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Chap12 Developing Business It Solutions[1]


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Chap12 Developing Business It Solutions[1]

  1. 2. Developing Business/IT Solutions Chapter 12
  2. 3. What is the Systems Approach? <ul><li>A problem solving technique that uses a systems orientation to define problems and opportunities and develop solutions. </li></ul>
  3. 4. What is Systems Thinking? <ul><li>Seeing the forest and the trees in any situation by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing interrelationships among systems rather than linear cause-and-effect chains whenever events occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing processes of change among systems rather than discrete snapshots of change, whenever changes occur </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC)
  5. 6. Systems Investigation Stage <ul><li>Do we have business opportunities? </li></ul><ul><li>What are our business priorities? </li></ul><ul><li>How can information technologies provide information systems solutions that address our business priorities? </li></ul>
  6. 7. Feasibility Study <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A preliminary study where the information needs of prospective users and the resource requirements, costs, benefits, and feasibility of a proposed project are determined </li></ul>
  7. 8. Feasibility Categories <ul><li>Organizational – how well a proposed system supports the strategic business priorities of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Economic – whether expected cost savings, increased revenue, increased profits, reductions in required investment, and other types of benefits will exceed the costs of developing and operating a proposed system </li></ul>
  8. 9. Feasibility Categories <ul><li>Technical – determine if reliable hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by the business in the required time </li></ul><ul><li>Operational – willingness and ability of the management, employees, customers, suppliers, and others to operate, use, and support a proposed system </li></ul>
  9. 10. Feasibility
  10. 11. Cost/Benefit Analysis <ul><li>Tangible – costs or benefits that can be quantified </li></ul><ul><li>Intangible – costs or benefits that can not be quantified </li></ul>
  11. 12. Systems Analysis <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>An in-depth study of end user information needs that produces functional requirements that are used as the basis for the design of a new information system </li></ul>
  12. 13. What does Systems Analysis Study? <ul><li>The information needs of a company and end users. </li></ul><ul><li>The activities, resources, and products of one or more of the present information systems being used. </li></ul><ul><li>The information system capabilities required to meet information needs of users, and those of other business stakeholders that may use the system. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Organizational Analysis <ul><li>Study of the organization including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Information Systems </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Systems Design <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Design activities that produce system specifications satisfying the functional requirements that were developed in the systems analysis process </li></ul>
  15. 16. System Design Categories
  16. 17. System Specifications <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware, software, network, data, and personnel specifications for a proposed system that formalize the design of an application’s user interface methods and products, database structures, and processing and control procedures </li></ul>
  17. 18. End User Development <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>IS professional plays a consulting role, while end user does his/her own application development </li></ul>
  18. 19. End User Development
  19. 20. Encouraging End User Web Development <ul><li>Look for tools that make sense </li></ul><ul><li>encourage creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Set some limits </li></ul><ul><li>Give managers responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Make users comfortable </li></ul>
  20. 21. Systems Implementation <ul><li>Hardware and software acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Software development </li></ul><ul><li>Testing of programs and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of data resources </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training of end users and specialists who will operate a new system </li></ul>
  21. 22. Project Management <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>IT and business unit managers enforce a project plan which includes job responsibilities, time lines for major stages of development, and financial budgets </li></ul>
  22. 23. Hardware Evaluation Factors <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul>
  23. 24. Software Evaluation Factors <ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul>
  24. 25. IS Services <ul><li>Developing a company website </li></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Employee training </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>System design </li></ul><ul><li>Contract programming </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting services </li></ul><ul><li>System integration </li></ul>
  25. 26. IS Services Evaluation Factors <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Systems development </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Backup </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Business Position </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul>
  26. 27. System Testing <ul><li>Testing and debugging software </li></ul><ul><li>Testing website performance </li></ul><ul><li>Testing new hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Review of prototypes of displays, reports and other output </li></ul>
  27. 28. Data Conversion <ul><li>Converting data elements affected by new application </li></ul><ul><li>Correcting incorrect data </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering out unwanted data </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating data from several databases </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing data into new data subsets </li></ul>
  28. 29. Importance of Data Conversion <ul><li>Improperly organized and formatted data is frequently reported to be one of the major causes of failures in implementing new systems. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Importance of Documentation <ul><li>Documentation serves as a method of communication among the people responsible for developing, implementing, and maintaining a computer-based system. </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation is extremely important in diagnosing errors and making changes, especially if the end users or systems analysts who developed a system are no longer with the organization. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Training <ul><li>Data entry </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of the proper use of a new system </li></ul><ul><li>Educate managers and end users in how the new technology impacts the company’s business operations and management </li></ul>
  31. 32. Conversion Methods <ul><li>Parallel – both old and new systems are operating until the project development team and end user management agree to switch completely to the new system </li></ul><ul><li>Plunge – no overlap of old and new system </li></ul>
  32. 33. Conversion Methods <ul><li>Phased – only parts of a new application or only a few departments at time are converted </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot – One department serves as a test site </li></ul>
  33. 34. Systems Maintenance <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring, evaluating, and modifying of operational business systems to make desirable or necessary improvements </li></ul>
  34. 35. Learning Curve <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel who operate and use the system will make mistakes simply because they are not familiar with it; though such errors usually diminish as experience is gained with a new system </li></ul>
  35. 36. Postimplementation Review <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic review or audit of a system to ensure that it is operating properly and meeting its objectives </li></ul>
  36. 37. End of Chapter Chapter 12