Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chap12 Developing Business It Solutions[1]

6,124 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology

Chap12 Developing Business It Solutions[1]

  1. 2. Developing Business/IT Solutions Chapter 12
  2. 3. What is the Systems Approach? <ul><li>A problem solving technique that uses a systems orientation to define problems and opportunities and develop solutions. </li></ul>
  3. 4. What is Systems Thinking? <ul><li>Seeing the forest and the trees in any situation by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing interrelationships among systems rather than linear cause-and-effect chains whenever events occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing processes of change among systems rather than discrete snapshots of change, whenever changes occur </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC)
  5. 6. Systems Investigation Stage <ul><li>Do we have business opportunities? </li></ul><ul><li>What are our business priorities? </li></ul><ul><li>How can information technologies provide information systems solutions that address our business priorities? </li></ul>
  6. 7. Feasibility Study <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A preliminary study where the information needs of prospective users and the resource requirements, costs, benefits, and feasibility of a proposed project are determined </li></ul>
  7. 8. Feasibility Categories <ul><li>Organizational – how well a proposed system supports the strategic business priorities of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Economic – whether expected cost savings, increased revenue, increased profits, reductions in required investment, and other types of benefits will exceed the costs of developing and operating a proposed system </li></ul>
  8. 9. Feasibility Categories <ul><li>Technical – determine if reliable hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by the business in the required time </li></ul><ul><li>Operational – willingness and ability of the management, employees, customers, suppliers, and others to operate, use, and support a proposed system </li></ul>
  9. 10. Feasibility
  10. 11. Cost/Benefit Analysis <ul><li>Tangible – costs or benefits that can be quantified </li></ul><ul><li>Intangible – costs or benefits that can not be quantified </li></ul>
  11. 12. Systems Analysis <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>An in-depth study of end user information needs that produces functional requirements that are used as the basis for the design of a new information system </li></ul>
  12. 13. What does Systems Analysis Study? <ul><li>The information needs of a company and end users. </li></ul><ul><li>The activities, resources, and products of one or more of the present information systems being used. </li></ul><ul><li>The information system capabilities required to meet information needs of users, and those of other business stakeholders that may use the system. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Organizational Analysis <ul><li>Study of the organization including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Information Systems </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Systems Design <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Design activities that produce system specifications satisfying the functional requirements that were developed in the systems analysis process </li></ul>
  15. 16. System Design Categories
  16. 17. System Specifications <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware, software, network, data, and personnel specifications for a proposed system that formalize the design of an application’s user interface methods and products, database structures, and processing and control procedures </li></ul>
  17. 18. End User Development <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>IS professional plays a consulting role, while end user does his/her own application development </li></ul>
  18. 19. End User Development
  19. 20. Encouraging End User Web Development <ul><li>Look for tools that make sense </li></ul><ul><li>encourage creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Set some limits </li></ul><ul><li>Give managers responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Make users comfortable </li></ul>
  20. 21. Systems Implementation <ul><li>Hardware and software acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Software development </li></ul><ul><li>Testing of programs and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of data resources </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training of end users and specialists who will operate a new system </li></ul>
  21. 22. Project Management <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>IT and business unit managers enforce a project plan which includes job responsibilities, time lines for major stages of development, and financial budgets </li></ul>
  22. 23. Hardware Evaluation Factors <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul>
  23. 24. Software Evaluation Factors <ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul>
  24. 25. IS Services <ul><li>Developing a company website </li></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Employee training </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>System design </li></ul><ul><li>Contract programming </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting services </li></ul><ul><li>System integration </li></ul>
  25. 26. IS Services Evaluation Factors <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Systems development </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Backup </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Business Position </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul>
  26. 27. System Testing <ul><li>Testing and debugging software </li></ul><ul><li>Testing website performance </li></ul><ul><li>Testing new hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Review of prototypes of displays, reports and other output </li></ul>
  27. 28. Data Conversion <ul><li>Converting data elements affected by new application </li></ul><ul><li>Correcting incorrect data </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering out unwanted data </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating data from several databases </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing data into new data subsets </li></ul>
  28. 29. Importance of Data Conversion <ul><li>Improperly organized and formatted data is frequently reported to be one of the major causes of failures in implementing new systems. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Importance of Documentation <ul><li>Documentation serves as a method of communication among the people responsible for developing, implementing, and maintaining a computer-based system. </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation is extremely important in diagnosing errors and making changes, especially if the end users or systems analysts who developed a system are no longer with the organization. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Training <ul><li>Data entry </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of the proper use of a new system </li></ul><ul><li>Educate managers and end users in how the new technology impacts the company’s business operations and management </li></ul>
  31. 32. Conversion Methods <ul><li>Parallel – both old and new systems are operating until the project development team and end user management agree to switch completely to the new system </li></ul><ul><li>Plunge – no overlap of old and new system </li></ul>
  32. 33. Conversion Methods <ul><li>Phased – only parts of a new application or only a few departments at time are converted </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot – One department serves as a test site </li></ul>
  33. 34. Systems Maintenance <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring, evaluating, and modifying of operational business systems to make desirable or necessary improvements </li></ul>
  34. 35. Learning Curve <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel who operate and use the system will make mistakes simply because they are not familiar with it; though such errors usually diminish as experience is gained with a new system </li></ul>
  35. 36. Postimplementation Review <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic review or audit of a system to ensure that it is operating properly and meeting its objectives </li></ul>
  36. 37. End of Chapter Chapter 12

×