wo& EgB©μOoS _| {XcMñnr aIZo dmco H$ar~- H$ar~ g^r amÁ`m| Zo gmc 2003 VH$ EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE A{YgyMZmE±, AmXoe `m Zr{V`m± ~Zm cr Wt& `h XoIZm _hËdnyU© h¡ {H$ _m¡OXm SEZ {Z`_m| Am¡a A{Y{Z`_ Ho$ y VhV {XE Om aho àcmo^Z amÁ`m| H$s Zr{V`m|/A{YgyMZmAm| _| nhco go _m¡OyX Wo& BZ_| go Hw$N> h¢… • EgB©OS "{dXoer n[ajoÌ' Ho$ ê$n _| μ o • EgB©OS "OZ Cn`moJr godm' Ho$ ê$n _| μ o • EgB©OS Ho$ {cE EH$c {I‹S>H$s {ZnQ>mao μ o • EgB©OS H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZo Am¡a BZHo$ {dH$mg Ho$ {cE EH$ "{dH$mg μ o Am`wº$' H$s {Z`wŠV • EgB©OS H$mo nmZr, {~Ocr Am¡a H$am| _| [a`m`V| μ o EgB©μOoS H$mZyZ H$mo g§`wº$ àJ{Verc JR>~§YZ gaH$ma (`ynrE) Zo _B© 2005 H$mo g§gX _| noe H$aHo$ nm[aV H$adm`m Am¡a 29 OyZ 2005 H$mo Bgo amï´>n{V H$s _§Oyar {_c JB©& BgHo$ ~mX 10 $adar 2006 go {dñV¥V {Z`_ cmJy {H$E JE& 2006 H$s ewéAmV VH$ 15 amÁ`m| Am¡a 2 H|$Ð em{gV àXoem| _| 117 EgB©μOoS H$mo ({OZ_| 3 «$s Q´o>S> do`ahmCqgJ μOmoZ em{_c Wo) _§Oyar Xo Xr JB©, {OZ_| go 7 EgB©μOoS 16
  17. 17. nhco go hr H$m_ H$a aho Wo& A~ gdmc CR>Vm h¡ {H$ O~ g^r amÁ`m| _| Zr{V`m± h¢ Am¡a do CÝh| AnZm ^r aho h¢ Vmo EH$ "H|$Ðr` {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ, 2005, H$s μOê$aV Š`m h¡& Am¡a H$mZyZ Ho$ AmZo Ho$ ~mX AMmZH$ EgB©μOoS> n[a`moOZm Ho$ n«ñVmdm| H$s ~m‹T> Š`m| AmB©?' {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ H$s Img ~mVm| _| go EH$ h¡, Omo {H$ EgB©μOoS Zr{V _| Zht Wr, dh h¡ EgB©μOoS> H$s AcJ-AcJ lo{U`m| Ho$ {cE Ý`yZV_ ^y{_ ApYJ«hU H$aZo H$s Amdí`H$Vm - ~hþ-CËnmX EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {cE 1000 hoŠQo>`a `m Bggo μÁ`mXm μO_rZ& godm joÌ EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {cE 100 hoŠQo>`a `m Bggo μÁ`mXm μO_rZ& Eogo joÌm| H$mo _XX> {OZ_| ^maV Xygam| go AmJo h¡, O¡go OdmhamV Am¡a JhZo, gyMZm àm¡Úmo{JH$s, O¡d àm¡Úmo{JH$s _|, BZHo$ {cE 10 hoŠQo>`a `m Bggo μÁ`mXm μO_rZ na goŠQ>a AmYm[aV _XX Ho$ {cE EgB©μOoS ~ZmE Om gH$Vo h¢& AÝ` g^r joÌm| Ho$ {cE, μO_rZ H$_ go H$_ 100 hoŠQo>`a hmoZr Mm{hE& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Hw$N> amÁ`m| (Ag_, _oKmc`, ZmJmc¢S>, AéUmMc àXoe, H$mZyZ H$s {_μOmoa_, _{Unwa, {Ìnwam, {h_mMc àXoe, CÎmamI§S>, {g{¸$_, "{deofVm' Omo {H$ Oå_y-H$í_ra, JmoAm) Am¡a H|$Ð em{gV joÌm| _| μO_rZ Ho$ ~‹So> Zr{V _| Zht Wr, dh Qw>H$‹So> {_cZo _| H${R>ZmB© H$mo XoIVo hþE ~hþ-CËnmX EgB©μOoS Ho$ h¡ EgB©OS H$s μ o {cE Ý`yZV_ μO_rZ KQ>m H$a 200 hoŠQo>`a go coH$a 50 AcJ-AcJ lo{U`m| hoŠQo>`a VH$ H$a Xr JB© h¡& Ho$ {cE Ý`yZV_ ^y{_ ApYJ«hU H$aZo H$s H$mZyZ H$s EH$ Am¡a Img ~mV `h h¡ {H$ Bg_| EgB©μOoS> H$s Amdí`H$VmŸ& 17
  18. 18. _§Oyar, H|$Ð _| dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` _| ~moS©> Am°°$ Aàydëg XoJm d amÁ` _| {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$s AJwdmB© _| EH$ Aàydëg H${_Q>r XoJr, {OgH$m AÜ`j {dH$mg Am`wº$ hmoJm (`h Cn g{Md go ZrMo Ho$ ñVa H$m Zht hmoJm) `o amÁ` ñVar` g_r{V _§Oyar Am¡a {ZarjU H$s EO|gr ^r hm|Jr Am¡a XoI|Jr {H$… EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {dH$mg, g§MmcZ, Am¡a aIaImd H$s à{H«$`mE± AmgmZ hm| Am¡a BZ_| H$mamo~ma Mco& EgB©μOoS> Am¡a BZ_| H$moB© BH$mB© ewê$ H$aZo Ho$ {cE EH$c {I‹S>H$s {ZnQ>mam hmo& OyZ 2006 VH$ dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` Zo 150 EgB©μOoS> àñVmdm| H$mo _§Oyar Xo Xr Wr& gaH$ma Ho$ Ûmam EgB©μOoS> _m_cm| na gcmh XoZo Ho$ {cE ~ZmE JE H|$Ðr` {deofm{YH$ma _§Ìr g_yh Ho$ gwPmd, {H$ EH$ gmc _| Ho$dc 150 n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo _§Oyar Xr OmE, Ho$ ~mdOyX dV©_mZ gaH$ma Zo n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo _§Oyar XoZo H$m {gc{gcm Omar aIm& `h Am±H$‹S>m {gV§~a 2006 VH$ 181 Am¡a AŠQy>~a VH$ 237 na nhþ±M J`m& gaH$ma Ho$ Ûmam gaH$mar VH©$ Ho$ AZwgma n[a`moOZmAm| H$s _§Oyar na amoH$, {ZdoeH$m| EgB©OS _m_cm| na μ o Ho$ μO~aXñV CËgmh Ho$ H$maU hQ>m Xr JB© Wr & gcmh XoZo Ho$ {cE ~ZmE JE H|$Ðr` amÁ` dma n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ Am±H$‹S>m| _| _hmamï´> (48), Am§Y« àXoe {deofm{YH$ma _§Ìr (45), H$Zm©Q>H$ (29), V{_cZmS> (25), JwOamV (18), AmJo {XImB© XoVo g_yhHo$ gwPmd, {H$ h¢& Bggo `o gm$ hmoVm h¡ {H$ nhbo go {dH${gV amÁ`m| _| BZ joÌm| H$s EH$ gmc _| Ho$dc 150 n[a`moOZmAm| ^a_ma hmoJrŸ& MrZ H$s Vah ~§XaJmhm| Am¡a `mVm`mV H$s gw{dYmAm| VH$ H$mo _§Oyar Xr OmE, AmgmZ nhþ±M hmoZo Ho$ H$maU BZ amÁ`m| _| AmZo dmcr n[a`moOZmAm| _| Ho$ ~mdOyX dV©_mZ go H$B© joÌ VQ>r` BcmH$m| _| hm|Jo& gaH$ma Zo n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo {nN>co Xmo XeH$m| _| ^maV _| d¡{œH$ AW©ì`dñWm H$s Amoa ~‹T>Zo H$m _§Oyar XoZo H$m éPmZ ^r {XImB© {X`m h¡ {Og_| ~m¡{ÕH$ g§nXm `h EH$ H$_mB© H$m ~‹S>m {gc{gcm Omar O[a`m ~Z JB© h¡& 1990 Ho$ XeH$ Ho$ Am{Ia go ^maV _| gm°âQ>do`a aIm& Am¡a AmB©Q>r EZo~ëS> g{d©goμO (ITeS) goŠQ>am| H$s Hw$c Am_XZr _| 18
  19. 19. μO~aXñV ~‹T>moVar XO© H$s JB© h¡& Bg VOw~©o H$m BñVo_mc `h VH©$ XoZo Ho$ {cE ^r {H$`m J`m h¡ {H$ gyMZm àm¡Úmo{JH$s H«$m§{V _| {dH$mgerc Xoem| Ho$ {cE godm AmYm[aV (g{d©g-~oñS>) {Z`m©V-H|${ÐV {dH$mg H$aZo Ho$ {cE ZE Adga h¢& OyZ 2006 VH$ _§Oya H$s JB© 150 n[a`moOZmAm| _| go H$ar~ 120 AmB©Q>r Am¡a AmB©Q>r EZo~ëS> g{d©g n[a`moOZmE± Wt& `h éPmZ ~VmVm h¡ {H$ gaH$ma H$m g~go μÁ`mXm Ü`mZ EgB©μOoS> _| {H$g joÌ na h¡& hmcm±{H$, `{X h_ OyZ Ho$ ~mX H$s _§Oy[a`m| H$mo ^r em{_c H$a|, Vmo CZ_| H$B© Vah H$s n[a`moOZmE± h¢ & A~ C‹S>rgm O¡go amÁ`m| _| IZZ AmYm[aV CÚmoJm| Ho$ gmW ~hþ-CËnmX> EgB©μOoS> VoμOr go ~‹T>Vo {XImB© XoVo h¢& hmbm{H$, _m¡OyXm EgB©μOoS> Zr{V _| amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo EgB©μOoS> {dH$mgH$Vm© ~ZZo H$m n`m©` {X`m J`m h¡ na XoIm Om ahm {H$ μÁ`mXmVa n{a`moOZmE§ {ZOr H§$nZr`m| Ûmam H$s Om ahr h¡Ÿ& BZ_o go [abm`Ýg, {S>EbE$, _{hÝÐm Am¡a {dàmo O¡gr H§$nZr`m§ _w»`V: AmJo h¡Ÿ& ^maV _o ñWm{nV Ed§ AmJo AmZodmbr EgB©μOoS> n[a`moOZmAm| go C^a H$a {XIZo dmbr àd¥Îmr`m§ d¡pídH$aU H$m hr ê$n h¡Ÿ& Ohm§ Bg AÜ`m` _o {díd Ho$ {d^Þ Xoem| _| {dH$mg Am¡a CgHo$ à^mdm| H$m {díbofU {H$`m h¡, AJbo AÜ`m` _| ^maV _| EgB©μOoS> Zr{V Am¡a ì`dñWm H$m AmbmoMZmË_H$ {díbofU {H$`m J`m h¡Ÿ& OyZ 2006 VH$ _§Oya H$s JB© 150 n[a`moOZmAm| _| go H$ar~ 120 AmB©Q>r Am¡a AmB©Q>r EZo~ëS> 1 www.icftu.org 2 g{d©g n[a`moOZmE± Am°°ñH$g©Z n¡{Q´>H$ - B§{S>`Z EQ´o>ŠeZ, àm°{$Qo>~c _ëQ>rZoeZëg EμO gpãgS>r O§H$s - Wt& `h éPmZ A ñQ>S>r Am°°$ B§g|{Q>ìg $m°a BZdoñQ>_|Q> BZ B§{S>`m 3 ~VmVm h¡ {H$ gaH$ma Q´o>qS>J Ado Ada amBQ²>g - Am°°Šg¡$_ 4 H$m g~go Á`mXm μ gw§Xa_,X n¡amS>mB©Oμ Am°$ H¡${nQ>{cÁ._ 5 Ü`mZ EgB©OS _| μ o EpŠμO_ nm°{cgr… EŠgnopŠQ§>J Qy> _M, B©nrS>ãcy g§nmXH$s`, Aà¡c 2002 6 http://www.cbec.gov.in/cae/customs/cs-manual/manual_22(c).htm {H$g goŠQ>a na h¡& 19
  20. 20. ^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ {cE AmH$f©U {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Ho$ {Z_m©U (construction) goŠQ>a H$s BH$mB`m| _| Am°°Q>mo_¡{Q>H$ ê$Q> go 100 à{VeV àË`j {dXoer {Zdoe {Z`m©V Ho$ cm^ H$mo 12 _hrZo _| ZH$X Ho$ ê$n _| dmng co OmZo H$s gw{dYm 5% VH$ Ho$ ^wJVmZ Z {H$E JE {Z`m©V {~cm| H$s “_m$s” cm^m§e H$mo g§Vw{cV {H$E {~Zm cm^ H$mo _wº$ ê$n go dmng co OmZo H$s BOmμOV {dXoem| _| g~H$m°ÝQ´¡>pŠQ§>J H$s BOmμOV g{hV g~H$m°ÝQ´¡>pŠQ§>J H$s nyar Ny>Q> nm±M gmcm| Ho$ EH$ ãcm°H$ Ho$ {cE Am`H$a go 100% Ny>Q>, Xmo gmcm| Ho$ {cE 50% H$s Ny>Q> Am¡a AJco 3 gmcm| VH$ H$_mB© H$mo AnZo Xoe co OmZo H$s BOmμOV ñWmZr` ì`mnma joÌm| go {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$mo AmnyVu H$mo {Z`m©V _mZm OmEJm ZwH$gmZ H$mo H¡$ar $m°adS©> {H$`m OmEJm {dXoer ~¢qH$J BH$mB`m| H$mo 3 gmcm| VH$ Am`H$a go 100% Am¡a 2 gmcm| VH$ 50% H$s Ny>Q> ny±OrJV dñVwAm|/H¡${nQ>c JwS>, H$ƒm _mc, Cn^moº$m ñno`g© Am{X ñWmZr` ~mμOma go coZo na H|$Ðr` CËnmX ewëH$ go Ny>Q> Kaocy IarX na ^wJVmZ {H$E JE {~H«$s H$a H$m nwZ^©wJVmZ dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` H$s do~gmBQ> na ~Vm`m J`m h¡ {H$ {ZOr joÌ Ho$ àñVmd H$mo _XX> H$aZo dmcr `m IwX AnZo {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ ~ZmZo dmcr amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo `o MrμO| gw{ZpíMV H$aZr hm|Jr… `h {H$ àñVm{dV {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ _| {c`o J`o joÌ _| n`m©daU g§~§Yr H$moB© éH$mdQ|> Zht h¢; `h {H$ μOê$aV Ho$ _wVm{~H$ nmZr, {~Ocr Am¡a Xygar godmE± _wh¡`m H$admB© OmE±Jr; `h {H$ BH$mB`m| H$mo IwX Ho$ BñVo_mc Ho$ {cE ~ZmB© JB© Am¡a IarXr JB© {~Ocr na ewëH$ go nyar Ny>Q> {_coJr; {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ ^rVa {~Ocr ~ZmZo Am¡a {dVaU H$aZo H$s BOmμOV hmo; S>mo_opñQ>H$ Q¡>[a$$ E[a`m go {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$s BH$mB`m| _| AmnyVu {H$E OmZo dmcr MrμOm| H$mo amÁ` Ho$ {~H«$s H$a, Mw§Jr, _§S>r H$a, Q>Z©Amoda Q¡>Šg Am¡a Xygar S>çyQ>r/A{Y^ma/gog `m codr go Ny>Q>; `h {H$ joÌ Ho$ ^rVa H$s BH$mB`m| Ho$ {cE, Am¡Úmo{JH$ {ddmX A{Y{Z`_ H$s e{º$`m± {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$mo Xo Xr OmE±Jr Am¡a `h {H$ BH$mB`m| H$mo Am¡Úmo{JH$ {ddmX A{Y{Z`_ Ho$ VhV cmoH$ Cn`moJr godm Kmo{fV {H$`m OmEJm& 20
  21. 21. SEZ n«ñVmdm| H$mo Xr JB© _§Oyar (AŠVy~a 06 VH$ H$s amÁ`dma gyMr) A. amÁ` H$o Zm_ Am¡nMm[aH$ g¡Õm§{VH$ AZw_{V g§»`m AZw_{V 1. Am§Y« àXoe 45 09 54 2. N>ÎmrgJS> - 02 02 3. XmXam ZJa-hdobr - 01 01 4. M§S>rJ‹T> 02 - 02 5. {X„r 01 01 02 6. Jmodm 04 - 04 7. JwOamV 18 12 30 8. h[a`mUm 19 27 46 9. {h_mMb àXoe - 03 03 10. PmaI§S> 01 - 01 11. H$Zm©Q>H$ 29 17 46 12. Ho$ab 10 02 12 13. _Ü`àXoe 04 06 10 14. _hmamï´> 48 27 75 15. CS>rgm 05 07 12 16. nm°ÊS>rMoar 01 - 01 17. n§Om~ 04 07 11 18. amOñWmZ 03 08 11 19. V_rbZmSy> 25 12 37 20. CÎmamIÊS> 03 01 04 21. CÎmaàXoe 08 10 18 22. n§. ~§Jmb 07 14 21 Hw$b 237 166 403 21
  22. 22. ^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| na {N>‹S>r ~hg Am¡a {damoY ^maV _| EgB©μOoS> H$s AmbmoMZm Am¡a Bg na CR>o gdmbm| Ho$ nrN>o Ho$ H$maUm| H$mo _w»`V: nm§M YmamAm| _| ~m§Q>m Om gH$Vm h¢Ÿ: 1. EgB©μOoS go Am{W©H$ {dH$mg H$m ^«_& 2. μO_rZ Am¡a àmH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| H$m {ZOrH$aU Am¡a CgH$m ñWmZr` g_wXm`m| na à^md& 3. EgB©μOoS H$mo "gmd©O{ZH$ godm' gw{dYm H$m XOm© XoZo Am¡a _μOXya H$mZyZm| Ho$ gabrH$aU go _μOXyam| Ho$ emofU Ho$ ~‹T>Vr g§^dZm& 4. EgB©μOoS go μOw‹S>o Vrd« Am¡Úmo{JH$aU go n`m©daU na hmoZodmbo n[aUm_& 5. EgB©μOoS Ho$ '{dXoer n[ajoÌ' ~ZZo go ñWmnrV ñWmZr` àemgZ Ed§ Xoe H$s g§à^wVm na n‹S>Zodmbo à^mdŸ& gdmb CR>mZo Am¡a {damoY H$aZo dmbo g_yhm| _| ñWmZr` g_wXm`, {H$gmZ, _Nw>Ama|, ~[wÕOr{d, AW©emór, gm_m{OH$ Am¡a amOZ¡{VH$ H$m`©H$Vm©, n`m©daUdmXr bmoH$g_yh Am¡a dm_n§Wr Xb ^r h¢Ÿ& I. EgB©μOoS Ho$ Am{W©H$ VH©$ na CRo> gdmc... Ohm± dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` EgB©μOoS H$mo coH$a ~hþV Omoe _| h¡, Bg Zr{V H$mo coH$a H$B© Io_m| Zo {damoY Am¡a Ame§H$mE± OVmB© h¢, {OZ_| ñd§` H$m±J«og AÜ`j, {dÎm _§Ìmc` Am¡a `hm± VH$ {H$ A§Va©mï´>r` _wÐm H$mof Am¡a ^maVr` [aμOd© ~¢H$ ^r em{_c h¢& `o Ame§H$mE± H$B© Vah H$s h¢& 22
  23. 23. g~go nhco Vmo SEZ Am¡a EPZ _| VwcZm H$s JB© h¡& {Og_| `h gdmc CR>mE JE - · B©nrμOoS> Ho$ H$m_H$mO Am¡a {Z`m©V ~‹T>mZo _| CZH$s ^JrXmar H$mo Am±H$Zo H$s Oμê$aV · SEZ Am¡a B©nrμOoS> _| $H©$ `m g_mZVmE± ñnï> H$aZmŸ& · Š`m SEZ dmH$B© {Z`m©V H$mo ~‹T>m nmE±Jo? AmBE h_ Hw$N> Am±H$‹So> XoIVo h¢ Omo B©nrμOoS> Ho$ H$m_H$mO na amoeZr S>mc|Jo… • 1996-97 _| IË_ hþE nm±M gmcm| _| B©nrμOoS> BH$mB`m| Ho$ Am`mV na IM© Am¡a _m$ {H$`m J`m Am`mV ewëH$ Hw$c 16461.58 H$amo‹S> é. Wm O~{H$ {Z`m©V go Am` Ho$dc 13563.87 H$amo‹S> é. H$s Wr& • gmV EgB©μOoS Ho$ AJñV 1996 go OwcmB© 1997 Ho$ ~rM Ho$ H$m_H$mO H$m Am§H$cZ {H$`m J`m Wm& BZ joÌm| Ho$ A§VJ©V _§Oya H$s JB© 2333 BH$mB`m| _| go _mM© 1997 VH$ Ho$dc 513 BH$mB`m± H$m_ H$a ahr Wt& • dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` H$m H$hZm Wm {H$ 1351 BH$mB`m| Ho$ ñdrH¥$V nÌ `m Vmo aÔ H$a {XE JE Wo `m H$m_ Zht hmoZo H$s dOh go IË_ hmo JB©& _§Oya H$s JB© BH$mB`m| _| Ho$dc 58% hr H$m_`m~ aht&1 • B©nrμOoS> na 1998 H$s EH$ Am{YH$m[aH$ [anmoQ©> Ho$ AZwgma “{dXoer _wÐm _| 4,700 H$amo‹S> én`o H$s Hw$c Am` àmá H$aZo Ho$ {cE Am`mV ewëH$ na 7,500 H$amo‹S> én`o H$s Ny>Q> Xr JB© Am¡a Eogm cJVm h¡ {H$ gaH$ma Zo H$moB© cmJV Am¡a cm^ H$m {dûcofU Zht {H$`m&” 2 • 2002 _| Xoe Ho$ {Z`m©V _| B©nrμOoS> H$m {hñgm Ho$dc 4% Wm H|$Ðr` {dÎm _§Ìmb` Ho$ 2005 Ho$ Am§H$bZ Ho$ AZwgma, (B©nrOoS> gpå_{bV) H$mo gaH$ma Ûmam ‹ àË`j Am¡a AàË`j H$am| _| Mma gmbm| _| (01-05) H$ar~ 90,000 H$amo‹S> én`o H$s Ny>Q> XoZr n‹S>rŸ& Ohm± VH$ Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$m gdmc h¡ B©nrμOoS> Am¡a EgB©μOoS H$m {dMma EH$ O¡gm hr, na BZ_| Hw$N> $H©$ ^r h¢ - • {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ Zr{V _| BH$mB`m| Ho$ §{cE 100% {Z`m©V CËnmX H$aZm μOê$ar Wm Am¡a [a`m`V| coZo H$s eV] H$ht μÁ`mXm H${R>Z Wt& `h A{Zdm`©Vm EgB©μOoS H$s BH$mB©`m| Ho$ {cE Zht h¡& 23
  24. 24. • {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Zr{V _| BH$mB`m| H$mo {Z`m©V Ho$ Acmdm Kaocy g^r hmcmV _|, EgB©μOoS _| μÁ`mXm ~mμOma _| gm_mZ ~oMZo H$s BOmμOV XoH$a eVm] H$mo AmgmZ ~Zm`m $m`Xm BH$mB`m| H$mo J`m h¡& Z hmoH$a CZ {dH$mgH$Îmm©Am| H$mo e§H$m `h μOm{ha H$s Om ahr h¡ {H$ `{X EgB©μOoS _| pñWV CÚmoJ hmoJm, {OÝh| gaH$ma BH$mB`m± {Z`m©V H$aZo Ho$ ~Om` Kaocy / Iwco ~mμOma _| gñVm gm_mZ go gñVr O_rZ Ho$ μ ~oMo|Jr Vmo EgB©μOoS Ho$ ~mha H$m`©aV CËnmXH$m| Ho$ ì`dgm` H$mo IVam gmW-gmW _yc^yV hmoJm&3 gw{dYmE§, aIaImd Am¡a H$am| _| ^mar EgB©μOoS H$mZyZ Ho$ AZwgma {H$gr ^r EgB©μOoS H$m cJ^J 65% [a`m`V {_c|Jt& joÌ J¡a Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$m`m}§ (_Zmoa§OZ godmE± Am¡a Q>mCZ{en AmXr) _| BñVo_mc {H$`m Om gH$Vm h¡& `{X `o EgB©μOoS {dH$mgH$Îmm© {Z`m©V AmYm[aV BH$mB`m| H$mo cw^mZo _| ZmH$m_`m~ ^r hmoVo h¢ Vmo ^r `o EgB©μOoS _| J¡a Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌm| _| Xygao H$m_ H$aHo$ H$_mB© H$a gH$Vo h¢& g^r hmcmV _|, EgB©μOoS _| μÁ`mXm $m`Xm BZ {dH$mgH$Îmm©Am| H$mo hmoJm, {OÝh| gaH$ma go gñVr μO_rZ Ho$ gmW-gmW _yc^yV gw{dYmE§, aIaImd Am¡a H$am| _| ^mar [a`m`V {_c|Jt& EgB©μOoS H$s nhc _| gaH$ma H$s Cå_rX H$am| _| ^mar Ny>Q> Š`m|? `h h¡ {H$ ^maV _| ^maV _| {nN>co Hw$N> gmcm| _| d¡go hr ì`mnma Am¡a {Zdoe Ho$ {Z`_ Ho$dc {dXoer {Zdoe hr {dœ ~mOμma- μÁ`mXm CXma {H$`o JE h¡& {H$gr ^r EgB©μOoS _| Am¡a AÝ` ñWmZr` H|$pÐV {Z`m©V H$mo CÚmoJm| _| EH$ ñWmZr` n«ewëH$ joÌ (S>mo_opñQ>H$ Q>¡[a$$E[a`m) _| {_cZo ~‹T>mdm XoJm& Cå_rXm| dmcr gw{dYmAm| Ho$ ~rM H$m A§Va O~ H$_ hmoVm Mcm OmVm h¡, Vmo {deof Ho$ CcQ> A~ VH$ ê$n go {dÎmr` n«cmo^Z E§d Ny>Q> ({$ñH$c B§g|{Q>d) ~hþV hr _h±Jo Am¡a Á`mXmVa {dXoer μ J¡a Oμê$ar Vmoho$ cJZo cJVo h¢&4 Eogr pñW{V _| `h g_PZm H${R>Z h¡ {Zdoe {Z`m©V H$mo {H$ h_| BZ joÌm| H$s μOê$aV Š`m h¡? ~‹T>mdm XoZo Ho$ ~Om` Kaocy ~mOμma Ho$ {cE EgB©μOoS H$s nhc _| gaH$ma H$s Cå_rX `h h¡ {H$ ^maV _| Ho$dc hþAm h¡ Ÿ& {dXoer {Zdoe hr {dœ ~mOμma-H|$[ÐV {Z`m©V H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoJm& Bg na gdmc Bg{cE CR>mE Om aho h¢ {H$ Cå_rXm| Ho$ CcQ> A~ VH$ μÁ`mXmVa 24
  25. 25. {dXoer {Zdoe {Z`m©V H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZo Ho$ ~Om` Kaocy ~mOμma Ho$ {cE hþAm h¡&5 ^maV _| BZ joÌm| H$s Oê$aV na cJmVma e§H$m OVmB© JB© h¡& O~ MrZ ñd§` Z`o EgB©μOoS> ~ZmZo na amoH$ cJm MwH$m h¡ Am¡a A~ d¡H$pënH$ _m°S>c Ty>±T> ahm h¡, Vmo Š`m `h AmíM`© Zht {H$ h_ Xoa go OmJo h¡? A_o[aH$m Ho$ EH$ AÜ``Z H|$X« (_m°J©Z ñQ¡>Zcr argM©) H$s OyZ 2006 H$s [anmoQ©> ~VmVr h¡, ""h_ `h _mZVo h¢ {H$ ZE H$mZyZ go AmH${f©V Eogo {ZdoeH$m| Ho$ àñVmd Am aho h¢ Omo Ho$dc H$a H$m $m`Xm CR>mZm MmhVo h¢& ZE EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE μÁ`mXmVa àñVmd N>moQo> Am¡a _Ü`_ ñVa Ho$ CËnmXZ H$mo μOê$ar ~‹T>mdm Zht Xo gH$Vo&'' A§Vam©ï´>r` _wÐm H$mof Am¡a _m°J©Z ñQ¡>Zcr [anmoQ©> Zo “dmñV{dH$” EgB©μOoS gwPmVo hþE H$hm “H|$Ð gaH$ma H$mo amÁ` gaH$mam| go {_c H$a 5-6 ~‹So> EgB©μOoS ~ZmZo H$s H$mopee H$aZr Mm{hE&” ^maVr` [aμOd© ~¢H$ (RBI) Ho$ {cE ^r `h qMVm H$s ~mV h¡ {H$, hmcm±{H$ EgB©μOoS H$mo {dH$mg Ho$ dmhH$ (J«moW H¡$Q>{cñQ>) H$s Vah H$m_ H$aZm Mm{hE na _w_{H$Z h¡ {H$ `o joÌ H$_ {dH${gV joÌm| go g§gmYZ co OmH$a Ag§Vw{cV {dH$mg H$mo ~‹T>mdm X|& Š`m|{H$ A~ VH$ Ho$ _§Oya EgB©μOoS n«ñVmdm| _| go A{YH$V_ Xoe Ho$ {g©$ 5 amÁ`m| _| hr AmZo dmco [aμOd© ~¢H$ H$m h¢& AZw_mZ h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS A~ {dÎm _§Ìmc` Am¡a [aμOd© ~¢H$ Zo Xmo _wÔo CR>mE h¢ - nhcm, H$am| n[a`moOZmAm| _| _| Ny>Q> H$s dOh go hmoZo dmco amOñd H$m ZwH$gmZ& [aμOd© ~¢H$ H$m Xr OmZo dmcr H$a AZw_mZ h¡ {H$ SEZ n[a`moOZmAm| _| Xr OmZo dmcr H$a gpãgS>r Ho$ gpãgS>r Ho$ H$maU H$maU 2010 VH$ Xoe H$mo 1,60,000 H$amo‹S> ê$n`o H$m ZwH$gmZ hmo MwH$m 2010 VH$ Xoe hmoJm& Xygam _wÔm h¡ {H$ O~ {H$gr ^r Eogo úmoÌ H$m 65% {hñgm J¡a H$mo 1,60,000 Am¡Úmo{JH$ Cn`moJ, O¡go {H$ _Zmoa§OZ Ed§ ^y-g§n{V {Z_m©U, Ho$ {cE hmo H$amo‹S> ê$n`o H$m ZwH$gmZ hmo MwH$m gH$Vm h¡ Vmo Eogo _| EgB©μOoS "ar`c EñQo>Q'> {~μOZog _| ~Xc gH$Vo h¢& hmoJm& {dÎm _§Ìmc` Zo `h Zht hmo Eogm gw{ZpíMV H$aZo Ho$ {cE gm$-gm$ 25
  26. 26. {dH$mgerc Xoem| _|, {Xem-{ZX©oe XoZo na μOmoa {X`m Wm&6 AmB©Q>r godmAm| _| AmE CN>mc go Bgr Vah H$s Ame§H$mE± AÝ` ~¢H$m| H$s ^r h¢, Omo EgB©μOoS gaH$ma Bg hH$sH$V n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo V~ VH$ CYma Zht XoZm MmhVo O~ VH$ {H$ “g~Hw$N> H$mo ^yc ahr h¡ {H$ gm$” (BZ {Zdoem| H$s Am{W©H$ pñWaVm) Zht hmo OmVm& ^maV _| ar`c Bgr Xm¡a _| _mc EñQo>Q> _| ~‹S>m {Zdoe H$aZo dmco ~¢H$m| _| go EH$, Am`.gr.Am`.gr Am`. CËnmXH$ joÌm| _| ~¢H$ Zo H$hm h¡ {H$ dh ""EgB©μOoS _| {Zdoe H$aZo _| gmdYZr ~aVZm amoμOJma _| ^mar MmhVr h¡&'' {JamdQ> AmB© h¡ hr, gmW hr Bg joÌ _| EgB©μOoS _| gyMZm àmoÚmo{JH$aU Ho$pÝX«V {dH$mg CËnmX ~‹T>mZo Ho$ à{V EgB©μOoS _| gyMZm àmoÚmo{JH$s g§~§{YV n[a`moOZmAm| H$s ~hþVm`V CXmgrZVm ~‹T> hmoZo go ^r ~hþV gr qMVmE± n¡Xm hþB© h¢& {dH$mgerc Xoem| _|, AmB©Q>r ahr h¡& godmAm| _| AmE CN>mc go gaH$ma Bg hH$sH$V H$mo ^yc ahr h¡ {H$ Bgr Xm¡a _| _mc CËnmXH$ joÌm| (Manufacturing sector) _| amoμOJma _| ^mar {JamdQ> Vmo AmB© hr, gmW hr Bg joÌ _| CËnmX ~‹T>mZo Ho$ à{V CXmgrZVm ~‹T> ahr h¡& Bg Vah Ho$ {dH$mg H$mo Om°~cog J«moW qgS´>mo_ (amoOJmahrZ d¥Õr) H$hVo h¢& AmB©Q>r godmE± Ho$dc Bg{cE gH$mamË_H$ _mhm¡c ~ZmVr h¡ Š`m|{H$ `hr AHo$cm joÌ h¡ Ohm± amoOμJma VoμOr go ~‹T> ahm h¡& na `h d¥{Õ, N>moQo> go _Ü`_ dJ© H$mo N>mo‹S> μÁ`mXmVa Am~mXr Ho$ {cE H$moB© _m`Zo Zhr aIVr h¡&7 ~¢Jcmoa Am¡a nwUo O¡go eham| _| {nN>co nm±M gmcm| _| IT joÌ H$m {dH$mg hþAm h¡, na eha Ho$ ^rVa AcJ-AcJ dJmoª _| {df_Vm H$s dOh go ~hþV-gr gm_m{OH$ g_ñ`mE± C^a H$a AmB© h¢& OwcmB© 2005 Am¡a 06 Ho$ ~rM nwUo _| _§hJmB© (J«mhH$ _yë` gyMH$m§H$) _| 8% H$s Am¡a ~¢Jcmoa _| 7% H$s ~‹T>moVar hþB©& Bggo nwUo O¡go eham| _| O_rZ H$s H$s_Vm| Am¡a ZE {Z_m©U _| ^r Oμ~aXñV CN>mc {XImB© {X`m h¡& Am{IaH$ma BgH$m ^ma eha Ho$ _yc^yV gw{dYmAm| na nS>Vm h¡ Ÿ& BZ gw{dYmAm| {H$ H$_r go C^ar g_ñ`mAm| go _hmZJa μ ~ZZo na Vwco `o XmoZm| eha nr{‹S>V h¢& {OZ amÁ`m| _| `o eha h¢, do g~go Á`mXm EgB©μOoS> _§Oya H$aZo dmco amÁ`m| _| go h¢& μ (òmoV - A^` d¡Ú, Q>mBåg Am°°$ B§{S>`m, - grEgAmo) 26
  27. 27. II. O_rZ H$m gdmc ^maV Am¡a MrZ O¡go Xoem| _| Am¡Úmo{JH$ n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ {cE J«m_rU BcmH$m| _| ~‹So> n¡_mZo na IoVr H$s μO_rZ Ho$ A{YJ«hU go hþB© {H$gmZm| H$s ~oXIcr H$m _wÔm J§^ra ahm h¡& A~ VH$ _§Oya cJ^J 400 EgB©μOoS> n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ {cE (Am¡nMm[aH$ ê$n go Am¡a {gÕm§V ê$n _| _§Oa XmoZm| Vah Ho$) H$ar~ y 1,25,000 hoŠQo>`a μO_rZ coZo H$m AZw_mZ h¡& _hmamï´>, n§Om~, h[a`mUm, CÎma n«Xe, Am§Y« n«Xe, npíM_ ~§Jmc BZ g^r amÁ`m| _| o o EgB©OS> Ho$ {cE A{YJ«{hV H$s OmZo dmcr Á`mXmVa O_rZ CnOmD$ μ o μ H¥${f H$s O_rZ| h¡& BZ O_rZm| Ho$ OmZo go cmIm| H$s g§»`m _| {H$gmZm| μ μ H$s AmOr{dH$m na Jham n«^md n‹S>Zo dmcm h¡& AmO μO_rZ Ho$ Aì`dpñWV Am¡a _Z_mZo VarHo$ go A{YJ«hU Ho$ {damoY _| O~aXñV OZ AmH««$moe CR> I‹S>m hþAm h¡& {OgHo$ nrNo> Ho$ _w»` gdmc h¡§– • O~aZ {H$`m Om ahm ^y-A{YJ«hU… Z§XrJ«m_ (n. ~§Jmc) Am¡a H$mH$sZm‹S>m (Am§Y« n«Xoe) H$m CXmhaU VmμOm h¡& • gñVo Xm_ _| {H$gmZm| H$mo ~oXIc Am¡a {dñWm{nV H$aZo H$s H$mo{ee Am¡a Am{O{dH$m H$mo IË_ H$aZm _hmamï´>, n§Om~, h[a`mUm, CÎma • _wAmdμOo Ed§ nwZdm©g H$m {ZVm§V A^md Am¡a n«Xoe, Am§Y« • ~‹So> {ZOr Am¡Úmo{JH$ KamZm| H$mo ~‹S>r _mÌm _| μO_rZ XoZm n«Xoe, npíM_ ~§Jmc BZ g^r {damoYm| H$mo XoIVo hþE, {gV§~a 2006 _|, H$m±J«og AÜ`j gmo{Z`m amÁ`m| _| Jm§Yr Zo {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ (EgB©μOoS>) n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ {cE IoVr H$s EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE μO_rZ A{YJ«{hV H$aZo na qMVm μOm{ha H$s& BgHo$ Vwa§V ~mX H|$Ðr` A{YJ«{hV H$s dm{UÁ` _§Ìr Zo h‹S>~‹S>mhQ> _| H$B© ~`mZ Am¡a {ZX©oe Omar {H$E, ImgVm¡a OmZo dmcr na amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo “EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE IoVr H$s μO_rZ A{YJ«{hV Á`mXmVa μO_rZ CnOmD$ H¥${f H$aZo _| gmdYmZr ~aVZo Am¡a BZ joÌm| H$mo naVr μO_rZ (waste land) H$s μO_rZ| h¡& na ~ZmZ'' H$s ~mV H$hr& 27
  28. 28. Xygam ~`mZ Omo dm{UÁ` _§Ìr AŠga XmohamVo aho h¢, dh h¡ amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo A{YJ«hU H$s à{H«$`m go Xya ahZo H$s μOê$aV Am¡a Bg_| em{_c njm|, ImgH$a {H$gmZm| Am¡a EgB©μOoS Ho$ “{dH$mgH$Îmm©” H$mo Amng _| gm¡Xm H$aZo XoZm& EH$ Q>rdr M¡Zc na Hw$N> g_` nhco hþE B§Q>aì`y _| lr H$_cZmW go O~ ~‹So> n¡_mZo na μO_rZ Ho$ A{YJ«hU H$s ~mV H$s JB© Vmo CÝhm|Zo `h VH©$ XoH$a Bgo Im[aO H$a {X`m {H$ “`{X CÚmoJ H$mo I‹S>m hmoZm h¡ Vmo dh nmZr `m hdm _| I‹S>m Zht hmo gH$Vm, dh Vmo μO_rZ na hr hmoJm”& `h ~X{H$ñ_Vr h¡ {H$ BZ D±$Mo nXm| na ~¡Ro> OZ à{V{Z{Y AmO ^maV O¡go Xoe _| μO_rZr dmñV{dH$VmAm| Am¡a _m¡OyXm H$mZyZm| H$mo g_Po {~Zm “O_rZ” Am¡a BgHo$ “A{YJ«hU” O¡go _wÔm| na ~mV H$a aho h¢& μ H$mZyZ Am¡a μO_rZr hH$sH$V H$m A§V{d©amoμY {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ na ~Zm H|$Ðr` H$mZyZ μO_rZ Ho$ A{YJ«hU Ho$ _wÔo na Im_moe h¡& VmÁOw~ hmoVm h¡ {H$ O~ `h ~hþV hr gm$ h¡ {H$ n[a`moOZm μO_rZ na hr I‹S>r hmoJr Vmo EgB©μOoS H$mZyZ Ho$ nyao XñVmdoμO _| `μO_rZ Ho$ A{YJ«hU' {H$ à{H«$`m H$m C„oI EH$ ~ma ^r Š`m| Zht Am`m h¡ ? amÁ` gaH$ma H$s ^y{_H$m …- My§{H$ g§{dYmZ Ho$ AZwgma μ"O_rZ' amÁ` H$m {df` h¡ Bg{cE Ho$ÝX« H$s amÁ` gaH$mam| go `h Anojm h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS ~ZmZo _| do AmJo ah|& H$B© amÁ`m| _| gaH$mamo§ Zo ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mZyZ 1894 {H$ _XX go μO_rZ boZo H$s à{H«$`m AnZmB© h¡Ÿ& O~ Bg na ZH$mamË_ à{V{H«$`m`| Am`r§ Vmo dm{UÁ` _§Ìr H$m `h ~`mZ Am¡a ^r Xw^m©½`nyU© ahm {H$ amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo μO_rZ Ho$ A{YJ«hU H$s à{H«$`m go Xya ahZm Mm{hE Am¡a H§$nZr grYo hr {H$gmZm| go μO_rZ H$m gm¡Xm H$ao& μOm{ha h¡ Bg ~`mZ Ho$ gmW H$B© {X¸$V| h¢ Š`mo§{H$ ~mhþ~cr H§$n{Z`m| Ho$ gm_Zo {H$gmZ AnZo {hV H$m gm¡Xm H$a nmE§, `o _wpíH$c h¡& Bg n«H$ma h_oem H$s Vah EH$ ~ma {$a μO_rZ H$m A{YJ«hU Am¡a Bggo hmoZo dmco {dñWmnZ Ho$ _wÔo na H$moB© H$mZyZr n«{H««$`m E§d g_mYmZ Zht {X`m J`m h¡& Ho$ÝX« gaH$ma Ho$ A{YH$ma …- g~go _hËdnyU© Vmo `h h¡ {H$ H|$Ðr` H$mZyZ Ho$ AÜ`m` 2 ^mJ 4 _| H$hm J`m h¡ {H$ {H$gr ^r EgB©μOoS H$mo A{Yg{yMV H$aZo Ho$ ~mX, `{X H|$Ð gaH$ma H$mo R>rH$ cJo, Vmo ~mX _| A{V[aº$ joÌ H$mo Cg EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE A{Ygy{MV H$a gH$Vr h¡& BgH$m _Vb~ {H$ AZw_Vr XoZo Am¡a EgB©μOoS Ho$ {bE {OVZr _μOu μO_rZ A{Ygy{MV H$aZo H$m A{YH$ma H|$Ð gaH$ma Zo AnZr _wÇ>r _o aIm h¡Ÿ& naVr ^y{_ H$m BñVo_mc …- _§Ìmc` Zo EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE A{YJ«{hV H$s Om ahr μO_rZm| Ho$ 28
  29. 29. àH$ma H$m H$moB© AZw_mZ hr Zht {H$`m h¡ na `h Oê$a H$hm h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS IoVr _| BñVo_mc Z hmoZo dmcr μO_rZ na cJ gH$Vo h¡& ^maV _| Eogr ^y{_ Ho$ J«m_rU BcmH$m| _| Xmo _w»` n«H$ma h¡ O§Jc-dZ^y{_ Am¡a naVr ^y{_& BZ μO_rZm| _| Á`mXmVa {H$gr Z {H$gr Vah H$s dZñn{V dmco O§Jc hmoVo h¡ `m {$a Mmao dmcr Kmg CJVr h¡& XmoZm| hr Jm§d-Ka H$s BªYZ, cH$‹S>r, Mmam O¡gr Oê$aV| nyar H$aVr h¡& dZm| Ho$ XmohZ Ho$ ZμO[a`o go XoI| Vmo AHo$co _hmamï´> _| 3 ~‹So> EgB©μOoS H$m|H$U joÌ _| ~Z aho h¢ Ohm± nm[apñW{VH$s H$s Ñ{ï> go g§doXZerc "n{ü_r KmQ>' Ho$ O§Jb h¢& H$ht ^r O§Jc H$s μO_rZ ImoZo go Xoe Ho$ n`m©daU H$mo hmoZo dmco AÀNo>-Imgo ZwH$gmZ H$m H$moB© AmH$cZ n«ñVwV Zht {H$`m J`m h¡& naVr ^y{_ - gm_y{hH$ g§gmYZ BªYZ, Mmam, cH$‹S>r Ho$ Acmdm O§Jc H$s Xygar n¡Xmdmam| H$s μOê$aV| {OZ μO_rZm| go nyar hmoVr h¢ CÝh| `gmPm g§nXm g§gmYZ’ loUr _| aIm Om gH$Vm h¡& {OÝh| ñWmZr` ~mo{c`m| _| MamJmh, Jm¡Ma, n{‹S>V ^y{_ H$hm OmVm h¡, na gaH$ma {OÝh| “naVr O_rZ” H$s loUr _| aIVr h¡& `h Xoe μ Ho$ Hw$c ^m¡Jmo{cH$ joÌ H$m H$ar~ 20% h¡& H$B© amÁ`m| _| BZ O_rZm| _| IoVr Ho$ cm`H$ Imcr μ O_rZ|, Jm`amZ O_rZ, MmamJmh `m H$_ KZo O§Jc h¢ Omo ñWmZr` J«m_rU AW©ì`dñWm H$m μ μ A{^Þ A§J h¢& EH$ AÜ``Z Ho$ AZwgma Jar~ n[admam| H$s Am_XZr _| BZ O_rZm| H$m `moJXmZ μ H$ar~ 12% hmoVm h¡& XaAgc _hmamï´>, _Ü` àXoe Am¡a amOñWmZ O¡go amÁ`m| _| newnmcH$ g_wXm`m| H$m EH$ ~‹S>m dJ© AnZo OmZda nmcZo Ho$ {cE nyar Vah go BZ O_rZm| na {Z^©a h¡& μ (òmoV : _mZer Aea "S>moÝQ> H$m©b BQ²> doñQ> b°ÊS>' Q>mB©åg Am°$ B§{S>`m, 12, Aºy$~a 2006) EH$ Am¡a _hËdnyU© _wÔm `h h¡ {H$ H$B© amÁ`m| _| `o naVr μO_rZ| nhco go hr OmoVr Om ahr h¢ {OZ na {H$gmZm| H$mo H$mZyZr hH$ {_cZm ~mH$s h¡& Hw$N> _m_cm| _| `o μO_rZ| "^y-gwYma' H$s à{H«$`m _| "grqcJ' H$s μO_rZ| h¢, {OZna cmoJm| H$mo H$mZyZr H$ãOm A^r VH$ Zht {X`m J`m h¡& _hmamï´> Ho$ am`J‹T> {Oμco _|, Ohm± [acm`§g EH$ ~hþV ~‹S>m EgB©μOoS ~Zm ahm h¡, H$ar~ 12,000 hoŠQo>`a `Xbr' μO_rZ h¡ {Og na Am{Xdmgr XeH$m| go IoVr H$aVo AmE h¢& μÁ`mXmVa n[admam| H$mo hmcm±{H$ A^r VH$ BZHo$ {Z`{_V hmoZo H$m B§VOμma h¡ My§{H$ `h μO_rZ O§Jc H$s loUr _| AmVr h¢& Bgr go {_cVm-OwcVm _m_cm C‹S>rgm H$m h¡, {OgHo$ OJVqghnwa {Oμco _| Ohm± ~hþamï´>r` nmohm§J ñQ>rc H§$nZr Ho$ EgB©μOoS H$s `moOZm h¡, VH$ar~Z 300 n[admam| H$mo H$mZyZr _m{cH$mZo H$m B§VμOma h¡& 29
  30. 30. nÅ>m `m _m{cH$mZm Z hmoZo H$s dOh go, Jm±d dmcm| Ho$ nmg gm¡X~mμOr o `h gm$ h¡ {H$ H$aZo H$s H$moB© JwOmBe Zht h¡ Am¡a `o An`m©á `m {~Zm _wAmdμOo Ho$ § “O_rZ” Ho$ _wÔo na μ {dñWm{nV hmoVo aho h¢& Eogo _m_cm| _| gaH$ma nwZdm©g na {dMma ^r dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` Zo Zht H$aVr h¡& Xya§Xoer go H$m_ Zht {c`m h¡& Bg _m_co Am{Ia _|, H$B© EgB©μOoS Ho$ AmH$ma H$mo XoIVo hþE cJVm h¡ {H$ `o H$s CZ O{Q>cVmAm| H$B©-gm¡ hoŠQo>`a _| ¡$c|Jo& BZHo$ {cE BH$Æo> c§~o-Mm¡‹So> “~oH$ma” O_rZ μ Am¡a J{VercVmAm| Ho$ Qw>H$‹So> {_cZm _wpíH$c hr hmoJm, ImgH$a V{_cZmSw>, h[a`mUm, C.à. H$mo nyar Vah go ZμOaA§XmO {H$`m h¡ Am¡a _hmamï´> O¡go amÁ`m| _| Ohm± `o joÌ Am aho h¢& Bg{cE BÝh| “~oH$ma” {OZHo$ J§^ra μO_rZ na ~ZmZo H$m gaH$ma H$m VH©$ cJ^J Ag§^d h¡& n[aUm_ Xoe Ho$ J«m_rU g_wXm` Am¡a `h gm$ h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS _| “O_rZ” Ho$ _wÔo na dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` μ Am{Iar ~Mo gmPo Zo Xya§Xoer go H$m_ Zht {c`m h¡& Bg _m_co H$s CZ O{Q>cVmAm| Am¡a g§gmYZm| na n‹S>Zo J{VercVmAm| H$mo nyar Vah go ZμOaA§XmO {H$`m h¡ {OZHo$ J§^ra n[aUm_ dmco h¢& Xoe Ho$ J«m_rU g_wXm` Am¡a Am{Iar ~Mo gmPm g§nXm g§gmYZm| na n‹S>Zo dmco h¢& ZB© nwZd©mg Zr{V H$s KmofUm …- AŠVy~a 4, 2006 H$mo J«m_rU {dH$mg _§Ìmc` Zo g_mMma nÌ _| Zmo{Q>g Omar H$s, {Og_| amï´>r` nwZdm©g Zr{V 2006 Ho$ _gm¡Xo na OZVm H$s {Q>ßn{U`m§/n«{V{H««$`m _m§Jr J`r& n«{V{H««$`m ^oOZo Ho$ {c`o Ho$dc 7 {XZ H$m g_` {X`m J`m& _§Ìmc` Ûmam Kmo{fV nwZdm©g Zr{V H$m _gm¡Xm Z {g©$ {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ {cE {H$`o OmZo dmco ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mo AmgmZ ~ZmZo Ho$ {cE gaH$ma H$s H$mo{ee h¡, ~pëH$, OZ g§JR>Zm| Am¡a ~w{ÕOr{d`m| H$mo ^r _gm¡Xm V¡`ma H$aZo H$s n«{H««$`m go ~mha aIZo H$s g{Oe ^r & OZdar 2007 _| Z§XrJ«m_ _| hþE ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mo coH$a EgB©μOoS Ho$ {Icm$ {damoY Am¡a qhgH$ P‹S>n Ho$ McVo amÁ` gaH$mam| Ho$ ad¡æ`o na CRo> gdmcm| Zo Z {g©$ npíM_ ~§Jmc H$s _m.H$.nm. gaH$ma na X~md ~Zm`m, ~pëH$ H|$X« gaH$ma H$mo ^r EgB©μOoS na nwZ©{dMma H$aZo H$mo 30
  31. 31. 8 {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Ho$ {cE amï´>r` nwZdm©g Zr{V 2006 {nN>co 20 gmcm|§ _| nwZdm©g Zr{V Ho$ H$B© _gm¡Xo AcJ - AcJ _§Ìmc`m| Edo CZH$s ~ZmB© g_r{V`m| Ho$ Ûmam n«ñVwV {H$`o J`o& Am¡a ha ~ma OZ g§JR>Zm| Am¡a ~w{ÕOr{d`m| Zo Z {g©$ BZ _gm¡Xm| na {Q>ßnUr`m§ H$s ~pëH$ d¡H$pënH$ Zr{V H$mo ^r gaH$ma Ho$ gm_Zo Omoa-emoa go aIm & A^r hmc hr _|, _mM©, 2006 _| OZ g§JR>Zm| Ho$ nam_f© go gaH$ma (UPA) Ûmam J{R>V "amï´>r` gcmhH$ma g{_{V' (NAC) Ho$ V¡`ma {H$`o JE amï´>r` nwZdm©g Zr{V Ho$ _gm¡Xo H$mo ^r n«YmZ_§Ìr H$m`m©c` Zo Zm_§Oa H$a {X`m Wm& _§Ìmc` Ûmam Omar dV©_mZ Zr{V 2003 _| Kmo{fV Zr{V hr h¡ y {OgH$s Cg g_` H$‹S>r AmcmoMZm H$s JB© Wr& dV©_mZ 2006 H$s Zr{V _| 2003 H$s Zr{V go Hw$N> n[adV©Z Ho$ A{V[aŠV H$moB© Img gwYma Zht h¡& BgH$s _w»` H${_`m§- § 1 Zr{V A^r ^r {dñWmnZ H$mo AñdrH$ma Zht H$aVr h¡, ~pëH$ 1894 Ho$ ^y-A{YJ«hU A{Y{Z`_ _| amÁ` H$mo ^y{_ na {X`o J`o "loð> A{YH$ma' H$mo `h ~aH$ama aIVr h¡& 2 gmW hr `h Zr{V A^r ^r "gmd©O{ZH$ Cn`moJ' Ho$ Zm_ na ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mo _mÝ`Vm XoVr h¡& Bg g§X^© _| OZ g§JR>Zm| Am¡a NAC Ûmam 1894 Ho$ ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mZyZ _| _m§Jo J`o g§emoYZ H$mo ZH$mam J`m h¡& 3 {dñWmnZ H$s pñW{V _| "nyd© gy{MV gå_{V' O¡go gwPmdm| H$mo ^r dV©_mZ Zr{V _| em{_c Zht {H$`m J`m h¡& dV©_mZ Zr{V Ho$ _gm¡Xo _| H$ht ^r `h gw{ZpíMV Zht {H$`m J`m h¡ {H$ {dñWmnZ E§d nwZdm©g H$s n«{H«$`m nmaXeu, gh^m{JVmnyU© Am¡a gaH$ma H$mo CËVaXm`r R>hamZo dmcr hmo& `h AÝ`m`nyU© h¡ {H$ {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mo ~ZmZo E§d ~‹T>mdm XoZo Ho$ {cE gaH$mar H$mZyZ Vmo ~Zm`m J`m h¡ na§Vw BZgo hmoZo dmco {dñWmnZ Am¡a {dZme na amoH$ cJmZo Am¡a nwZdm©g O¡go _hËdnyU© A{YH$ma H$mo gwa{jV H$aZo H$s {Oå_oXmar H$mo {Z^mZo _| gaH$ma Zo nyar Vah go cmnadmhr ~aVr h¡& _O~ya {H$`m& gmW hr n§Om~, CÎmamI§S> Am¡a CÎma n«Xoe _| AmZo dmco _hrZm| _| hmoZo dmco MwZmdm| Zo ^r _w»` amOZr{VH$ Xcm| H$mo EgB©μOoS Am¡a Cggo Ow‹So> _wX²Xm| na AnZm nj aIZo _| gV©H$ H$a {X`m h¡& Bgr Ho$ McVo H$m±J«og ^r ({OgH$s BZ_| go VrZ amÁ`m| _| ~hþ_V dmcr gaH$ma h¡) {OgZo EgB©μOoS H$mo AnZr `ñdßZ n[a`moOZm’ _mZ {c`m Wm AmO AnZm ê$I Za_ {XIm ahr h¡& 22 OZdar H$mo UPA gaH$ma Ho$ {deofm{YH$ma _§Ìr g_yh Zo AnZr ~¡R>H$ _| SEZ go Ow‹So> ^y-A{YJ«hU, nwZdm©g, Q¡>Šg [a`mAVm| Ho$ Xwén`moJ Ho$ gdmbm| na MMm© H$s Am¡a V` {H$`m {H$ {$chmc EgB©μOoS H$mo Xr OmZo dmcr AZw_{V`m| na amoH$ cJm Xr OmE& BgHo$ A{V[aŠV Xoe Ho$ n«YmZ_§Ìr lr _Z_mohZ qgh Zo ^r A§VV… _O~yar _| `h ~`mZ {X`m h¡ {H$ nwZdm©g Zr{V Ho$ AmZo 31
  32. 32. go nhco Z`r n[a`moOZmAm| (63 A{Ygy{MV n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ Acmdm {OZH$mo CZH$s gaH$ma Zo nhco hr _§Oyar Xo Xr h¡) H$mo _§Oyar Zht XoJ|& hm±cm§{H$, dV©_mZ nwZdm©g Zr{V H$m n«mê$n nyar Vah go nwZdm©g Am¡a {dñWmnZ go Ow‹So> hþE gdmcm| H$mo hc H$aVm Zht {XIVm h¡& III _μOXyam| Ho$ emofU Ho$ _wÔo nyar Xw{Z`m _| ì`mnma Am¡a {Z`m©V joÌm| _| _μOXyam| Ho$ emofU H$s ~mV| Am_ h¢& ^maV H$moB© ~hþV AcJ Zht h¡& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ 2005 Am¡a EgB©μOoS Zr{V AmZo go nhco, H$_ go H$_ g¡Õm§{VH$ ê$n go, gmao l_ Am¡a ¡$ŠQ´>r H$mZyZ B©nrμOoS> _| nyar Vah cmJy Wo& na§Vw {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ 2005 _| BZ joÌm| H$mo "gmd©O{ZH$ godm joÌ' Kmo{fV {H$`m h¡ {OgH$m grYm Aga BZ joÌm| _| H$m_ H$aZo dmco _OXyam| na n‹S> ahm h¡& 1. `y{Z`Z ~ZmZo na amoH$ – nwamZo B©nrμOoS> (Omo A~ EgB©μOoS H$hcmVo h¢) _| Q´o>S> `y{Z`Z| ~ZmZo H$s H$mo{eem| Ho$ ~mdOyX `o ì`mdhm[aH$ ê$n go _m¡OyX Zht Wt `m H$_ Wt& BgH$s Img dOh `h Wr {H$ B©nrμOoS> _| ^r Ho$dc H$_©Mm[a`m| H$mo hr grYo ¡$ŠQ´>r Ho$ XadmμOo go AmZo-OmZo H$s BOmμOV hmoVr h¡& B©nrμOoS> H$_©Mm[a`m| Zo `h ^r ~Vm`m h¡ {H$ `{X do `y{Z`Z _| em{_c hmoVo h¢ Vmo _¡ZoO_|Q> Ho$ A{YH$mar CÝh| naoemZ H$aV h¡& ZmoES>m {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ _| l_ H$mZyZ cmJy H$aZo H$s _m±J H$aZo na H$_©Mm[a`m| H$mo Zm¡H$ar go {ZH$mc {X`m J`m Wm&9 2. h‹S>Vmc H$aZo H$m A{YH$ma Zht – gaH$ma Zo "Am¡Úmo{JH$ {ddmX A{Y{Z`_' Ho$ VhV ""gmd©O{ZH$ godm'' H$m XOm© XoH$a ^maV Ho$ B©nrμOoS> _| go Xmo – _wå~B© Ho$ nmg gm§VmH«y$μO BcoŠQ´>m°{ZH$ EŠgnmoQ©> àmogoqgJ μOmoZ (grßμO>) Am¡a H$m§S>cm _| h‹S>Vmc na amoH$ cJm Xr Wr& Bggo `{X h‹S>Vmc H$aZo go nhco l_ Am`wº$ H$mo em{_c H$aHo$ g_Pm¡Vo H$s H$mo{ee| Z H$s OmE± Vmo h‹S>Vmc J¡aH$mZyZr _mZm OmVr h¡& 3. {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| gmd©O{ZH$ Cn`moJr godmE± – dV©_mZ EgB©μOoS ì`dñWm _|, l_ H$mZyZm| H$mo AÀN>m-Imgm Z_© ~Zm {X`m J`m h¡& EgB©μOoS Ho$ {Z`_m| Ho$ AÜ`m` 2 I§S> 5(g) _| EgB©μOoS H$mo “cmoH$ Cn`moJr godm” Kmo{fV H$aZo H$m A{YH$ma EgB©μOoS Ho$ {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$mo Xo {X`m J`m h¡& I§S> 5(f) _| H$_©Mmar-_m{cH$ g§~§Ym| H$mo XoIZo H$m A{YH$ma ^r "{dH$mg Am`wº$' H$mo Xo {X`m J`m h¡& l_ Am`wº$ H$s {μOå_oXmar`m§ ^r {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$mo Xo {X JB© h¢& 4. H$m_ H$s Iam~ XemE± Am¡a _{hcm H$_©Mm[a`m| H$m emofU – MrZ Am¡a Xw{Z`m Ho$ Xygao gmao {hñgm| H$s Vah ^maV _| ^r Am{W©H$ joÌm| _| _{hcm H$_©Mm[a`m| H$s g§»`m g~go μÁ`mXm h¡& _{hcmE± ao{S>_oS> H$n‹S>m|, BcoŠQ´>m°{ZŠg AmYm[aV H$m_ Am¡a gm°âQ>do`a CÚmoJm| _| cJr hþB© h¢& 32
  33. 33. g|Q>a $m°a Q´>oS> `y{Z`Ýg (grQy>) Ûmam 2002 _| Am`mo{OV B©nrμOoS>/EgB©μOoS> H$_©Mm[a`m| Ho$ EH$ A{Ic ^maVr` gå_ocZ _| Bg ~mV na MMm© hþB© Wr {H$ BZ joÌm| _| _{hcm H$_©Mm[a`m| H$m emofU hmoVm h¡& amV H$mo Ka OmZo H$m nyam B§VμOm_ {H$E {~Zm _{hcmAm| go amV H$s nm{c`m| _| H$m_ H$adm`m OmVm h¡& CÝh| _mV¥Ëd AdH$me Zht {X`m OmVm h¡ Am¡a J^©dVr hmoZo na _{hcmAm| H$mo H$m_ go {ZH$mc {X`m OmVm h¡& PycmKam| H$m B§VμOm_ Zht hmoVm h¡& Ho$dc `wdm A{ddm{hV _{hcmAm| H$mo H$m_ na aIZm ng§X {H$`m OmVm h¡& Q>m°`coQ> H$m BñVo_mc Q>moH$Z XoH$a H§$Q´>moc {H$`m OmVm h¡& `m¡Z CËnr‹S>Z ~hþV Am_ h¡&10 5. BZ joÌm| _| H$m°ÝQ´¡>ŠQ> l{_H$ – H$m°ÝQ´¡>ŠQ> co~a (aoJwcoeZ E§S> A~m°{ceZ) A{Y{Z`_ 1970 _| _wå~B© Ho$ nmg gm§VmH«y$μO BcoŠQ´>m°{ZŠg EŠgnmoQ©> àmogoqgJ μOmoZ (grßμO>) _|, 90% H$_©Mmar _{hcmE± h¢& `o Am_Vm¡a na `wdm h¢ Am¡a `y{Z`Z ~ZmZo go ~hþV S>aVr h¢& H$m_ H$s XemE± Iam~ h¢ Am¡a AmodaQ>mB_ H$aZm Oê$ar h¡& Eogm hr H$mo{MZ EgB©OS> _| ^r hmoVm h¡& μ μ o ImgVm¡a na Eogo H$m_m| _| H$m°ÝQ´¡>ŠQ> l{_H$ cJmZo na amoH$ cJmB© JB© h¡ Omo “ñWm`r Am¡a h_oem” McZo dmco h¢& h_mao gm_Zo H$B© EgB©μOoS>/B©nrμOoS> Ho$ CXmhaU h¢ Ohm± VH$ar~Z gmar BH$mB`m± Eogo hr ñWm`r H$m_ H$aVt h¢ na _μOXya H$m°ÝQ´¡>ŠQ> na hr aIVt h¢& Xw{Z`m ^a _| dm_n§Wr Xc, Q´>oS> `y{Z`Z Am¡a _μOXya H$ë`mU g§JR>Z, gaH$mam| H$mo EgB©μOoS/ B©nrμOoS> Ho$ _wÔo na MwZm¡Vr XoVo aho h¢, Š`m|{H$ `o joÌ Jar~ Xoem| _| amoμOJma n¡Xm H$aZo dmcr BH$mB`m| Ho$ ê$n _| ~ZmE OmVo h¢& ^maV _|, dm_ Xcm| Am¡a Q´>oS> `y{Z`Zm| Zo ^r {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ H$m {damoY {H$`m h¡& 10 _B© 2005 H$mo O~ cmoH$ g^m _| `h H$mZyZ aIm J`m, Vmo hmcm±{H$ Bg na H$moB© ~hþV c§~r ~hg Zht hþB©, na dm_ Xcm| Ho$ gm§gXm| Zo _μOXyam| Ho$ emofU Am¡a H$mZyZ Ho$ Hw$N> ^mJm| go Xoe H$s g§Kr` g§aMZm H$mo IVam hmoZo Ho$ _wÔo CR>mE& CXmhaU Ho$ {cE, H$mZyZ Ho$ AZwÀNo>X 50 _| `h àmdYmZ Wm {H$ Am¡Úmo{JH$ {ddmX, _μOXya H$ë`mU, H$m_ H$s pñW{V`m±, d¥ÕmdñWm n|eZ, _mV¥Ëd Ho$ cm^ Am{X gaH$mar cm^ BZ EgB©μOoS na cmJy Zht hm|Jo& grnrAmB© (E_) Am¡a grnrAmB© Ho$ XIc go `h àmdYmZ {ZH$mcm J`m&11 {$a ^r EgB©μOoS A{Y{Z`_ Ho$ _m¡OyXm ñdê$n _| cmJy hmoZo go AmZo dmco g_` _| _μOXyam| H$m _wÔm BZ joÌm| _| EH$ ~‹S>r g_ñ`m ~ZZo dmcm h¡& 33
  34. 34. IV {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| _| n`m©daU g§~§Yr _wÔo A^r Ohm± ~S>μr g§»`m _| AmZo dmco EgB©μOoS n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ n`m©daU na n‹S>Zo dmco Aga Ho$ ~mao _| ~mV H$aZm ~hþV OëX~mμOr hmoJr, dht MrZ Ho$ CXmhaU go n`m©daU H$mo hmoZo dmco ZwH$gmZ H$m A§XmOm cJm`m Om gH$Vm h¡& ^maV nhco go hr nmZr H$s H$_r Am¡a O§Jcm| Am¡a O¡d- {d{dYVm Ho$ ZwH$gmZ H$s g_ñ`m go OyP ahm h¡& _wÔm `h h¡ {H$ Am{W©H$ {dH$mg Ho$ _m¡OyXm T>m±Mo _| - O§Jcm| Am¡a gm_w{hH$ μO_rZm| na ~‹T>Vm X~md, Oc g§gmYZm| H$m AË`{YH$ XmohZ; VQ>r` ^y{_ Am¡a VQ> aoImAm|; hdm Am¡a nmZr Ho$ àXyfU; BcoŠQ´>m°{ZH$ H$Mao Ho$ ~ZZo Am{X go hmoZo dmco ZwH$gmZ H$m Am§H$cZ ^r Zht {H$`m Om ahm h¡& {nN>co nm±M gmcm| _| n`m©daUr` g§ajU H$s gaH$mar ì`dñWm H$_μOmoa hr hmoVr {XImB© Xr h¡& Bg g§X^© _| {ZåZ q~XwAm| na Ü`mZ XoZm n‹So>Jm - 2001 _|, 1994 H$s B©.AmB©.E (n`m©daU n«^md Am§H$cZ - EÝdm`aZ_|Q>c Bån¡ŠQ> Agog_|Q>) A{YgyMZm12 _| g§emoYZ {H$`m J`m, {OgHo$ VhV Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$mo OZ gwZdmB©, Omo {H$ n`m©daU g§~§Yr _§Oyar H$s à{H«$`m H$m _hËdnyU© A§J Wr, go Ny>Q> Xr JB©& 1994 H$s B©.AmB©.E A{YgyMZm _| H$m$s ~Xcmd {H$E JE Am¡a g^r n[a`moOZmAm| H$s OëXr _§Oyar Ho$ {cE 2006 _| EH$ ZB© A{YgyMZm Omar H$s JB©& n`m©daU Ed§ dZ _§Ìmc` H$s ZB© B©AmB©E A{YgyMZm 2006 H$s AZwgyMr 1 Ho$ AmBQ>_ 7c _| Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ/nmH©$/H$m°åßboŠg/joÌ, {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ (B©nrOμoS>), EgB©μOoS, ~m`moQo>ŠZm°cm°Or nmH©$, M_m©oÚmoJ H$m°åßboŠg AmXr H$m C„oI h¢& ZB© A{YgyMZm _| ^r D$na ~VmB© JB© lo{U`m| H$mo OZ gmd©O{ZH$ gwZdmB© go _wº$ aIm J`m h¡& {OgH$m _Vc~ h¡ {H$ ñWmZr` cmoJ Z hr Bg n[a`moOZmAm| no gdmc CR>m gH$Vo h¡ Am¡a Z hr H$mZyZr ê$n go AnZr Amn{Îm`m§ XO© H$a gH$Vo h¡& B©.AmB©.E A{YgyMZm 2006 Ho$ AZwgma, hmcm±{H$ ApYH¥$V Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ Ho$ ^rVa AmZo dmco g^r n[a`moOZmAm| `m J{V{d{Y`m| H$mo OZ gwZdmB© H$s à{H«$`m go Ny>Q> {_cr hþB© h¡, na BZH$mo {$a ^r n[a`moOZm Ho$ {cE "n`m©daU n«^md Am§H$cZ [anmoQ>'© àñVwV H$aZr hmoJr& B©.AmB©.E A{YgyMZm 2006 n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo Xmo lo{U`m| _| ~m±Q>Vr h¡ - loUr A Am¡a loUr ~& loUr A _| AmZo dmco n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo H|$Ð gaH$ma Am¡a loUr ~ Ho$ n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo amÁ` gaH$ma| n`m©daUr` _§Oyar XoJr& 34
  35. 35. H|$Ð Ûmam _§Oya H$s OmZo dmcr loUr A Ho$ A§VJ©V “Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ (EgB©μOoS>) H$m `{X EH$ CÚmoJ ^r loUr A _| AmVm h¡ Vmo Cg nyao joÌ H$mo loUr A H$m hr joÌ _mZm OmEJm,” Am¡a “500 hoŠQo>`a go μÁ`mXm joÌ$c dmco Eogo Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ {OZ_| H$_ go H$_ EH$ CÚmoJ loUr ~ H$m hmo” CÝh| ^r loUr A _| _mZm OmEJm Am¡a H|$Ð go n`m©daUr` _§Oyar coZr hmoJr& loUr ~ Ho$ A§VJ©V, “do Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ {OZ_| H$_ go H$_ EH$ CÚmoJ loUr ~ H$m Am¡a joÌ$c 500 hoŠQo>`a go H$_ hmo”; Am¡a “do Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ {OZH$m joÌ$c 500 hoŠQo>`a go μÁ`mXm hmo Am¡a {OZ_| H$moB© A `m ~ loUr H$m CÚmoJ Z hmo,” CÝh| amÁ` ñVa na _§Oyar H$s μOê$aV hmoJr& H$moB© Eogm Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ Omo {H$ 500 hoŠQo>`a go H$_ hmo Am¡a {Og_| A `m ~ loUr H$m H$moB© CÚmoJ Z hmo Cgo n`m©daU H$s _§Oyar go _wº$ aIm J`m h¡& EgB©OS> Ho$ ^rVa McZo dmcr BH$mB`m| H$mo Am_ Vm¡a na H|$Ð `m amÁ` Ho$ ñVa na, B©.AmB©.E Ho$ μ o AmYma na n`m©daU g§~Yr _§Oar coZm Amdí`H$ h¡, co{H$Z ~hþV Oê$ar hmoZo na “{deof § y μ pñW{V” _|, Bg eV© H$mo nyam {H$E {~Zm _§Oar {_c gH$Vr h¡& eV© `h h¡ {H$ `{X H$moB© Eogm joÌ y {Og_| EH$ O¡go CÚmoJ hm| `m do Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ {OZ_| Hw$N> {ZpüV J{V{dpY`m± hmoVr h¢, Am¡a do nhco go hr n`m©daU g§~§Yr _§Oyar co coVo h¢ Vmo Eogo Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌm|/H$m°åßboŠg _| IwcZo dmcr g^r Am¡Úmo{JH$ BH$mB`m| H$mo n`m©daU g§~Yr _§Oar coZm Amdí`H$ Zht hmoJm& § y EgB©μOoS H$mZyZ Am¡a {Z`_m| _|o n`m©daU Ho$ _wX²X²>mo§ na MwßnrŸ- {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$s H$mZyZ Ho$ {Xem-{ZX©oem| _| ^r n`m©daU Am¡a nm[apñW{VH$s Ho$ {df`m| na Hw$N> Zht H$hm J`m h¡& ~hÿ-CËnmZ>, EH$-CËnmX> joÌm|, n`©Q>Z joÌm| Ho$ gmW-gmW nyao EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE _§Oyar ~Zm_ BH$mB`m| Ho$ {Z`_Z H$s H$ht H$moB© ~mV Zht H$s JB© h¡& A{Y{Z`_ Am¡a {Z`_ XmoZm| _| hr `h ~mV gm$ Zht hmoVr {H$ {H$g ñVa na Am¡a {H$Z hmcmV _| {H$gr ^r EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE "n`m©daU g§~§Yr _§Oyar' μOê$ar hmoJrŸ& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ {Z`_m| _| Ho$dc BVZm H$hm J`m h¡ {H$ ha BH$mB© H$mo n`m©daU g§~§Yr {Z`_m| H$m nmcZ H$aZm hmoJm, Am¡a Ohm± H$ht Oμê$ar hmo dhm± Cgo {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$mo _§Oyar Ho$ {cE AmdoXZ _| àXyfU {Z`§ÌU g§~§Yr _§Oyar H$s AOu ^r XoZr hmoJr & 35
  36. 36. "EH$c-{I‹S>H$s _§Oyar' (single window clearance) H$s ì`dñWm Ho$ H$maU amÁ` Ho$ ñVa na g^r EgB©μOoS BH$mB`m| H$mo _§Oyar XoZm {dH$mg Am`wº$ Ho$ AYrZ _§Oyar g{_{V H$s {Oμå_oXmar h¡ Am¡a `{X _§Oyar H$s H$moB© eVoª hm| Vmo CZH$m nmcZ hmo ahm h¡ `m Zht `h ^r {dH$mg Am`wº$ hr XoIoJm& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ {Z`_m| Am¡a A{Y{Z`_ _| H$moñQ>c aoJwcoeZ (VQ>r` joÌm| Ho$ g§ajU) g§~Yr àmdYmZm| H$m {OμH$« Zht {H$`m J`m h¡& grAmaμOS> (coastal regulation zone) A{YgyMZm § o 1991 Ho$ g§emoYZ 2002 _| cJ^J {~Zm {H$Ýht eVmoª Am£a {Z`_m| Ho$ EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE OJh ~ZmB© JB© {OgHo$ AZwgma VQ>r` joÌm| _| AmZo dmco EgB©μOoS H$mo {g©$ EH$ ~ma hr AZw_{V coZr hmoJr Ed§ CgHo$ A§VJ©V AmZo dmcr BH$mB`m| na AZw_{V n«mdYmZ cmJy Zht hmoJm& CgHo$ Acmdm “n«XyfU a{hV” CÚmoJ, AmB© Q>r (gyMZm E§d n«m¡Úmo{JH$) CÚmoJ Am¡a AÝ` _Zmoa§OZ g§~§Yr gw{dYmAm| Ho$ {cE CRZ A{Y{Z`_ cmJy Zht hmoJm& Bg_| gaH$ma H$s `h Zm g_Pr h¡ {H$ n`©Q>Z Am¡a AmB©.Q>r go Ow‹So> CÚmoJ n«XyfU a{hV hmoVo h¡ Am¡a BZgo n«mH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| na X~md Zht n‹S>Vm& ~§XaJmhm| Am¡a n`©Q>Z CÚmoJm| H$mo ~‹T>mdm {_cZo go, Omo Am{W©H$ joÌ H$s Zr{V`m| H$m ^r {hñgm h¢, VQ>r` BcmH$m| _| cmIm| _Nw>Amam| H$s amoOramoQ>r {N>ZVr Am`r h¡ & n`m©daU g§ajU Ho$ {cE nhco go hr amÁ` E§d {Oμcm ñVa na pñWV àXyfU {Z`§ÌU ~moS>© H$s ^y{_H$m EgB©μOoS> Ho$ g§X^© _| Añnï> h¡& Ho$dc A{YH¥$V ì`pº$`m| H$mo hr EgB©OS> _| OmZo H$s BOmOμV O¡go àmdYmZm| go n`m©daU g§ajU μ o Ho$ `o _wÔo Am¡a J§^ra hmo OmVo h¢& Bggo {Z{üV ê$n go ñdV§Ì emoYH$Vm©Am| H$mo Cg joÌ _| OmH$a n`m©daU na n‹S>Zo dmco {H$gr ^r Vah Ho$ Aga H$m Am§H$cZ H$aZo `m AÜ``Z H$aZo _| naoemZr hmoJr& gdmc `h ^r CR>m`m J`m h¡ {H$ Š`m| gaH$ma ñWmZr` Am¡a c§~o g_` VH$ {Q>H$ nmZo dmcr gV²V (gñQo>Zo~c) AW©ì`dñWm H$mo IË_ H$aHo$ EH$ E¡go d¡{œH$ ny±OrdmXr AW©ì`dñWm H$mo ~‹T>mdm Xo ahr h¡ {Oggo n`m©daU H$mo A{YH$ IVam h¡? 36
  37. 37. V àemgZ Am¡a ñdemgZ Ho$ _wÔo ^maVr` g§{dYmZ Ho$ AZwÀNo>X 243Q Ho$ I§S> 1 Am¡a >EgB©μOoS H$mZyZ 2005 Ho$ ^mJ 3.2 _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$mo `Am¡Úmo{JH$ Q>mCZ{en’ H$m XOm© {X`m J`m h¡& amÁ` gaH$ma| EgB©μOoS H$mo "Am¡Úmo{JH$ Q>mCZ{en' joÌ Kmo{fV H$a|Jr Omo ñdemgr, ñdm`Îm ZJar` BH$mB`m± hm|Jr& EH$ ~ma {H$gr EgB©μOoS> H$mo "Am¡Úmo{JH$ Q>mCZ{en' joÌ Kmo{fV {H$E OmZo Ho$ ~mX, `h {H$gr ^r ZJa nm{cH$m `m J«m_ n§Mm`V H$m ^mJ Zht ah OmEJm& BgHo$ Acmdm, EgB©μOoS> H$mo "ñdm`V g§ñWm' H$m XOm© hmoZo H$s dOh go EgB©μOoS> BH$mB`m± Am¡a {dH$mgH$Vm© ñWmZr` H$am| go ^r _wº$ ah|Jr& `h gm$ Vm¡a na 73d| Am¡a 74d| g§emoYZm| Ûmam ehar ñWmZr` {ZH$m`m| Am¡a n§Mm`Vm| H$mo {XE g§d¡Ym{ZH$ XO©o H$mo H$_μOmoa H$aVm h¡& O~H$s A^r μOê$aV n§Mm`Vm| H$mo {dÎmr` ê$n go _μO~yV H$aZo H$s h¡ Vm{H$ do {dH$mg Am¡a g_mZVm ~‹T>mZo Ho$ {cE gm_m{OH$ AmYma^yV g§aMZm _| {Zdoe H$a gH|$& BgHo$ ~Om` `{X EgB©μOoS na H$a cmJy H$aZo Am¡a {Z`§ÌU H$m ^r A{YH$ma n§Mm`Vm| H$mo Zht hmoJm Vmo μO_rZ, nmZr Am¡a Xygao àmH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| H$m A{Z`{_V XmohZ J«m_rU Jar~m| Ho$ OrdZ na Am¡a ^r ~wam Aga S>mcoJm& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$mo “S>råS> $m°aoZ Qo>[aQ>ar” (AZw_m{ZV {dXoer n[ajoÌ) H$m XOm© XoZo go ñWmZr` cmoJm| H$s AnZr μO_rZm| Am¡a àmH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| na go ñdm`ÎmVm {N>Z OmEJr& `o g§gmYZ ñWmZr` AW©ì`dñWm dmñVd _| amÁ` _| Am¡a AmOr{dH$m H$s ar‹T> h¢& gmW hr EgB©μOoS _| ñWmZr` ZmJ[aH$mo§ H$mo `{dH$mg Am`wº$’ {~Zm AZw_{V n«doe H$s _Zmhr go ^maV Ho$ ZmJ[aH$m| Ho$ H$ht ^r AmZo- Am¡a H|$Ð _| `~moS©> OmZo Ho$ _m¡{cH$ A{YH$ma H$m ^r C„§KZ hmoJm& Am°$ Aàydëg’ Ho$ ° nmg gmao A{YH$mam| dmñVd _| amÁ` _| `{dH$mg Am`wº$’ Am¡a H|$Ð _| `~moS©> Am°°$ H$m hmoZm ñWmZr` Aàydëg’ Ho$ nmg gmao A{YH$mam| H$m hmoZm ñWmZr` emgZ ì`dñWm Ho$ emgZ ì`dñWm Ho$ {cE g~go ~‹S>r MwZm¡Vr h¡& {cE g~go ~‹S>r MwZm¡Vr h¡& BgHo$ Acmdm, EgB©μOoS> A{Y{Z`_ _| `h ^r n«mdYmZ h¡ {H$ 37
  38. 38. BZgo g§~§{YV gmar {eH$m`V| Ho$dc amÁ` gaH$ma Ûmam {ZYm©[aV H$moQ©> _| hr Xm`a H$s Om gH$Vr h¢& `o Ho$dc {g{dc Am¡a EgB©μOoS go g§~§Yr _m_cm| Ho$ {cE hm|Jr& EgB©μOoS$ Ho$ {cE {ZYm©[aV H$moQ©> Ho$ Acmdm H$moB© AÝ` H$moQ©> EgB©μOoS go Ow‹So> _m_cm| H$mo Zht XoI gH|$Jt& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Ho$ Amgnmg g§ajH$ gr_m ~ZmZo Am¡a AZm{YH¥$V ì`{º$`m| H$mo KwgZo go amoH$Zo H$m _Vc~ h¡ {H$ {H$gr ^r gm_m{OH$ g_yh ({g{dc gmogmBQ>r g_yh) Am¡a ñdV§Ì EO|gr Ho$ {cE {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$s BOmμOV Ho$ {~Zm n«doe H$s _ZmB© Ed§ {H$gr hmXgo H$s pñW{V _| H$moB© Om±M H$aZm _wpíH$c hmoJm& EgB©μOoS A{Y{Z`_ {dH$mg Am`wŠV, AÝ` A{YH$m[a`m| Am¡a gaH$ma H$s Xoe Ho$ cmoJm| Ho$ à{V Odm~Xohr na nyar Vah Im_moe h¡& Eg.B©.μOoS>. Ho$ g§~§Y _| Xr J`r BZ Xbrbm| H$mo gaH$ma Am¡a Eg.B©.μOoS>. Ho$ Zw_mBÝXm| Zo `h H$hH$a Im[aμO {H$`m {H$ `o Ho$db g_` go nhbo bJmB© Om ahr AQ>H$b| h¢Ÿ {OZ_|$ gÀMmB© Zhr h¡Ÿ& AJbo AÜ`m`m| _| A{YH$ {dñVma go {d{^Þ amÁ`m| _| AmZodmbr EgB©μOoS n[a`moOZmAm| Am¡a CZHo$ à^mdm| na MMm© H$s J`r h¡Ÿ& Cggo nhbo MrZ, {OgH$m CXmhaU ha g_` {X`m OmVm h¡, Cgna JhamB© go ZμOa S>mbr J`r h¡Ÿ& BZHo$ {díbofU go `h Vñdra Am¡a gm$ hmoJr {H$ AmZodmbo g_` _o dmH$B© _o EgB©μOoS go {H$VZm $m`Xm h_mao Xoe Am¡a `hm§ Ho$ bmoJm| Img H$a Jar~m| Am¡a _μOXyam| H$mo hmoZodmbm h¡Ÿ& 1 cag.nic.in/reports/indir_taxes/1998_book1/overview.htm dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` H$s àog [acrμO 9 $a 2006 2 {~`m°ÝS> X Am°°pãd`g, {~XdB© àw$„, «§$Q>cmBZ, {gV§~a 22, 2006 3 M§ÐeoIa, grnr, {à{_Q>rd EŠ`w_wcoeZ ~m` AZmXa Zo_, www.macroscan.com 4 B©nrS>ãcy g§nmXH$s`, Aàoc 2006 ñnoec BH$m°Zm°{_H$ μOmoÝg… AZZogogar {JdAdoO 5 http://www.macroscan.org/pol/apr00/pol040400Exim_Policy_3.htm 6 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2015488.cms 7 AmB©Q>r {S´>dZ Am°°$emo[a¨J… X EŠμOoJaoQo>S> So>dcn_|Q> Am°°nmoÀ`©w{ZQ>r gr.nr. M§ÐeoIa Am¡a O`{V Kmof 8 _mZer Amea Am¡a [a$V _w_VmO, {S>ñßbog_oÝQ> BZ X Q>mB_ Am°$ S>oìhbn_oÝQ>, BÝ$moM|O B§{S>`m 9 http://www.icftu.org/www/pdf/corelabourstandardsindia.pdf 10 http://citu.org.in/wclass_aug02_a6.htm 11 dr d|H$Qo>e, coâQ> Bån¡ŠQ>, «§$Q>cmBZ 12 "dh H$mZyZr n«mdYmZ h¡ {Ogo n`m©daU Ed§ dZ _§Ìmc` Zo 1994 _| cmJy {H$`m Wm {OgHo$ A§VJ©V cJ^J 30 go μÁ`mXm lo{U`m| _| AmZo dmco Am¡Úmo{JH$ Am¡a ~‹S>r n[a`moOZmAm|§ H$mo n`m©daU g§~§Yr _§Oyar XoZo H$s n«{H«$`m go g§~§{YV {Xem- {ZX©oe h¢ & 38
  39. 39. ^maV _| O~ H$^r MrZr Am{W©H$ VOw~©} H$s MMm© H$s OmVr h¡, Vmo Bg_| MrZr cmoJm| MrZ _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ na AW©ì`dñWm Ho$ Bg _m°S>c go hþE MH$mMm¢Y Ho$ nrNo> H$s Ag{c`V dmñV{dH$ Aga H$s MMm© Zht hmoVr h¡& O~ H$^r MrZr Am{W©H$ VOw~©o H$s MMm© H$s OmVr h¡, ImgH$a ^maV _|, Vmo Bg_| MrZr cmoJm| na AW©ì`dñWm Ho$ Bg _m°S>c go hþE dmñV{dH$ Aga H$s MMm© Zht hmoVr h¡& n`m©daU Am¡a àmH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| Ho$ ZwH$gmZ H$m Om`μOm ^r Zht {c`m OmVm h¡& gZ² 1978 VH$ MrZ H$s AW©ì`dñWm EH$ ~§X AW©ì`dñWm Wr {Og_| {dXoer VH$ZrH$ Am¡a {dXoer ny§Or {Zdoe H$m H$moB© ñWmZ Zht Wm& e|μOoZ {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ go MrZ H$s _mŠg©dmXr gaH$ma Zo EH$ d¡H$pënH$ (ny±OrdmXr) Am{W©H$ ì`dñWm H$s ewéAmV H$aZo Ho$ {cE à`moJ Ho$ Vm¡a na `o joÌ ewê$ {H$E Wo& {Xem{ZX©oem| Am¡a Zr{V`m| Ho$ _mÜ`_ go BZ joÌm| _| {dXoer {Zdoe H$mo AmH${f©V {H$`m J`m Wm& na§Vw EgB©μOoS {dH${gV H$aZo Am¡a CZna {Z`§ÌU H$m A{YH$ma amÁ` Ho$ hmW _| Wm& MrZ _| μÁ`mXmVa {dXoer {Zdoe hm±JH$m±J, VmBdmZ, OmnmZ, _H$mD$, X{jU H$mo[a`m, A_o[aH$m Am¡a O_©Zr go AmVm ahm h¡& {dH$mg Ho$ nhco XeH$ _|, H$n‹So>, OyVo, {~Ocr Ho$ N>moQo> gm_mZ Am¡a AÝ` l_ AmYm[aV CÚmoJm| H$m AW©ì`dñWm _| _w»` `moJXmZ ahm Wm& A^r ^r H$n‹S>m, ImÚ Am¡a no` VWm {Z_m©U gm_J«r BZ joÌm| Ho$ VrZ na§namJV Am¡Úmo{JH$ ñV§^ h¢& `o gm_mZ N>moQo> AñWm`r H$maImZm| _| ñWmZr` àm{YH$m[a`m| `m {ZOr ñdm{_`m| Ûmam g~-H$m°ÝQ´¡>pŠQ§>J Ho$ VhV {Z`m©V Ho$ ~mμOma Ho$ {cE ~Zm`m OmVm h¢& J¡n, E{S>S>mg Am¡a 39
  40. 40. ZmBH$s O¡gr ~‹S>r H§$n{Z`m§ g^r MrZr l_ H$m BñVo_mc H$aVr h¢& CXmhaU Ho$ Vm¡a na {g©$ ZmBH$s Ho$ 70,000 go μÁ`mXm g~-H$m°ÝQ´¡>ŠQ> MrZ _| h¢& BZHo$ A{V[aŠV gyMZm Ed§ n«m¡Úmo{JH$s Am¡a BcoŠQ´>m°{ZŠg, BcopŠQ´>H$ Am¡a {deof Am¡Oma, VWm Voc Am¡a noQ´>moHo${_H$c CÚmoJ VrZ ZE C^aVo CÚmoJ h¢& H$mJμO {Z_m©U, Am¡îmYr Am¡a dmhZ CÚmoJ ^r C^aVo joÌ _mZo Om aho h¡& ^maVr` g§X^© _| MrZ H$s EgB©μOoS Zr{V Ho$ à^md H$mo g_PZm _hËdnyU© h¡& amOZoVmAm| Am¡a Zm¡H$aemhm| go coH$a _r{S>`m VH$ 1980 Ho$ XeH$ Ho$ ~mX go MrZ Ho$ Am{W©H$ AZw^d go MH$mMm¢Y Am¡a _w½Y aho h¢& A~ ^maV H$m _Ü`_ dJ© MrZ H$s 1000 S>m°ca H$s à{V ì`{º$ Am` Ho$ Am§H$‹So> Ho$ nrNo> ^mJ ahm h¡& ^maV `{X dV©_mZ MrZr AW©ì`dñWm H$s ZH$c H$aZo Ho$ {cE V¡`ma h¢ Vmo h_| CgHo$ AZw^d H$s nyar gƒmB© OmZ coZr Mm{hE& Am§H$‹S>m| H$m YmoIm - Eogm A§XmμOm cJm`m J`m h¡ {H$ 2003 VH$ MrZ _| cJ^J 7000 ~‹So> – N>moQo> Am{W©H$ {dH$mg joÌ Wo& BZ_| Am{W©H$ Am¡a VH$ZrH$s {dH$mg joÌ, hmB©-Qo>H$ nmH©$, _wº$ ì`mnma joÌ, MrZr gaH$ma Ho$ B©nrμOoS Am¡a EgB©μOoS em{_c h¢& MrZr gaH$ma Ho$ òmoVm| go AZw_mZ òmoVm| go AZw_mZ Ho$ Ho$ _wVm{~H$ nyao Xoe Ho$ 6866 {dH$mg joÌm| _| go 70 à{VeV μO_rZ| _wVm{~H$ nyao Xoe Ho$ J¡aH$mZyZr VarH$m| go h{W`mB© JB© Wt Am¡a BZH$m BñVo_mc ^r Zht {dH$mg joÌm| _| go {H$`m J`m& ~mX _| MrZ Zo CZ VWmH${WV joÌm|, Ohm§ go Ho$dc 70% _| μO_rZ| ~‹S>r g§»`m _| {H$gmZm| H$mo ~oXIc {H$`m Wm Am¡a {OZ_| n`m©á J¡aH$mZyZr VarH$m| go AmYma g§aMZm Zht Wr, Ho$ {dH$mg H$mo {ddoH$nyU© T§>J go AmJo h{W`mB© JB© Wt Am¡a ~‹T>mZo H$m ¡$gcm {H$`m& cJ^J 4800 go μÁ`mXm Eogo VWmH${WV BZH$m BñVo_mc ^r joÌm| H$mo aÔ H$a {X`m J`m Am¡a ZE Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$s ñWmnZm Zht {H$`m J`m& {Zc§{~V H$a Xr JB©&1 40
  41. 41. eharH$aU go C^ar g_ñ`mE§ Am¡a gm_m{OH$ {damoY - {dœ ~¢H$ Ho$ EH$ AÜ``Z _| nm`m J`m h¡ {H$ EH$ {dH$mgerc Xoe _| à{V ì`{º$ gH$c Kaocy CËnmX 1000 S>m°ca Am¡a eharH$aU H$s Xa 30% hmoZo na BgH$m VoμOr go eharH$aU hmoJm& A^r MrZ H$m à{V ì`{º$ gH$c Kaocy CËnmX Am¡a eharH$aU H$s Xa Bgr AZwnmV _| h¢& MrZ H$s eharH$aU H$s Xa (Hw$c Am~mXr _| ehar Am~mXr H$m AZwnmV) 1990 go coH$a 2000 VH$ 1.1% VH$ ~‹T>r h¡& Ohm§ EH$ Amoa eharH$aU ~‹T>m h¡ dht Xygar Amoa, EH$ Am{YH$m[aH$ [anmoQ©> Ho$ AZwgma hmc Ho$ gmcm| _|, “Am_ ì`dñWm H$s g_ñ`mE±” ^r ~‹T>r h¢& 2003 _| 58,000 gm_m{OH$ {damoY E§d n«{VÛ§X go Ow‹S>r KQ>ZmE± hþB© Wt Omo 2005 _| ~‹T>H$a 87,000 hmo JB©& JwAm§JS>m|J àm§V H$s amOYmZr JwAm§½μOmo Ho$ Amgnmg H$m nc© [ada So>ëQ>m Am{W©H$ ê$n go MrZ Ho$ g~go {dH${gV joÌm| _| go EH$ h¡& `h àdmgr _μOXyam| H$s g~go μÁ`mXm g§»`m dmco BcmH$m| _| go EH$ h¡, A§XmμOZ 2 H$amo‹S> 50 cmI cmoJ& [anmoQ>m] Ho$ AZwgma `hm± OZdar-AŠQy>~a 2004 Ho$ ~rM 867 {damoY àXe©Z hþE {OZ_| 50,000 _μOXya em{_c Wo&2 àXe©ZH$m[a`m| Am¡a nw{cg Ho$ ~rM qhgH$ P‹S>n| Z Ho$dc MrZ Ho$ ^rVar BcmH$m| _|, ~pëH$ YZr VQ>r` BcmH$m| _| ^r hþB© h¢, Ohm± H$B© EgB©μOoS h¢& e|μOoZ Jm§d : MrZ H$m nhcm {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ e|OZ, {Ogo E{e`m H$m g~go VoOr go ~‹T>Vm eha H$hm OmVm h¡, MrZ H$m nhcm (Hw$c nm±M _| go) μ o μ {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Wm& EH$ g_` H$m _Nw>Amam| H$m Jm±d e|OZ, 1980 _| hm±JH$m±J Ho$ nmg hmoZo μ o Ho$ H$maU {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ ~Zm`m J`m Wm& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ ~ZZo Ho$ ~mX e|OZ H$s Am~mXr 1980 go 2000 VH$ ha gmc 16.5% H$s μ o Xa go ~‹T>r h¡& `hm§ H$s g~go ~‹S>r Im{g`V h¡ {H$ AñWm`r {Zdmgr `hm± H$s Hw$c Am~mXr na N>mE hþE h¢& MrZ H$s nm±Mdt amï´>r` OZJUZm Ho$ n[aUm_ ~VmVo h¢ {H$ e|OZ H$s Am~mXr _| go μ o ~hþg»`H$ 83 % “AñWm`r Am~mXr” h¡& § CnZJam| _| VoOr go ~‹T>Vr hþB© Am~mXr go BZ BcmH$m| H$s pñW{V Iam~ hmo JB© h¡& e|OZ _| ehar μ μ o Jar~r, n`m©daU àXyfU, AnamY Am¡a A{Zdm`© {ejm H$s An`m©á ì`dñWmE§ O¡gr g_ñ`mE± n¡Xm hmoH$a {dH$amc hmo JB© h¢& $adar 2004 go e|μOoZ å`w{Z{gnc H$m°nm©oaoeZ Zo 350 {_{c`Z dJ© _rQ>a go “J¡aH$mZyZr” {Z_m©U Am¡a ~gmhQ> hQ>mZo Ho$ {cE EH$ ~‹S>m “A{^`mZ” ewê$ {H$`m h¡ {OgZo cJ^J Xg cmI cmoJm| H$mo à^m{dV {H$`m& 41
  42. 42. J«m_rU Ed§ ehar ~oamoOJmar- 1978 go 2000 Ho$ ~rM J«m_rU Am_XZr N>h JwZm ~‹T>r, co{H$Z `h ehar Am_XZr Ho$ ~am~a Zht ah gH$s, Am¡a 1990 Ho$ XeH$ Ho$ Am{Ia _| {H$gmZm| H$s Am_XZr _| R>hamd AmZo cJm Am¡a J«m_rU ~oamoμOJmar ~‹T> H$a H$ar~ 20% hmo JB©& J«m_rU AW©ì`dñWm Ho$ {~Iamd Am¡a ~‹T>Vo H$am| Am¡a ewëH$m| Zo H$B© {eH$m`Vm| H$mo OÝ_ {X`m& gm_y{hH$ {damoY H$s J{V{d{Y`m| _|, Omo Bg Xm¡amZ Hw$N> àm§Vm| _| amoμO hmoVr Wt, gaH$mar A{YH$m[a`m| H$mo AmdoXZ XoZo go coH$a qhgH$ àXe©Z VH$ em{_c Wo& ehar BcmH$m| _|, ~oamoμOJmar A§XmμOZ 15% Am¡a MrZ Ho$ CÎma-nyd© Ho$ “añQ> ~oëQ>” eham| _| 25% _mZr JB© Wr& 2000 go, O~{H$ μO~aXñV Am{W©H$ {dH$mg hþAm h¡, gaH$ma Ûmam McmB© OmZo dmcr gaH$mar Am¡a gm_y{hH$ CÚ_m| go cmoJm| H$mo Zm¡H$[a`m| go {ZH$mcm Om ahm h¡& nyao Xoe _|, 1999-2004 _| A§XmμOZ 2 H$amo‹S> 70 cmI 80 hμOma H$maImZm| _| H$m_ H$aZo dmco l{_H$m| H$s H§$n{Z`m± Á`mXmVa Zm¡H$[a`m± JBª& MrZr JUamÁ` Ho$ gaH$mar òmoVm| Ho$ AZwgma 2005- J«m_rU BcmH$m| Ho$ 06 _| 60 cmI cmoJm| H$s Zm¡H$[a`m± OmZo H$m A§Xoem Wm& àdmgr `wdmAm| H$mo H$m_ na aIVr h¢ _OXyam| H$m emofU - ~Vm`m OmVm h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS _| H$m_ H$aZo Š`m|{H$ `o H$s OJh ì`mdgm{`H$ n[aga Ho$ ~Om` `mVZm {e{da O¡gr μÁ`mXm AcJ-WcJ ahVo cJVr h¡& ~mha OmVo g_` H$_©Mm[a`m| H$s Vcmer cr OmVr h¡, h¢, H$_ n‹To>-{cIo àmBdoQ> JmS©> ~mha Ho$ amñVm| H$s {ZJamZr H$aVo h¢, CËnmXZ H$s hmoVo h¢ Am¡a BÝh| J{V na {ZJmh aIVo h¢ Am¡a XoIVo h¢ {H$ H$_©Mmar {H$VZr Xoa _μOXya `y{Z`Zm| H$s ~mWê$_ _| {~VmVo h¢& g¡Õm§{VH$ ê$n go J¡aH$mZyZr hmoZo Ho$ ~mdOyX H$moB© OmZH$mar Zht `W«r BZ dZ’ ¡$pŠQ´>`m± Am_ h¢ {OZ_| àmoS>ŠeZ âbmoa, ^§S>maU hmoVr& BZ H$maUm| go H$s OJh Am¡a H$_©Mm[a`m| Ho$ Amam_ H$aZo H$s OJh EH$ hr BZH$m emofU B_maV Ho$ VrZ ñVam| na h¢& AmJ go ~M {ZH$cZo Ho$ amñVm| na H$aZm AmgmZ hmoVm AŠga Vmco hmoVo h¢ Am¡a {I‹S>{H$`m| na Om{c`m± hmoVr h¢&3 h¡& 42
  43. 43. H§$n{Z`m± Á`mXmVa J«m_rU BcmH$m| Ho$ àdmgr `wdmAm| H$mo H$m_ na aIVr h¢& Š`m|{H$ `o AcJ-WcJ ahVo h¢, VwcZmË_H$ ê$n go H$_ n‹To>- {cIo hmoVo h¢ Am¡a BÝh| _μOXya `y{Z`Zm| H$s H$moB© OmZH$mar Zht hmoVr& BZ H$maUm| go BZH$m emofU H$aZm AmgmZ hmoVm h¡& BZ_| go μÁ`mXmVa 16 go 24 Ho$ ~rM H$s `wdm _{hcmE± hmoVr h¢, {OÝh| Xygao H$_©Mm[a`m| H$s ~{Zñ~V μÁ`mXm _ohZVr Am¡a H$_ {dÐmohr _mZm OmVm h¡& BZH$m H$ama `m Vmo N>moQ>r Ad{Y H$m hmoVm h¡ `m hmoVm hr Zht h¡& BZ H$_©Mm[a`m| _| 16 gmc go H$_ C_« Ho$ ~ƒo ^r hmoVo h¢, hmcm±{H$ ~mc l{_H$m| Ho$ BñVo_mc H$mo gm{~V H$aZm _wpíH$c hmoVm h¡& nmZr H$s g_ñ`m - AmO Xw{Z`m _| nmZr H$s H$_r dmco Xoem| _| MrZ H$m ñWmZ 13 dm± h¡ {OgH$m à{V ì`{º$ Oc g§gmYZ (CncãYVVm) 2,250 Š`y{~H$ _rQ>a h¡& `h Xw{Z`m Ho$ Am¡gV H$m Ho$dc EH$ Mm¡WmB© h¡& MrZ _| nmZr H$s g_ñ`m μO~aXñV Am¡Úmo{JH$ àXyfU Ho$ H$maU Am¡a J§^ra hmo JB© h¡& {dœ ñdmñÏ` g§JR>Z (1998) Ho$ AZwgma `hm§ Ho$ eha Xw{Z`m Ho$ g~go μÁ`mXm àXy{fV eham| H$s gyMr _| h¢& D$Om© H$s H$_r - dV©_mZ _| MrZ _| D$Om© H$s ~hþV H$_r h¡, 25 go 30% VH$, Omo MrZ Ho$ Am{W©H$ {dH$mg H$mo amoH$ gH$Vr h¡& Ohm§ MrZ _| nmZr H$s EH$ Amoa MrZ H$s AW©ì`dñWm Ho$ VoμO {dH$mg Zo D$Om© H$s _m±J g_ñ`m O~aXñV μ ~‹T>m Xr h¡, dht Xygar Va$ `h D$Om© Am¡a H$ƒo _mc H$s _m±J hr h¡ Am¡Úmo{JH$ àXyfU Omo ~hþamï´>r` H§$n{Z`m| H$mo na_mUw D$Om© g§`§Ì Am¡a ~‹So> nZ{~Ocr Ho$ H$maU Am¡a J§^ra ~m±Y ~ZmZo Ho$ {cE MrZ H$s Amoa ItM ahr h¡& Bg n«H$ma {dH$mg hmo JB© h¡& {dœ Am¡a Cggo hmoZo dmco {dZme H$m XwîMH«$ Mcm Am ahm h¡& ñdmñÏ` g§JR>Z (1998) Ho$ AZwgma AÝZ gwajm H$m gH§$Q> - MrZ Ho$ gm_Zo AmO AÝZ gwajm H$s ^r `hm§ Ho$ eha Xw{Z`m g§H$Q> h¡& gdmc CR>m`m Om ahm h¡ {H$ “MrZ 21dt gXr _| AnZr Ho$ g~go Am~mXr (cJ^J 1 Aa~ 400 H$amo‹S>) H$m noQ> H¡$go ^aoJm?” Á`mXm àXy{fV eham| μ »moVr H$s μO_rZ H$mo VoμOr go hmo aho Am¡ÚmoJrH$aU, Amdmg, amO_mJm] H$s gyMr _| h¢& 43
  44. 44. Am¡a aoc _mJm] Ho$ {Z_m©U Ho$ {cE hñ§VmV[aV H$aZo Ho$ H$maU MrZ _| IoVr H$s μO_rZ H$_ (cJ^J 20% H$s H$_r) ah JB© h¡ & Xoe Ho$ AZmO H$s n¡Xmdma 1% H$s Xa go ha gmc {Ja ahr h¡& Eogm A§XmμOm h¡ {H$ Bggo 2030 _| 20 H$amo‹S> 16 cmI Q>Z H$s H$_r hmoJr & IoVr _| qgMmB© Ho$ Acmdm nmZr Ho$ AÝ` ~‹To> ~hþVoao Cn`moJm| (CÚmoJ) go hmcmV Am¡a ^r Iam~ hmo JE h¡&4 MrZ Ho$ A_ra VQ>r` joÌ Ed§ {nN>‹So> Am¡a Jar~ Am§V[aH$ joÌm| Ho$ ~rM C^aH$a AmZo dmcr {df_Vm H$s ImB©, MrZ Ho$ gdm©{YH$ n«g§{eV EgB©μOoS H$s g~go ~‹S>r AmcmoMZm ahr h¡& `h ñdrH$maVo hþE MrZ H$s gaH$ma Zo ^r AnZo 11d| n§Mdfu` `moOZm (2006), _| EH$ Eogr Zr{V H$s Oê$aV na μOmoa {X`m {Og_| CÚmoJm| go H¥${f H$mo g_W©Z XoZo H$s ~mV H$hr JB©, {Oggo Xoe Ho$ {nN>‹So> hþE Am§V[aH$ joÌm| H$s AW©ì`dñWm H$m {dH$mg hmo& `Ú{n, MrZ Ho$ Ûmam 2003 _| {díd ì`mnma g§K H$s gXñ`Vm coZo go `h gm{~V hmoVm h¡ {H$ MrZ H$s gaH$ma nyar Vah go ~mOma na AmYm[aV AW©ì`dñWm Ûmam {dH$mg Ho$ amñVo na h¡& gmW hr Eogm ^r AZw_mZ cJm`m Om ahm h¡ {H$ ZB© CXmadmXr ì`dgm{`H$ Zr{V`m§, {dXoer H§$n{Z`m| Ho$ {cE ñWmZr` ~mOma H$mo ImocZo Ed§ gaH$mar CÚmoJm| H$mo Yrao - Yrao ~§X H$aZo H$s dOh go A~ {H$gmZm| Am¡a _OXyam| H$s pñW{V nhco go μÁ`mXm Iam~ hmoZo dmcr h¡& ^maV, 1990 Ho$ XeH$ go Am{W©H$ gwYmam| H$s amh na h¡ Am¡a V~ go BgZo _wS> H$a Zht XoIm h¡& ‹ EgB©μOoS> hm| `m Z hm|, H$am| _| Ny>Q>, H$m°nm©oaoQ> KamZm| H$mo cw^mZm, àmH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| H$s {~H«$s ^maV _| ^r {nN>co XeH$ go VoOr go Omar h¡& `h _mZZo H$m H$moB© H$maU Zht h¡ {H$ {OZ _wpíH$cm| μ H$m gm_Zm AmO MrZ H$a ahm h¡ Am¡a AmZo dmco gmcm| _| H$aVm ahoJm, dmo ^maV Ho$ gm_Zo ^r Zht AmE±Jt& 1 upgrading China’s competativeness, Dr. Filie Beule & Prof. Danial Van Den Bulcke, Institute of development policy and management, 2003 2 {O`m{~Z {cZ, So>dcn_|Q> E§S> _¡ZoO_|Q> Am°°$ _oJm{gQ>rμO BZ MmBZm, {S>nmQ©>_|Q> Am°°$ gmoec So>dcn_|Q> argM© g|Q>a, X ñQo>Q> H$mC§{gc Am°°$ nr.Ama.gr. MmBZm 3 H$m°n© dm°M AmcoI (www.corpwatch.com) 4 Wm°_g c_, gmoec AZaoñQ> BZ MmB©Zm, _B© 8 2006, H$m°J«|eZc [agM© g{d©g 44

×