1. Outcome Mapping BOND Quality Group 11 December 2008 London Simon Hearn (email@example.com) ODI, London
5. Focus of Outcome Mapping Beginning Life cycle of the program End During Objectives Inputs Activities Results Outputs Impact
6. Focus of Outcome Mapping Sphere of Control Sphere of Influence Sphere of Interest LFA focus RBM focus OM focus Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Impacts
7. Focus of Outcome Mapping Outcome Mapping Local partners / beneficiaries ownership increases Program influence decreases Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Impacts
8. The Problem with Impact Impact implies… The reality is… Cause & effect Open system Positive, intended results Unexpected positive & negative results occur Focus on ultimate effects Upstream effects are important Credit goes to a single contributor Multiple actors create results & need credit Story ends when program obtains success Change process never ends
11. Useful M&E Depends On Learning & Reporting (Info to users/events/audiences) Clarifying Intent (Both interventions & outcomes) M&E Planning (Choosing what to track) M&E Implementation (Data collection & interpretation)
17. Keep your eyes wide open “ Being attentive along the journey is as important as arriving at the destination” Michael Quinn Patton
22. The Limits of Influence Programme Sphere of Control Sphere of Influence Sphere of Interest Beneficiaries Stakeholders Boundary Partners
26. Progress markers Expanding influence, helping others, sharing expertise Actively engaged, learning, commitment Early encouraging response to program, initial engagement Love to see Like to see Expect to see
Many slides originate from members of the OM community: www.outcomemapping.ca and shared freely. Thanks to Terry Smutylo for sharing many of his slides.
BvLF Workshop. the Hague. Nov 2007
OM developed by IDRC in Canada They needed to demonstrate results In the late 90’s they came across a tool called Outcome Engineering which (Barry Kibel) was being used to plan and measure drug rehabilitation, from the perspective of behaviour changes as outcomes Over the next few years, the Evaluation Unit adapted this approach, piloted this methodology in several development projects. In 2000, they released the OM manual Since then, use of OM has been supported globally through trainings and through the virtual learning community – more later
The problem IDRC were trying to address with OM was this: a development intervention starts with an input and ends with an output but the processes that turn the input into the output were either being ignored or weren’t understood.
Another way to think about this is that at the beginning of a project you have objectives, inputs and activities At the end you have results, outputs and impact And there’s a process to get from one to the other – but this is often a black box, what goes on here is a mystery Outcome Mapping aims to de-mystify this black box
We can think about the environment which is project exists in from three perspectives… This is what we call the nested spheres diagram, Sphere of control = operational environment DIRECT CONTROL Sphere of Interest = part of the world that the programme is interested in. beneficiaries, communities. Changes in socio environmental state & conditions INDIRET INFLUENCE Sphere of Influence = Relationships & Interactions DIRECT INFLUENCE And if we look at our results chain, we can see that the different elements fall into different spheres As far as methods and tools are concerned, LFA focusses on SOC, RBM on SOI, OM on SOI
Important to focus on outcomes… Taking again our simplified results chain, we can map the ownership of our local partners or beneficiaries. We see that this increases. At the level of inputs, our partners don’t have a lot of say – decisions about money, who to work with and where to work are largely made by the program or even the donor. But at the impact level, it all depends on the partners and the benficiaries. Outcome mapping is focussed at the level of outcomes. This is because the partner ownership is high enough to be able to see an effect, some observe changes and the programme influence is high enough to be able to say with some confidence that those changes originated from the intervention.
conclusion: « impact » is a highly politicized concept in development. OM focuses on outcomes not impact there are other methods to do impact assessment at OM African Users Workshop in Niamey, January 2007: OM not only about P,M&E but about the way you conceptulize development
Main Messages In a results’ chain OM helps you think about the « outcomes » section This image is useful because just like geographic mapping, conceptual mapping also needs tools. OM helps by providing some tools for this. Workshop talking about the program level Definition of Program: A group of related projects and activities with a specific set of resources (human, financial, capital) directed to the achievement of a set of goals within a specified period of time Can be used by projects, organizations, and communities too
Planning: What are we trying to accomplish? Why? How? Who? Monitoring: What do we want to know? Evaluation: What do we want to learn?
Appendix 2: Workshop slides
How does OM respond to these? Not go through these now – three day workshop
an approach for designing M&E in relation to the broader development context but assessment is within your sphere of influence.
- The river is always change; change is always there – pay attention and you will see it
Complex (multiple actors and factors) Continuous (not limited to the life of the project) Non-linear (unexpected results occur) Beyond the control of the project (but subject to its influence) Two-way (program also changes)
The journey may be more important than the destination OM helps you pay attention to the journey on the way to the destination Need to give them equal weight In OM the journey is part of the destination - different from other evaluation methods
In the face of such complexity: How can we show that we have made a difference with our research / project? Proving causality is difficult, especially when there are several factors and actors at work How can we reduce the unknowns regarding our contribution? How can we share the credit?
Not a lock step progression Indicate DEPTH of change; signals that a transformation is taking place Milestones Spectrum of transformation
Important thing: see movement
other uses: individual transformation process: leadership development for executives in NGOs in Canada framework for social research UHIN PRA tool for participatory development work with women`s self help groups in India Point out the 7 planning steps as intro to next, step-by-step, sections. Tell short story about Nagaland?
Appendix 2: Workshop slides
Quick check-in plenary question: how do you use the term “outcome” in your context? OM helps us map and monitor relationships A road map facilitates being clear & specific about where you are going and by what route; and helps track progress. OM does the same: clarity re intent & the mean to be used; milestones to track progress; facilitates modifications in response to what emerges along the way.
Africa, Asia and South-America BvLF Workshop. the Hague. Nov 2007